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she became priestess. Compare with Landor's treatment, stanzas 26-29 of Tennyson's Dream of Fair Women.

TENNYSON

on

NONE

668. 649. Marston Moor, – Newbury,

Naseby. Battlefields of the war.
661. Paludaments. Robes.
662. Paulus or Marius. Both Roman
Consuls.
664. Tunic ... a spear.

Carried
thus as a signal for battle.
665. Alalagmos. “ A word expressing
collectively the gathering of the Roman
war-cries—Alála, Alála.” (De Quincey.)
729. Officina gentium. Workshop, or

laboratory of the peoples. 669. 764-7. Brahma Osiris, etc. The

first three Hindu deities, the last two Egyptian

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670. Enone was a nymph of Mt. Ida near

Troy, beloved by Paris, but deserted by him after Venus, as a reward for his decision that she was most beautiful of the goddesses, had promised him the fairest

woman in the world, Helen, for his wife. 671. 39, 40. As yonder walls, etc. According

to one form of the story Apollo raised the
walls of Troy by playing on his lyre.
79. Peleus. It was at the marriage feast
of Peleus and Thetis that the golden
apple was thrown which caused the strife
among the goddesses.

81. Iris. Messenger of the gods. 672. 102. Peacock. Juno's bird.

170, 171. Idalian, Paphian. At Idalia and Paphos, in Crete, were special

shrines to Venus. 673. 220. The Abominable. Eris, goddess of

strife. 674. 257. The Greek woman. Helen. 259. Cassandra.

Daughter of Priam, gifted with a power of prophecy, but doomed never to be believed. She foretold the fall of Troy.

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661. DeQuincey planned a series of approximately twenty papers,

Sighs from the Depths,” of which that here reprinted is one of the earliest. The series was never completed, only six being published. DeQuincey had himself experienced the sorrows he writes of,—the death of father and sisters, social ostracism, and a subjection to opium which might easily have

driven him mad. 662. 79. On the foundation. Holding

THE LOTOS-EATERS

Based on Homer's account of how Ulysses and his mariners touched at the land of the lotos, the eating of whose flower produced forgetfulness of home.

A DREAM OF FAIR WOMEN

676. 5. Dan. Don, Master, from Latin

dominus.
27. Tortoise.

Latin testudo; the name applied to the mode of defence used by the Roman legionaries in attacking a walled city, the holding and interlocking of their shields over their heads to form a solid protection against missiles hurled

from the walls. 676. 85. A lady. Helen of Troy.

100. One that stood beside. Iphigeneia, daughter of Agamemnon, sacrificed to Artemis before the Greek fleet sailed for Troy. Cf. Landor's poem, p. 567.

127. A queen. Cleopatra. 577. 146. Canopus. One of the brightest stars

of the southern sky.

155. The other. Octavius Cæsar. 678. 195. Her that died. Jephtha's daughter;

cf. Judges, xi.
251. Rosamond. Rosa mond Clifford,
called Fair Rosamond, paramour of
Henry II.

255. Eleanor. Wife of Henry II. 679. 259. To Fulvia's waist. Cleopatra puts

scholarship.

98. The Parcæ. The Fates.
663. 159. Telegraphed. DeQuincey

simply "signalled," or * communicated
by signs."
195. Keys more than papal. The“ papal
keys are the keys of St. Peter, symbolic

of the Pope's power.
664. 257. Pariah. An outcast.

294. The tents of Shem. Shem, son of
Noah, was supposed to be the ancestor of
the Jews and wandering races.
307. Cybele. See note on Childe Harold,
iv., 1. 10.
339. Eumenides. The “benevolent” or

gracious ones, a euphemistic name for

the Furies. 566. 380. Accomplished. Made perfect.

means

LANDOR

THE DEATH OF ARTEMIDORA 566. 11. Iris. Messenger of the gods, who

liberated the souls of the dying by loosening their hair.

the name of the wife of her paramour

IPHIGENEIA AND AGAMEMNON

667. Because Agamemnon had slain a stag

sacred to Diana, the goddess held the Grecian feet, gathered for the Trojan war, in port at Aulis. Calchas, the soothsayer, reported that according to the oracle the goddess's wrath would endure until Iphigeneia, daughter of Agamemnon, should be sacrificed to her. According to one form of the story, Diana did not allow the sacrifice to be consummated, but carried Iphigeneia to Tauris, where

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moon, not eyes, as has sometimes been

suggested. 591. 1. Wild bird. The nightingale, whose song

has always been celebrated for passionate
mingling of joy and pain.
2. Quicks. Quickset; slips, especially of
hawthorn, set to form a hedge.

THE CHARGE OF THE LIGHT BRIGADE 694. Written to commemorate a fatal charge

at Balaclava in the Crimean War, 1854; the poem

was based on a phrase in the London Times's account of the battle: “Some one had blundered.”

NORTHERN FARMER Written in the Lincolnshire dialect. “ It is a vivid piece out of the great comedy of man, not of its mere mirth, but of that elemental humorousness of things which belongs to the lives of the brutes as well as to ourselves, that steady quaintness of the ancient earth and all who are born of her ... continually met in the peasant and farmer class.” (Stopford Brooke: Tennyson, His Art and Relation to Modern Life).

THE REVENGE

597. Tennyson found the story in Raleigh's

spirited account; see p. 103.

RIZPAH

699. Based on an incident read by Tennyson

in a magazine. For significance of title

see 2 Samuel, xxi. 600. 73. Election and Reprobation. Calvinis

tic doctrines; all men were supposed to be damned for original sin, except a chosen few whom God elected for salvation.

MERLIN AND THE GLEAM

601. An allegory of Tennyson's literary life.

For commentary see the preface to the present Lord Tennyson's Memoir of his father.

CROSSING THE BAR 603. Tennyson directed that this poem should

be placed at the end of all collected editions of his works.

BROWNING

CAVALIER TUNES

In these three dashing lyrics Browning reflects the spirit of reckless loyalty to the King, and contempt for the Puritans, which animated the supporters of Charles I.

Antony for that of Eleanor, wife of Rosa

mond's paramour.” (Rolfe.)
679. 263. Captain of my dreams. Venus, the

morning star.
266. Her who clasped. Margaret Roper,
daughter of Sir Thomas More; after he
was beheaded she took his head down from
London Bridge where it was exposed, and
when she died had it buried in her arms.
269. Her who knew. Eleanor, wife of
Edward I, who accompanied her husband
on the First Crusade, and when he was
stabbed with a poisoned dagger, sucked
out the poison with her lips.

MORTE D'ARTHUR
Written in 1835, first published in 1842;
afterwards incorporated, with additions,
in The Passing of Arthur in Idylls of the
King. Cf. Malory's account, pp. 47 ff.
4. Lyonnesse. A legendary country, in-
cluding part of Cornwall, now supposed

to be submerged beneath the sea. 680. 21. Camelot. Arthur's capital.

23. Merlin. Arthur's magician and chief
adviser.
31. Samite. A heavy silk, sometimes inter-

woven with gold thread.
681. 139. Northern morn. Aurora Borealis.

140. Moving isles. Icebergs.
147. Cf. the metrical effect of this line

with that of l. 65 and 1. 112.
582. 186–192. The contrast between the first

five lines of this passage and the last two is one of the best examples in English verse of the fitting of sound to sense; for

a similar effect cf. ll. 49-51.
683. 242. One good custom should corrupt the

world. “ E. g., chivalry, by formation of
habit or by any other means. (Tenny-
son's note.)
259. Avilion. See Malory, p. 48.

ULYSSES
“The poem was written soon after Arthur
Hallam's death, and it gives the feeling
about the need of going forward and
braving the struggle of life perhaps more
simply than anything in In Memoriam.
(Tennyson's note.)
10. Rainy Hyades. The constellation
Hyades was associated by the ancients

with_stormy weather. 684. 26. Every hour is saved. Every hour

that is saved is something more.

IN MEMORIAM

690. Composed in memory of Arthur Henry

Hallam, whose acquaintance Tennyson made at Cambridge, and who was later engaged to Tennyson's sister. He died at Vienna in 1833, and the lyrics composing the poem were written at various times between then and 1850, the date of their final arrangement and publication. 5. Orbs of light and shade. Sun and

MARCHING ALONG

2. Crop-headed. The Puritans wore their hair cut short in contrast with the he addresses, is so intense an admirer of Shelley that it seems to him that if he could once have seen and spoken with the poet the meeting would have dwarfed in importance all the other events of his life. Browning in his youth admired Shelley greatly.

Cavaliers, whose long curls fell upon their shoulders. “ Řoundheads,” the name frequently applied to the Puritans, has the same implication. Parliament. The Long Parliament, controlled by the

Puritan party. 603. 7. Pym. One of the Puritan leaders in

the Long Parliament, as were Hampden,
Hazelrig, Fiennes, and Sir Henry Vane
the Younger (1l. 13-14).
15. Rupert. Prince Rupert, nephew of
Charles I, and leader of the Royalist
cavalry.
22. Nottingham. Where Charles raised
his standard at the opening of the Civil
War in 1642.

MEMORABILIA 616. The speaker, in contrast with the person

THE LOST LEADER

604. Suggested by Wordsworth's change from

Liberalism to Conservatism in politics, though Browning expressly denied that he was in any way attempting a portrait of Wordsworth.

HOW THEY BROUGHT THE GOOD NEWS 606. Browning wrote: “ There is no sort of

historical foundation about “Good News from Ghent.' I wrote it under the bulwark of a vessel off the African coast, after I had been at sea long enough to appreciate even the fancy of a gallop on the back of a certain good horse. York,' then in my stable at home.”

PARTING AT MORNING

606. Companion piece to Meeting at Night;

the speaker is, in each case, a man.
3. Him. The sun.
4. Need of a world of men for me. This
may mean either the need I have for the
world, or, the need the world has for me,
my duty in society.

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SOLILOQUY OF THE SPANISH CLOISTER 606. 39. Arian. The Arian heresy held that

MY LAST DUCHESS

communes.

The dramatic monologue, Browning's favorite poetic form, and one which he uses with the utmost skill, presents some difficulty to the reader on account of its directness and compression. It differs from the soliloquy, e. 8., of Shakespeare, in that the presence of a second person, a listener, is to be inferred; oftentimes the speaker responds to a question or gesture, implied only in the answer, on the part of this silent listener. Cf. My Last Duchess, 11. 53-54. It is a good plan for the student to read the poem through once or twice in an effort to get the situation and some conception of the speaker's character before trying to discover the meaning of each line. The poem may then be studied in detail; it should be noted that no break in the thought, no interjection, is without its significance.

The speaker is Duke of Ferrara, one of the oldest and proudest of the Italian

There could be no greater contrast in character than that between the Duke-of impeccable manners and exquisite artistic taste, but selfish to the core and absolutely heartless-and the young Duchess-naive, filled with the joy of life, whose graciousness springs from a heart pure and generous. 3. Frà.' Brother. Pandolf, an imaginary character, is a monk, like so many of the

painters of the Italian Renaissance.
616. 9. Since none puts by, etc. The paren-

thesis gives a hint of the Duke's esteem
for the picture: he values it not at all as
a reminder of his Duchess, but simply as
a work of art, and as such, is careful to
protect it from possible harm.
45, 6. I gave commands; Then all smiles
stopped together. Generally interpreted
to mean that the Duke gave orders for
the lady's death. In reply to a question
by Corson, Browning himself said, “ Yes,
I meant that the commands were that
she be put to death," adding after a
pause, “Or he might have had her shut
up in a convent."
53, 4. Nay, we'll go Together down, sir.
The envoy, in deference to the Duke's
birth, has dropped back, but the Duke,
with perfect condescension, calls him
forward to a position of equality.
56. Claus of Innsbruck, Another imag-
inary artist,

Christ was created by God, and was

inferior to God in nature and dignity. 607. 56. Manichee. Manicheans were a sect

in the early Christian centuries who combined Persian and Christian beliefs.

HOME-THOUGHTS, FROM THE SEA The speaker is on shipboard, off the northwest coast of Africa. 1. Cape St. Vincent. On the southwest coast of Spain, where Nelson defeated a Spanish fleet in 1797. 3. Trafalgar. The

of Nelson's victory in 1805. 5. Say. Imperative; “ let him say.”

scene

SAUL

For the situation see i Samuel, xvi: 14-23.

IN A GONDOLA

617. 22. The Three. Enemies of the man,

unidentified; one seems to be closely re

lated to the woman: cf. l. 107.. 618. 127. Giudecca. One of the canals of

Venice. 619. 186–192. The pictures seem to be imagi

nary, though the artists are well known. Haste-thee-Luke. A nickname for Luca Giordano, a Neapolitan.

an

A GRAMMARIAN'S FUNERAL As My Last Duchess illustrates the artistic taste of the Renaissance period, and The Bishop Orders His Tomb the love of luxury, so this poem exemplifies the devotion to pure learning which characterized some of the Renaissance scholars. Grammarian should be taken in a rather wide sense; it is equivalent to philologist, one who loves learning. Certain of the Grammarian's disciples are carrying the body of their master for burial in one of the Italian hill towns. 26. 'Ware the beholders! An adjuration to the pall-bearers to make a good appearance before spectators:

" There are people watching us-put your best foot

forward!” 620. 33, 34.

Apollo was god of song and poetry, and patron of manly beauty; the implication is, therefore, that the Grammarian was not only a handsome man in his youth, but that, if he had chosen, he might have written lyric poetry. 45, 46. The world Bent on escaping. The masterpieces of classical literature which had for centuries lain mouldering in libraries.

50. Gowned. Put on the scholar's gown. 621. 129-131. Hoti, Oun, De.

Greek particles. Though to some these might have seemed subjects so minute as to be ridiculous, the Grammarian had said the last word on them.

liness, inconsistency, pride, hypocrisy, ignorance of itself, love of art, of luxury,

and of good Latin.” 621. 5. Gandolf. A fellow churchman of the

Bishop's, and a rival in matters ecclesias-
tic and secular.
8. And as she died so must we die our-
selves. Here, as in lines 51 and 101, the
dying Bishop assumes for an instant the
manner of the professional preacher.
Such lapses are, however, brief.
21. The epistle-side. The right-hand
side, as one faces the altar, from which
the epistle was read in the service.
26. Tabernacle. The Bishop's effigy was
to recline upon a basalt slab covering the
sarcophagus, and over it was to be a stone

roof, borne upon nine columns. 622. 29. Peach-blossom marble. Particularly

fine marble of a pinkish hue.
31. Onion-stone. Italian cipollino (little
onion),

inferior greenish marble,
readily splitting into thin layers, like the
coats of an onion.
46. Frascati. A wealthy summer resort
near Rome.
49. Jesu Church. Il Gesu, the church
of the Jesuits, in which is an image of
God, bearing a representation of the
earth, made of lapis lazuli.
51, 2. Job, vii: 6, 9. “My days are
swifter than a weaver's shuttle. So
he that goeth down to the grave shall
come up no more.
55. My frieze.

THE BISHOP ORDERS HIS TOMB

Running around the sarcophagus, beneath the slab of basalt. 58. Tripod, thyrsus. Both Pagan symbols: the former connected with the worship of Apollo, whose priestess at Delphi sat upon a tripod when receiving the divine inspiration; the latter the vinewreathed staff carried by the followers of Bacchus. 74. Brown. I. e., with age. 77. Tully's. Cicero's, whose Latin style is the model of good use and elegance. 79. Ulpian. A Roman jurist of the second century A. D., whose Latin has not the classic perfection of Cicero's. Gandolf's. 82. God made and eaten. I. e., in the sacrament of the mass. 87. Crook. Symbol of the Bishop's au

thority as shepherd of his people. 623. 95. Saint Praxed at his sermon on the

mount. The dying man's mind confuses
the two elements of his bas-relief men-
tioned in 59-60. Praxed was a female
saint.
99. Elucescebat. The correct form is
elucebat; this is presumably an example
of Gandolf's “ gaudy ware,” 1. 78.
101. Cf. Genesis, xlvii: 9:“ And Jacob said
unto Pharaoh, The days of the years of
my pilgrimage are an hundred and thirty
years: few and evil have the days of the
years of my life been.”

His.

“ The Bishop embodies certain tendencies of the Renaissance. No one who studies that marvellous period, whether in its history, its literature, or its plastic art, can fail to be profoundly struck by the way in which Paganism and Christianity, philosophic scepticism and gross superstition, the antique and the modern, enthusiastic love of the beautiful and vile immorality, were all mingled together without much, if any, consciousness of incompatibility or inconsistency.” (W. J. Alexander: Introduction to the Poetry of Robert Browning.) Ruskin says, in Modern Painters: “I know no other piece of modern English, prose or poetry, in which there is so much told, as in these lines, of the Renaissance spirit-its world

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" This poem was suggested by a portrait
of Andrea and his wife, painted by him-
self and now hanging in the Pitti Gallery
at Florence. Andrea is a painter who
ranks high among the contemporaries of
Raphael and Michel Angelo, especially
by reason of his technical execution,
which was so perfect as to win for him
the surname of · The Faultless Painter.'
Early in life he enjoyed the favor of
Francis I, at whose court he for a time
resided; but having received a large sum
of money from Francis for the purchase
of works of art in Italy, he, under the
influence of his wife, a beautiful but
unprincipled woman, embezzled it, ap-
plying it to the erectio of a house for
himself at Florence.” (W. J. Alexander:
Introduction to the Poetry of Robert
Browning.)
15. Fiesole. A hill town near Florence.
26. Serpentining. Suggesting a certain
sinuous, undulant type of beauty.

35-40. The key-note of the poem. 624. 57. Cartoon.

Cartoon. 'A preliminary sketch, or working design. 82. Low-pulsed forthright craftsman's hand. Mechanically facile and accurate, but uninspired. 93. Morello. A spur of the Apennines, north of Florence. 105. The Urbinate. Raphael, born in Urbino, died 1520. 106. Vasari. Italian painter and writer of the 16th century, author of Lives of the Painters; he includes a life of Andrea, to which Browning is indebted for ma

terial in this poem.
625. 130. Agnolo. Michel Angelo.

146. The Paris lords. Courtiers of
Francis I, who would have reproached
Andrea for his embezzlement.
150. Fontainebleau. A royal palace near
Paris.
153. Humane. Francis

great
patron of arts and letters, of the hu-
manities.
155. Mouth's good mark that made the
smile. Apparently means no more than

Abt (Abbé) Vogler (1749–1814), a Ger-
man Catholic priest, and famous musi-
cian. He invented a new form of the
organ, called the orchestrion, upon which
he gave performances all over Europe,
his improvisations being especially re-
markable.
3. Solomon. According to Mohammedan
legends, Solomon, thanks to a ring on
which was engraved the name of God
(1. 7), had control over the demons and

genii of the underworld. 628. 23. Rome's dome. The dome of St.

Peter's.
34. Protoplast. “ The first-formed,” the
original, the model; the figures of those
not yet born, to be born in a happier
future, are lured by the power of the
music to appear before their time.
43-52. A comparison of the process of
composition three arts-painting,
poetry, music: in the first two the process
is subject to certain well understood laws;
with music, on the other hand, the result
appears to be produced by no tangible
means, to be in subjection to no natural
law. Hence the composer, in the free-
dom of his creation, approaches God, who

in

a

was

a

smiling mouth.
626. 210. Cue-owls. So-called from the sound

of their call; the Italian form is chiu.
220. Cousin. Lucrezia's gallant, who
whistles for her to come to him.

creates by merely willing.
629. 91. Common chord. The chord produced

by the combination of any note with its
third and fifth.
93. A ninth.

An interval exceeding an
octave by a tone (major), or by a semi-
tone (minor).
96. C Major. The “natural ” scale,
having neither sharps nor flats. The last
six lines of the poem give symbolic ex-
pression to the idea that from his supernal
visions the musician descends gradually
to the realities of every day.

RABBI BEN EZRA

Ben Ezra was a distinguished Jewish
scholar of the twelfth century, noted espe-
cially for his commentaries on the Old Tes-
tament. The ideas expressed in the poem
were to some extent suggested to the poet
by Ben Ezra's writings, but Browning de-
velops them in his own way, and makes
the poem one of the best expressions of
his philosophy of life.
17. Low kinds. The lower animals, living

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