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sped. Byron, and his English Bards and Scotch Reviewers.
LINES ON THE MERMAID TAVERN 484. 264. The Pilgrim of Eternity. Byron. 496. A mermaid was a favorite device for the
Shelley is thinking of Childe Harold's sign-board of an old English tavern. Pilgrimage.
The “ Mermaid Tavern ” to which Keats 268, 9. Ierne sent the sweetest lyrist, refers was the gathering place of the most etc. Ireland sent Tom Moore.
famous Elizabethan wits and dramatists. matter of fact, neither Byron nor Moore was particularly affected by the death of Keats. 271. One frail Form. Shelley himself.
33. Gone the merry morris din. A 276. Actæon-like. Actæon, in punish
" morris dance "-probably from “ Moorment for having seen Diana in the bath,
ish dance"-was an outdoor revel in was turned into a stag and torn by his
which the performers wore grotesque cosown dogs.
tumes and bells. 307. What softer voice. Leigh Hunt.
34. The song of Gamelyn. A pseudo486. 325. Live thou! The author of an excep
Chaucerian tale of outlawry is called tionally brutal attack on Keats in the
“ The Tale of Gamelyn.” Keats uses Quarterly Review. Compare Byron's
the phrase as synonymous with the outtwo stanzas beginning “ Who killed John
door life of Robin Hood. Keats?”
36. Grene shawe.” Green wood. 343. Peace, peace! he is not dead. With the conception of immortality set forth
THE EVE OF ST. AGNES in the remaining stanzas
496. The twenty-first of January is St. Agnes's compare Lycidas, ll. 165-185.
Day; the evening of the twentieth is "the 486. 399. Chatterton. Cf. note to Words
Eve of St. Agnes.” The superstition worth's Resolution and Independence, around which the poem centers is made 1. 43, p. 407.
sufficiently clear in the course of the story. 401. Sidney. Died at the age of thirty- | 498. 115. The holy loom, etc. On St. Agnes's two.
day, during the celebration of the mass, A Latin poet, forced by two lambs might be offered to the church Nero to commit suicide at the age of
(cf. l. 71). The nuns afterwards spun and twenty-six.
wove the wool. 487. 439. Slope of green access. The Protest- 499. 171. Since Merlin paid his Demon, etc. ant cemetery.
Merlin, the famous wizard and prophet
of Arthurian romance, was the son of a KEATS
demon, and became himself the victim of magic. See Tennyson's Merlin and Vivien.
174. Tambour frame. An embroidery 490. This poem appeared in Keats's 1817
frame shaped like a tambour, or drum. volume. It is a somewhat formless collection of Keats's own ideas concerning
500. 241. Clasped like a missal, etc. Clasped
probably modifies soul; in the two followpoetry and its joys; the selection here
ing lines her soul is likened to a rose that reprinted shows Keats protesting against
is shut. The line means, then, that her the formalism of the 18th century, and
soul was clasped as tightly in sleep as a particularly against those critics who traced their ancestry back to Boileau.
prayer-book would be by a Christian in
a land of Pagans. ODE TO A NIGHTINGALE 492. 4. Lethe. One of the four rivers of Hades;
602. Keats planned to write an epic dealing whoever drank of its waters became oblivious of all the past.
with the overthrow of Saturn by Jupiter.
When the poem was published in 1820, 7. Dryad. A tree nymph. 13. Flora. Goddess of the flowers.
however, only two books and a fragment
of a third had been written. 14. Provençal song. The lyrics of Pro
603. 23. There came one. Thea, sister of 16. Hippocrene. The fountain of the
30. Ixion's wheel. Ixion was chained for Muses on Mt. Helicon.
all eternity to a revolving wheel. 32. Bacchus and his pards. Leopards are often represented as drawing the car
504. 147. The rebel three. Jupiter, Neptune,
and Pluto. of Bacchus.
166. Hyperion. When the action of the poem commences, the victory of Jupiter
is incomplete. Hyperion is still god of the 493. 7. Tempe, Arcady. Here used simply to
indicate places of beauty and carefree 506. 246. Tellus. Goddess of the earth. life. Tempe was a valley in Thessaly.
307. Cælus. God of the heavens.
SLEEP AND POETRY
ODE ON A GRECIAN URN
ON FIRST LOOKING INTO CHAPMAN'S HOMER 507. George Chapman (15592-1634) published
his translation of Homer in 1598 and
508. Usually known as Keats's “ last sonnet,”
written while he was en route to Italy.
YE MARINERS OF ENGLAND
15. Blake. Oliver Cromwell's most successful admiral. He died at sea in 1657. Nelson. The victor of Trafalgar.
MOORE THE HARP THAT ONCE THROUGH TARA'S HALLS 609. Tara was formerly an Irish capital city.
614. 240. He ate strange flesh. See Antony
and Cleopatra, I. iv. 67. 616. 316. A hypochondriac lad. True of Lamb
The name given to executions, usually by burning, under the Spanish Inquisition; literally, “act of faith.”
OH, BREATHE NOT HIS NAME The famous Irish rebel was executed in 1803 because of treasonable correspondence with Napoleon, and armed rebellion against the crown.
THE BURIAL OF SIR JOHN MOORE Sir John Moore, an English general in charge of an army in the Peninsular War, was shot at Corunna, Spain, in January, 1809. At his own request he was buried within the ramparts of the town.
CHRIST'S HOSPITAL 612. The essay purports to be written by a
student of Christ's Hospital who feels
44. Caro equina. Horseflesh. 513. 54. Griskin. Lean loin of pork.
62. The Tishbite. Elijah.
Mary, Devonshire. 614. 187. Upon the leads. On the lead-covered
355.“ Watchet weeds.” Blue uniform. 616. 378. Ultima Supplicia. Last punish
his own natural impulses.
ents were accustomed to teach their
The howlers; e. g., in
as a surname.
526. Tristis severitas in vultu. Gloomy
559. Rabidus furor. Rabid rage.
famous Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, who twice ran away from school, once
turning chimney sweep. 623. 232. Defiliations. Instances of parents
being deprived of their children.
Son of Æneas; in the first book of the Æneid (1. 695.ff.) we are told how on one occasion Venus lulled
him to sleep.
290. Jem White. A schoolfellow of
other in baking. 626. 388. Golden lads, etc. From Cymbeline,
DISSERTATION UPON ROAST PIG
618. 636. Regni novitas. The newness of the
and C. V. Leg. for Shakespeare. 619. 695. Nireus formosus. Handsome Nireus;
Homer called Nireus the handsomest of
621. 221. John L. Lamb's brother John, who
died shortly before this essay was written.
THE PRAISE OF CHIMNEY SWEEPERS 5. Nigritude. Blackness. 9. Professional notes. Their call of “ Sweep! Sweep!” 19. Sport their cloth. Wear a garb of black, like a clergyman.
28. Fauces Averni. The jaws of hell. 622. 53. Kibed. Chilblained.
56. Tester. Sixpence.
vegetable market of London. 623. 165. Westward. I. e., homeward from
work, for Lamb lived in the Temple,
The Chinese manuscript, and the volume ascribed to Confucius, are inventions of Lamb, who, however, obtained the suggestion for the essay from his friend Thomas Manning, who had travelled in
China. 627. 188. Locke. John Locke (1632–1704), au
thor of the Essay concerning Human Un-
628. 312. Villatic. Of the village; the quota
tion is from Samson Agonistes.
my condition overwhelmed me. like passing from life into eternity. Every year to be as long as three, i. e., to have three times as much real time-time that is my own, in it! I wandered about thinking I was happy, but feeling I was not. But that tumultuousness is passing off, and I begin to understand the nature of the gift. Holidays, even the annual month, were always uneasy joys; their conscious fugitiveness; the craving after making the most of them. Now, when all is holiday, there are no holidays. I can sit at home, in rain or shine, without a restless impulse for walkings. I am daily steadying, and shall soon find it as natural to me to be my own master, as it has been irksome to have had a master. “I eat, drink, and sleep sound as ever. I lay no anxious schemes for going hither and thither, but take things as they occur. Yesterday I excursioned twenty miles; to-day I write a few letters. Pleasuring was for fugitive playdays; mine are fugitive only in the sense that life is fugitive. Freedom and life coexistent!"
THE SUPERANNUATED MAN One of the most autobiographically exact of Lamb's essays. Lamb was a clerk in the service of the East India Company for thirty-three years, resigning his post in March, 1825, on a pension of twothirds his regular salary. Sera tamen, etc. Quoted from Virgil's first eclogue: Liberty, though late, yet looked upon,
or visited, me. 630. 162. Boldero Lacy. Fictitious
633. 24. The Fancy. Sportsmen, especially
polmos, I. 209 ff. 634. 104. One of the mails. One of the mail
The driving is like the driving of Jehu the son of Nimshi; for he driveth
furiously.” 636. 268. Follows so the ever-running sun.
“ Follows so the ever-running year, With profitable labor.” Henry V, IV. i.
293. 636. 348. The vein of Gilpin. See Cowper's
John Gilpin's Ride.
names under which Lamb conceals the directors of the East India Company.
164. Esto perpetua. Be thou eternal. 631. 241. A Tragedy by Sir Robert Howard.
The Vestal Virgin, or the Roman Ladies;
volumes. 632. 310. Carthusian. The Carthusian order
of monks was founded by St. Bruno c. 1084, at La Grande Chartreuse (Latin Carthusia); the Carthusian rule was strict. 333. Elgin marbles.
Parts of the pediments and frieze of the Parthenon, brought to England by Lord Elgin and placed in the British Museum. 361. Cantle. Slice. 392. Cum dignitate. From Cicero's phrase, otium cum dignitate-ease with dignity. 397. Opus operatum est. The work has been done. On the sixth of April, 1825, Lamb wrote to his friend Wordsworth, Here I am then, after thirty-three years' slavery, sitting in my own room at eleven o'clock this finest of all April mornings, a freed man, with 441£ a year for the remainder of my life. “I came home FOREVER on Tuesday in last week. The incomprehensibleness of
III. i. 31.
411. Oaken towel. Staff or club.
' saved me a thousand
637. 437. Hogarth. See note on The Praise of 647. 490. The Bodleian. The University Chimney Sweepers, p. 523, I. 181.
library at Oxford. 443. Cobbett.
William Cobbett (17661835), an English radical journalist, editor
ON FAMILIAR STYLE of Cobbett's Weekly Political Register, whose attacks on the government resulted
649. 112. Cum grano salis. With a grain of
salt. from time to time in his being imprisoned
176. Mr. Cobbett.
See note Tke and fined. 520. Alas! the Bristol man, etc. See
Fight, 1. 443. Cowper's The Task, II. 322:
660. 247. A well of native English undefiled. “Alas, Leviathan is not so tamed."
Adapted from Spenser's "Dan Chaucer, 638. 551. The Game Chicken.
The nom de
well of English undefyled,” Faerie Queene,
IV. ii. 32. guerre of Henry Pearce, a well-known English pugilist.
251. Erasmus's Colloquies. The Col. 585. Stone. An English weight, legally
loquia of Erasmus (1466-1536), appeared fourteen pounds. 640. 826. Sir Fopling Flutter. A fashionable
261. What do you read? etc. See Hamfop in Etherege's comedy, The Man of
let, II. ï. Mode, or Sir Fopling Flutter,
272. Florilegium. Anth ogy; here rather 641. 889. Procul este profani. Æneid, VI.
a collection of big words. Tulippomania. 258. Stay far off, unholy ones.
Craze for tulips. 906. New Eloise. La Nouvelle Héloïse,
289. Sermo humi obrepens. Talk that by Rousseau; a sentimental romance
creeps on the ground. published in 1760.
661. 314. Fantoccini beings. Puppets.
315. That strut and fret, etc. Macbeth, ON GOING A JOURNEY
320. And on their pens, etc. Adapted 642. 30. May plume her feathers, etc. Comus, from Paradise Lost, IV. 988-9: 378 ff.
“And on his crest 36. A Tilbury. A two wheeled gig without
Sat Horror plumed."
395. Cowper's description. The Task, 643. 97. Sterne. The Rev. Laurence Sterne
(1713-1768), author of A Sentimental
Journey and Tristram Shandy. 644. 170. All-Foxden. Near Nether-Stowey,
DE QUINCEY Somersetshire, where Hazlitt visited his old friend C
CONFESSIONS OF AN OPIUM-EATER (Samuel Taylor Coleridge) in 1798. “L---' 1.
The text here used is the briefer and Charles Lamb, a friend of both Hazlitt better known version which appeared in and Coleridge.
the London Magazine in 1821, and was 176. Here be woods as
reprinted in the first edition of 1822; an Fletcher's Faithful Shepherdess, I. iii.
expanded version was published in Seleco 238. Sancho. Sancho Panza, Don tions Grave and Gay, 1856. Quixote's esquire and servant in Cer- 652. 108. Archididascalus. Head master. vantes’ burlesque romance Don Quixote. 663. 180. I came to leave nihe Man 244. Procul este profani. See The Fight, chester Grammar School. note on l. 889.
216. Towers of
Manchester 646. 312. Gribelin's engravings. Simon Gri- Cathedral.
belin (1661-1733), an engraver of some 664. 293. Lustrum. Period of five years. ability, published in 1707 seven plates
A day of twentyof the cartoons of Raphael.
four hours. and Virginia, ... Camilla. 320. That moveth altogether, etc. From The former a pastoral novel by Bernadin Wordsworth's Resolution and Independde St. Pierre, published 1788; the latter, ence, l. 77. a novel by Madame D'Arblay (Fanny 666. 414. Anastasius. A novel, published Burney), published 1796, much inferior 1819, the hero of which was an opiumto her masterpiece Evelina.
eating Greek. 331. New Eloise.
See The Fight, note 416. Mithridates. The title of a dicon l. 906.
tionary of all languages, published by 646. 381. Where is he now? In 1822, when Johann Christoph Adelung. in 1806.
this essay was first published, Coleridge's Mithridates was renowned as a linguist; creative power was in eclipse, and his hence the title. whole constitution broken by ill health 667. 582. The Scriptures speak of. Revelaand the use of laudanum.
lion, xx: 12. 647. 472. Stonehenge. A prehistoric monu- 568. 646. A certain day in August. The Civil
ment in the shape of a roughly circular War may be said to have begun when group of huge monoliths, on Salisbury Charles I raised the royal standard at Plain, Wiltshire.
Nottingham, August 22, 1642.