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Long since your sheaves have yielded to Yes, my old girl! and it's no use crying: 5 the thresher,

Juggler, constable, king, must bow. Felt the girdle loosened, seen the tresses One that outjuggles all's been spying fly.

Long to have me, and he has me now. Soon will she lie like a blood-red sunset.

We've travelled times to this old common: Swift with the to-morrow, green-winged Often we've hung our pots in the gorse. Spring!


We've had a stirring life, old woman, Sing from the South-west, bring her back You, and I, and the old gray horse. the truants,

Races, and fairs, and royal occasions, Nightingale and swallow, song and dip- Found us coming to their call: ping wing.

Now they'll miss us at our stations: 15

There's a Juggler outjuggles all! Soft new beech-leaves, up to beamy April Spreading bough on bough a primrose Up goes the lark, as if all were jolly! mountain, you,

Over the duck-pond the willow shakes. Lucid in the moon, raise lilies to the sky- Easy to think that grieving's folly, fields,


When the hand's firm driven Youngest green transfused in silver shin- stakes! ing through:

Ay, when we're strong, and braced, and Fairer than the lily, than the wild white manful, cherry:

Life's a sweet fiddle: but we're a Fair as in image my seraph love ap- batch pears

Born to become the Great Juggler's Borne to me by dreams when dawn is at han'ful: my eyelids;

Balls he shies up, and is safe to catch. Fair as in the flesh she swims to me on tears.

Here's where the lads of the village cricket:

25 Could I find a place to be alone with I was a lad not wide from here: heaven,

Couldn't I whip off the bale from the I would speak my heart out: heaven is wicket?

Like an old world those days appear! Every woodland tree is flushing like the Donkey, sheep, geese, and thatched aledogwood,

house I know them! Flashing like the whitebeam, swaying They are old friends of my halts, and like the reed.


30 Flushing like the dogwood crimson in Somehow, as if kind thanks I owe them: October;

205 Juggling don't hinder the heart's esStreaming like the flag-reed south-west teem.

blown; Flashing as in gusts the sudden-lighted Juggling's no sin, for we must have whitebeam:

victual: All seem to know what is for heaven Nature allows us to bait for the fool. alone.

Holding one's own makes us juggle no little;

35 But, to increase it, hard juggling's the JUGGLING JERRY


You that are sneering at my profession, Pitch here the tent, while the old horse Haven't you juggled a vast amount? grazes:

There's the Prime Minister, in one SesBy the old hedge-side we'll halt a stage. sion, It's nigh my last above the daisies:

Juggles more games than my sins'll My next leaf'll be man's blank page.




my need.



I've murdered insects with mock thunder: Hand up the chirper!' ripe ale winks in

Conscience, for that, in men don't quail. it; I've made bread from the bump of wonder: Let's have comfort and be at peace. That's my business, and there's my tale. Once a stout draught made me light as a

, Fashion and rank all praised the profes- linnet.


Cheer up! the Lord must have his lease. Ay! and I've had my smile from the May be for none see in that black Queen: 46 hollow

85 Bravo, Jerry! she meant: God bless her! It's just a place where we're held in Ain't this a sermon on that scene?


And, when the Great Juggler makes as to I've studied men from my topsy-turvy

swallow, Close, and, I reckon, rather true. 50 It's just the sword-trick-I ain't quite Some are fine fellows: some, right scurvy: gone.

Most, a dash between the two. But it's a woman, old girl, that makes me Yonder came smells of the gorse, so nutty, Think more kindly of the race:

Gold-like and warm: it's the prime of And it's a woman, old girl, that shakes May.

90 55

Better than mortar, brick, and putty, When the Great Juggler I must face. Is God's house on a blowing day.

Lean me more up the mound; now I feel We two were married, due and legal:

it: Honest we've lived since we've been All the old heath-smells! Ain't it one.

strange? Lord! I could then jump like an eagle: There's the world laughing, as if to conYou danced bright as a bit o' the sun. 60 ceal it,

95 Birds in a May-bush we were! right merry! But He's by us, juggling the change.

All night we kissed, we juggled all day. Joy was the heart of Juggling Jerry! I mind it well, by the sea-beach lying, Now from his old girl he's juggled away. Once—it's long gone—when two gulls

we beheld, It's past parsons to console us: 65 Which, as the moon got up, were flying No, nor no doctor fetch for me:

Down a big wave that sparkled and I can die without my bolus;

swelled. Two of a trade, lass, never agree! Crack went a gun: one fell: the second Parson and Doctor! don't they love Wheeled round him twice, and was off rarely,

for new luck: Fighting the devil in other men's There in the dark her white wing beckfields!


oned: Stand up yourself and match him fairly: Drop me a kiss—I'm the bird deadThen see how the rascal yields!



I, lass, have lived no gipsy, flaunting
Finery while his poor helpmate grubs:

Coin I've stored, and you won't be want-


On a starred night Prince Lucifer uprose. You shan't beg from the troughs and Tired of his dark dominion, swung the tubs.

fiend Nobly you've stuck to me, though in Above the rolling ball in cloud part his kitchen

screened, Many a Marquis would hail you Cook! Where sinners hugged their specter of Palaces you could have ruled and grown repose. rich in,

Poor prey to his hot fit of pride were those. 5 But your old Jerry you never forsook. 80

1 "chirping,” or cheering, cup.


And now upon his western wing he

leaned, Now his huge bulk o'er Afric's sands

careened, Now the black planet shadowed Arctic

snows. Soaring through wider zones that pricked

his scars

With memory of the old revolt from Awe, He reached a middle height, and at the

stars, Which are the brain of heaven, he looked,

and sank. Around the ancient track marched, rank

on rank, The army of unalterable law.


Edition (Clarendon Press). No adequate life of CHAUCER (13407-1400)

Chaucer has been written. There is much of Geoffrey Chaucer was born probably in 1340,

value in Lounsbury's Studies in Chaucer (Harper), the son of a London vintner. By April, 1357, he

Root's The Poetry of Chaucer (Houghton Mifflin), had taken service at the court, perhaps as a page.

and Kittredge's Chaucer and His Poetry (Har

vard Univ. Press). Miss Hammond's Chaucer: In 1359 he was a member of the army that was fighting the French in the Hundred Years' War,

A Bibliographical Manual (Macmillan) is in

valuable to the serious student. Lovrell's essay and was already of sufficient importance to be ransomed from his captors by the king. In 1370

in My Study Windows (Houghton Mifflin) is sughe made the first of several diplomatic journeys to

gestive and sympathetic, although slightly in

accurate as to details. the continent, and in 1372 first went to Italy. In 1374 he was appointed controller of customs for the port of London, and in 1386 sat in Parlia- THE ENGLISH AND SCOTTISH POPULAR ment for Kent. In 1389 Richard II appointed

BALLADS him clerk of the king's works, and in 1394 granted him a pension. In 1399 Henry IV succeeded The great edition of the ballads is that of Richard, and at the poet's petition largely in- Francis James Child, in five volumes (Houghton creased his pension, and enabled him to spend the

Mifflin). This gives every text of every ballad last year of his life in comparative affluence. He that Child and his many assistants were able to died in 1400, and was buried in Westminster

discover, and is the starting point for all serious Abbey.

study of English balladry. A condensation of Since the court in which Chaucer grew up was

this edition in one volume (Cambridge edition, in many respects French, it was inevitable that Houghton Mifflin), contains representative texts when the young poet began to write his work of practically all the ballads in the larger work, should show strong traces of foreign literary in- and is prefaced by Kittredge's valuable essay. fluence. He early translated part or all of the Gummere's Old English Ballads (Ginn and Co.) Romance of the Rose, a famous French allegory, is an inexpensive collection with valuable notes. and in the Book of the Duchess (1369), composed The same author's The Popular Ballad (Houghton at the death of Blanche, wife of John of Gaunt,

Mifflin) discusses the problems of ballad origins wrote a poem which is saturated with French and related questions. influence. When in 1372 he first visited Italy, he came under thespellof the Italian Renaissance, and

SPENSER (1552–1599) in the works of Dante (d. 1321), Petrarch (d. 1374), and Boccaccio (d. 1375), found much that was new Up to the age of Elizabeth England had proand inspiring. The effect of Renaissance art and duced but one great poet-Chaucer. Edmund literature on Chaucer's imagination is evident in Spenser was the second. He was born in London the work of his second, the so-called Italian period. and received his early education in the famous Here came the House of Fame (?1379), and school of the Merchant Tailors, to whose guild Troilus and Cressida (?1383), the latter one of his his father probably belonged. The family purse most important works, a character-novel in must have been lean, for the boy obtained help verse, concerned with the love of Troilus and from a charitable foundation. At Cambridge Diomede for the Trojan girl Cressida. The poem University, too, he was entered in 1569 as a sizar, is founded directly on Boccaccio, as is the Legend or needy student, who rendered certain services of Good Women (ca. 1385). Following these came in return for food and tuition. At Cambridge Chaucer's greatest work, the unfinished Canterbury Spenser formed the chief of his friendships, with Tales (1385 and after). Here, although French Gabriel Harvey, who had some influence upon and Italian influences still persist, the inspiration Spenser's poetical theory, and figures as one of is predominantly English. Chaucer's busy life had the characters of The Shepherd's Calendar. After brought him in contact with men and women of taking his master's degree in 1576 Spenser lived all sorts, and in the Canterbury Tales he gives us for a time with relatives in Lancashire, and later the most brilliant picture ever painted of four- held two secretarial positions. By 1579 he had teenth century English life. As the poem is entered the service of the great Earl of Leicester, Chaucer's largest work, so until the days of Spen- and in that year published The Shepherd's Calenser and Shakespeare it remained the chief glory of dar, a series of pastoral eclogues, one for each of English literature.

the twelve months. In 1580 he became secretary The best editions of Chaucer for general read- to Lord Grey of Wilton, Lord Deputy of Ireland, ing are the Globe (Macmillan), and the Student's and spent the remainder of his life, apart from (Clarendon Press), although the serious student two visits to London, in Ireland. For some years will have to consult Skeat's monumental Oxford he held office in Dublin, as a clerk of the Court of


Chancery, but resigned in 1588 to become clerk into English poetry, and Surrey, who gave it its of the Council of Munster; he had previously characteristic Elizabethan form of three alternat. bought the estate of Kilcolman, in the county of ing quatrains followed by a couplet, were both Munster, where he took up his residence. Sir avowed Petrarchists. Walter Raleigh was then living some thirty miles In the last decade of the sixteenth century the away. While on a visit to Kilcolman in 1589 sonnet was cultivated by English poets with an he saw the manuscript of the first three books assiduity which for a time amounted almost to of The Faerie Queene. Enthusiastic about their mania. Sir Sidney Lee estimates that the number merits, he took the poet with him to London, of sonnets printed in the years 1591-1597 "far where the three books were published in 1590. exceeds two thousand." Both subject-matter The work confirmed the reputation earned by and style were largely dependent upon French The Shepherd's Calendar, and won for Spenser and Italian models. There are, for instance, a the patronage of the Queen and many people of large number of sonnets addressed to friends or high rank. Its favorable reception encouraged patrons, and as many on philosophy and religion. Spenser to hope for political preferment in Eng- But love is the favorite theme, and the poet proland, but the only tangible reward was a pension tests his devotion and bewails his mistress's coldof fifty pounds. Disappointed in his political ness in a hundred pretty hyperboles passed from ambitions, he returned to Ireland early in 1591. pen to pen. Such sonnets were usually published In 1594 he married an Irish lady, Elizabeth in the form of a sequence, including from twenty Boyle; a poetical record of his courtship may be to a hundred or more sonnets, and frequently found in the Amoretti and the Epithalamion, pub- entitled by the name assigned by the poet to the lished together in 1595. The following year saw real or imaginary mistress of his affections. Thus him again in London, superintending the print- we have Daniel's Delia (1592), Constable's Diana ing of the second three books of The Faerie Queene, (1592), Lodge's Phillis (1593). In these only ocand once more seeking advancement-in vain. casional sonnets rise to the first rank of excellence. In 1598 a rebellion broke out in Munster. Kil- From such sonnet sequences three stand out colman Castle was sacked and burned, and Spen- | preeminent by reason of their superior beauty of ser, with his wife and four children, fled to Cork. phrasing and apparently greater sincerity of emoFrom there he was sent with despatches to London, tion. Sidney's Astrophel and Stella (written early where he died Jan. 16, 1599. He was buried in in the eighties, printed 1591) purports to reflect Westminster Abbey, near Chaucer.

the love of Sidney (Astrophel) for Penelope The record of Spenser's life is one of unsatisfied Devereux (Stella), who married Lord Rich. ambition. Although he enjoyed the friendship of While Sidney employs all the familiar tricks of the Sidney and Raleigh and the favor of the Queen, Petrarchists, his sonnets are marked by a fervor he was, like Swift, compelled to live most of his thoroughly in accord with his ardent and chivallife in a country he detested, balked of the honors rous temper. Spenser's Amoretti (1595) are adhe hoped for. As a poet, however, he won im- dressed to Elizabeth Boyle, who became his wife. mediate recognition, and on the appearance of In general they are distinguished by a greater The Faerie Queene was at once acclaimed as heir sense of fact and a deeper seriousness than Sidto the mantle of Chaucer. Spenser is the most ney's. Into the maze of conjecture raised by truly representative of Elizabethan poets, be- Shakespeare's Sonnets (printed 1609, though writ. cause his work, especially The Faerie Queene, ten considerably earlier) it would be profitless to shows to perfection the blending of the spirit of plunge. Suffice it to say that they are divided the Renaissance with that of the Reformation. into two series, one addressed to a youthful male It is of the Renaissance in its sensuous beauty, friend, the other to a "dark lady," who has played its intimate connection with the literatures of the poet false. The question of whether or not the Greece, Rome, and Italy, and the depth and sweep sonnets are biographically true is not essential to of its imagination; its profound moral earnest- an appreciation of their quality. The fact reness it owes to the Reformation.

mains that "the best, for depth and fulness of Much the best single volume edition of Spenser thought, for mastery of poetical phrase, at times is that by R. E. N. Dodge in the Cambridge Poets for the white heat of passion and perfection of (Houghton Mifflin). There are fine critical essays literary finish, rise above the erotic poetry of their by Lowell (in Among My Books) and by Edward own age as they serve yet for the goal and ultiDowden (in Transcripts and Studies).

mate exemplar of their kind" (Schelling).

Sidney Lee's Elizabethan Sonnets (2 vols., Con

stable and Co.) contains most of the important ELIZABETHAN SONNETS

sonnet sequences and a valuable introduction. The sonnet, like several other artificial forms

Lee's chapter on the sonnet in vol. iii of the Cam. of the lyric, owes its existence to Provençal poets,

bridge History of English Literature puts the whole whose work furnished models for the Italian

matter in brief compass, and is equipped with a lyrists of the thirteenth century. It was Petrarch

useful bibliography. (1304-1374), however, who perfected its form, established its amorous tone, and gave vogue to the “conceited” style distinctive of its early his

ELIZABETHAN LYRICS tory. From Italy the spreading of the Renais- Samuel Johnson's description of Pembroke Colsance influence brought the sonnet to France and lege, Oxford, as “a nest of singing birds,” may later to England. Wyatt, who introduced it aptly be applied to all England in the fifty years


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