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but for the day, untroubled by doubt,

uninspired by hope. 629. 24. The awkward inversions are charac

teristic of Browning: does care irk, etc.?

does doubt fret, etc.? 630. 48. Its lone way. In Ben Ezra's commen

tary on the Psalms we find this sentence:
“ The soul of man is called lonely because
it is separated, during its union with
the body, from the Universal Soul into
which it is again received when it departs
from its earthly companion.”
49-72. Browning here argues against the
ascetic ideal, so popular during the
Middle Ages, which proclaimed that
spiritual advancement was to be gained
through mortification of the flesh.
74. Youth's heritage. The heritage of
experience given to age by youth.

87. Leave the fire. If the fire leave. 631. 124, 125. Supply whom after I and they.

151. Potter's wheel. Cf. Isaiah, lxiv: 8: “We are the clay, and Thou our potter; and we are all the work of Thy hand.” The metaphor is effectively used by Fitzgerald ' in his translation of the Rubáiyát of Omar Khayyam. See page 643, 1. 325 f.

EPILOGUE TO ASOLANDO 632. This is Browning's final cheery word on

the problem of life and death; it is the
epilogue to his last volume of poems, en-
titled Asolando, published in London on
the day Browning died in Venice.
5. Pity me? Will you pity me, dead?
17. The unseen. The dead; the author
himself.

ELIZABETH BARRETT BROWNING

SONNETS FROM THE PORTUGUESE

This title serves to veil the fact that the sonnets are addressed to Robert Browning, and express with perfect sincerity Mrs. Browning's feeling about the love and marriage of the two poets. For an account of their origin see the Letters of Elizabeth Barrett Browning (Smith, Elder & Co., 1898), vol. I., pp. 316-17.

THE CRY OF THE CHILDREN 633. Occasioned by an official report on the

employment of children in mines and factories. Mrs. Browning said of the rhythm: The first stanza came into my head in a hurricane, and I obliged to make the other stanzas like it.” Lellers, I. 156.

66

was

his Rubáiyát (a plural form; the singular
rubáiy means quatrain) in the twelfth
century. Fitzgerald describes them, and
his own verses, as follows:
“The original Rubáiyat are independent
Stanzas, consisting each of four Lines
of equal, though varied, Prosody; some-
times all rhyming, but oftener (as here
imitated) the third line a blank, some-
times as in the Greek Alcaic, where the
penultimate line seems to lift and suspend
the Wave that falls over in the last. As
usual with such kind of Oriental Verse,
the Rubaiyát follow one another according
to Alphabetic Rhyme-a strange succes-
sion of Grave and Gay. Those here se-
lected are strung into something of an
Eclogue, with perhaps less than equal
proportion of the “ Drink and make-
merry,” which (genuine or not) occurs
over frequently in the Original. Either
way, the Result is sad enough: saddest
perhaps when most ostentatiously merry:
more apt to move Sorrow than Anger to-
ward the old Tent-maker, who, after vainiy
endeavoring to unshackle his Steps from
Destiny, and to catch some authentic
Glimpse of Tomorrow, fell back upon To-
day (which has outlasted so many To-
morrows!) as the only Ground he got to
stand upon, however momentarily slipping
from under his Feet."

Fitzgerald's method was not so much one of literal translation as of combination and paraphrase; the first edition of 1859 contained 75 quatrains, the second 110, the third and fourth (here reprinted) 1o1. Most of the changes were in the nature of improvement; it is generally felt, however, that the first stanza was finest in its original form, where it ran as follows: Awake! for Morning in the Bowl of

Night
Has flung the Stone that puts the Stars to

Flight:
And Lo! the Hunter of the East has

caught
The Sultan's Turret in a Noose of Light."
The wonderful success of the stanza form
invented by Fitzgerald, the successive
stanzas rolling on in subdued splendor
one after another with the stateliness of
a pageant, needs no comment.
In the text Fitzgerald's usage with re-
gard to capitals and apostrophes has
been preserved. The notes that follow

are based upon Fitzgerald's own.
637. 5. The phantom of False morning. A

transient light on the horizon about an
hour before the true dawn.
15. White Hand of Moses. Moses
brought his hand forth from his bosom
“ leprous as snow," Exodus, iv: 6; the
metaphor is applied to the blooming of
the flowers.
16. Jesus suspires. According to
the Persians, the healing power of Jesus
resided in his breath."

FITZGERALD

RUBAIYÁT OF OMAR KHAYYAM 636. Omar Khayyam (Omar the Tent-Maker),

a Persian astronomer and poet, wrote

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637. 17. Iram. An ancient Persian garden,

now sunk in the sands of Arabia.
18. Jamshyd's Seven-ringd Cup. Jam-
shyd was a legendary King of Persia;
his cup was symbolical of the seven heav-
ens, seven planets, seven seas, etc.
22. Pehlevi. The old literary language
of Persia.
36-40. Kaikobád ... Hátim. The
proper names are those of Persian heroes;
for Zal and Rustum see Arnold's Sohrab
and Rustum.

44. Mahmud. The Sultan. 638. 99. Muezzin. The crier who calls the

faithful to prayer in Mohammedan

countries. 639. 122. Saturn. Lord of the seventh heaven.

127. Me and Thee. Some dividual existence or personality distinct from the whole.

131. Signs. Signs of the zodiac. 641. 225. My, computations.

Omar was profound mathematician, and helped to reform the calendar.

237. Allah-breathing. Allah-worshipping. 642. 271. Lantern. Fitzgerald's note de

pressed in the chapter here printed are Carlyle's own. At the same time he comments, in his own person, on the ideas propounded by the German, forestalling criticism, and occasionally explaining oracular utterances. The chapter on Natural Supernaturalism is really

the culmination of the whole work. 644. 6. The Clothes-Philosophy. The idea

that all appearances are merely the clothing of the Divine Idea which alone

has ultimate reality. 645. 34. Miracles. Carlyle objected to

science because it tended, so he thought,
to remove wonder and worship from
human life. It tried to “ explain ” the
phenomena of life which Carlyle con-
sidered divinely miraculous.
47. Schlagbaum. Carlyle sprinkles Ger-
man words and phrases through Sartor
Resartus as proof of the fact that he is

merely reviewing Teufelsdröckh's book. 646. 153. Fortunatus. The hero of Thomas

Dekker's play Old Fortunatus, well known in popular legend, possessed such a hat. 160. Wahngasse of Weissnichtwo. The city in which Teufelsdröckh is supposed to live Carlyle calls “ Weissnichtwo”; “I know not where.” Wahngasse; dreamlane.

168. Groschen. Small German coin. 647. 264. Thaumaturgy. The art of perform

ing miracles.
275. Stein-bruch. Stone-quarry.
278. Ashlar houses. Houses of hewn or
squared stone.
321. Johnson went to Cock Lane.

See Boswell's Life of Johnson, p. 308. 648. 397. Cimmerian Night. See note

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scribes a “ Magic-Lanthorn still used in India; the cylindrical Interior being painted with various Figures, and so lightly poised and ventilated as to revolve round the lighted Candle within." 277. The ball, etc. The reference is to the game of polo, of ancient Persian origin.

302. Dervish. A Mohammedan devotee. 643. 326. Ramazán. The Mohammedan

month of fasting, when no food is eaten
between sunrise and sunset.
327 f. With this use of the metaphor of
the potter and the clay compare Brown-
ing's in Rabbi Ben Ezra, page 631, l. 150.
346. Sufi. An adherent of a Persian sect
whose belief was pantheistic.
358. The little Moon . . . that all were
seeking. The new moon marking the
end of the fasting month.
360. Shoulder-knot a-creaking. With
the burden of the jars of wine.

L'Allegro, l. 10.
429. “We are such stuff,” etc. From
The Tempest, IV. i. 156 ff.

PAST AND PRESENT:

LABOR

CARLYLE

649. 60. Ezekiel. There is no reference to a

potter's wheel in Ezekiel. Carlyle has
probably confused the “ Vision of the
Wheels," Ezekiel, i: 15-21, and the refer-
ence to the potter's wheel in Jeremiah,
xviii: 1-6.
121. Sir Christopher. Sir Christopher
Wren (1632-1723), was the architect en-
trusted with the rebuilding of St. Paul's
Cathedral, destroyed in the London fire
of 1666. Nell Gwyn was a favorite of
Charles II, whose title included the
phrase “ Defender of the Faith.”

SARTOR RESARTUS

REWARD

644. This, the most influential of Carlyle's

works, appeared as a serial in Fraser's Magazine during the years 1833-4. It is an attack upon the materialistic selfsatisfaction of England; an attempt to show that the only ultimate reality is spirit, is God, and that everything material is merely clothing for the Divine Idea, visible manifestation of God. In form the book is somewhat grotesque. It purports to be a long review of a work on clothing, the magnum opus of Diogenes Teufelsdröckh, a German philosopher. Carlyle speaks through the mouth of Teufelsdröckh; the views

651. 4. Brahmins, Antinomians, Spinning

Dervishes. Brahmins are members of the highest social order, or caste, among the Hindoos; Antinomians, a sect of heretics originating in Germany about 1535; Spinning Dervishes, Mohammedan fanatics whose chief claim to anctity is based

One of William the Conqueror's minstrels, who is supposed to have struck the first

blow at Hastings. 664. 366. Antæus. The giant whose strength

was renewed whenever he came in con-
tact with the earth.
397. No Civil-List or . Budget. No
government funds.

were

on their ability to whirl round like human

tops. 661. 37. Shovel-hat. A particular sort of hat

worn by the English clergy. Talfourd-
Mahon Copyrights. A bill passed in 1842
guaranteeing the author's copyright for
forty-two years.
68. Kepler calculations, Newton medita-
tions. Johann Kepler (1571-1630), was
a famous German astronomer; Sir Isaac
Newton (1642–1727), the author of the
Principia, was one of the world's greatest

mathematicians. 662. 106. Mayfair. A fashionable residence

district in London.
124. The sad and true old Samuel. Per-
haps Carlyle has in mind Samuel John-
son's statement: “I have been an idle
fellow all my life.” See line 1970, selec-
tions from Boswell's Life, this volume.
133. My Corn-Law friends. The “ Corn-
Laws” imposed high duties on grains
imported into England. They
abolished in 1846.
140. St. Stephen's. The Parliament
houses.
159. Owen's Labor-bank. Robert Owen
(1771-1858), a British social reformer,
undertook to improve the condition of
English laborers, through the establish-
ment of small “ideal communities,” in-
cluding co-operative banks and stores.
168. Downing Street. Many of the
offices of the British government are in

Downing street. 663. 261. Manes. The souls of the dead, con

sidered as gods of the lower world.
268. Acheron. One of the four rivers of
the classical Hades.
270. Dante. The greatest of all Italian
poets (1265-1321). The quotations are
from his Divine Comedy.
278. Se tu segui, etc. “ If thou followest
thy star."
287. Eccovi l'uom, etc.

“ Behold the
man who has stood in Hell."
288. As poet Dryden says. See Absalom
and Achitophel, Il. 79-80.
295. Eurydice from Tartarus. See note

on L'Allegro, l. 150. 664. 313. Lath-and-plaster hats. A method of

advertising then practiced in London.
318. Law-wards. Carlylese for Lords,
etymologically incorrect. Anglo-Saxon
hlafweard means guardian of the loaf,
the bread, not of the law.
334. In a Great Taskmaster's eye. An
adaptation from the last line of Milton's
sonnet On His Having Arrived at the Age
of Twenty-three. See p. 152:
341. Galvanism. Electricity.
344. Midas-eared. King Midas, whose
touch converted any object into gold, had
the ears of an ass.
352. Plugson of Undershot. The typical
British manufacturer, to whom Carlyle
had devoted a previous chapter in Past
and Present. Taillefer of Normandy.

CROMWELL'S LETTERS AND SPEECHES: THE

BATTLE OF DUNBAR 666. The battle was fought September 3 (13),

1650. Cromwell's army was suffering from
want of food; had Leslie and the Scots
remained on Doon Hill, it is probable that
Cromwell would have withdrawn by sea.
9. Lambert. John Lambert (1619-1683),
Cromwell's second-in-command; one of
the most successful of the Parliamentary
major-generals.
11. Lesley. David Leslie, afterwards
Lord Newark (d. 1682), commander of
the Scottish forces. He had previously
fought with Cromwell against Charles I.
27. Committee of Estates. The govern-
ing committee, in charge of the whole
campaign.
31. Bishop Burnet. Gilbert Burnet
(1643-1715), Bishop of Salisbury; best

known for his History of His Own Time. 656. 79. Monk. George Monk, first Duke of

Albermarle (1608-1670), Parliamentary
commander during the Civil War, com-
mander of a brigade at Dunbar; later
influential in securing the restoration of
Charles II.
123. Major Hodgson. John Hodgson
(d. 1684), serving in Lambert's regiment.
His Memoirs give the best contemporary
account of the battle of Dunbar.
124. A Cornet.

The lowest grade of commissioned officer in the British cavalry; the grade is now extinct.

RUSKIN MODERN PAINTERS: SUNRISE AND SUNSET From chapter 4, “Of Truth of Clouds," (Part II, section 3, of entire work). Ruskin is arguing that Turner has been more true in his representations of nature than others with whom he is compared; the omitted portions, indicated in the text, are repetitions of the question

“ Has Claude given this?" 667. 14. Atlantis. A mythical city lost be

neath the waves of the Atlantic. 658. 126. Who has best delivered this His

message? Ruskin's answer is, of course, Turner.

THE TWO BOYHOODS

Part IX, chapter 9; the entire chapter is reprinted. 5. Giorgione. Italian painter (14771510), born at Castel-franco.

668. 408. Their bluest veins to kiss. Antony

and Cleopatra, II. v. 29. 669. 462. Of them that sell doves. Matthew,

xxi:

:I2.

I 21.

TIME AND TIDE

Under this title appeared twenty-five letters written ostensibly to Thomas Dixon, of Sunderland, but in fact addressed to the workingmen of England who in 1867, the year the letters appeared, were agitating reform. In them Ruskin appears not as the critic of art, but as the sociologist.

669. 103. Bello ovile, etc. “ Beautiful fold where, as a lamb, I slept.”

Great ships go to pieces. The sentence refers to two of Turner's paintings: “ The Garden of the Hesperides,'

and “ The Meuse." 661. 255. Once... twice ... thrice.

Turner painted three pictures commemo-
rative of Trafalgar: “ The Death of Nel-
son”; “ The Battle of Trafalgar” ; “ The
Fighting Témeraire.”
361. Our Lady of Safety. “ Santa Maria
della Salute”; a church on the Grand

Canal. 662. 394. Chiaroscuro. Technically the dis

position of lights and shadows in a pic-
ture; here used for picturesqueness.
456. Among the Yorkshire hills. “I
do not mean that this is his first acquaint-
ance with the country, but the first im-
pressive and touching one, after his mind
was formed. The earliest sketches I
found in the National Collection are at
Clifton and Bristol; the next, at Oxford.”

(Ruskin.) 663. 517. Whitby Hill Bolton Brook. The ruins of Whitby and Bolton Abbeys are

THE RELATION OF ART TO MORALS 671. A selection from the third of Ruskin's

Lectures on Art, delivered while he was Slade Professor at Oxford. The portion reprinted comprises paragraphs 71-81 of

the Lectures. 672. 122. My three years. As Slade Professor

of Art at Oxford. 673. 164. The contest of Apelles and Protogenes. The two men

were rivals, and attempted to outdo one another in drawing lines of remarkable fineness. 167. The circle of Giotto. Giotto (1 267?1337) sent as a sample of his work, and

proof of his powers, a perfect circle. 676. 382. Miranda . Caliban. Characters

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traces of other handiwork.” 562. Her breathless first-born her last sons slain. “ The Tenth Plague of Egypt "; Rizpah, the Daughter of Aiah”: two of Turner's paintings. 576. Salvator ... Dürer. saivator Rosa (1615-1673), an Italian painter; Albrecht Dürer (1471-1528), a German

painter and engraver.
664. 6oo. Between Arcola and Waterloo. At

Arcola Napoleon gained his reputation as
a general by defeating the Austrians,
September, 1796; his final defeat at
Waterloo, June, 1815, ended his military
career.
664. Put ye in the sickle. Joel, ii: 13.

in Shakespeare's Tempest; Caliban is a
creature more brute than man; Miranda
is the most spotlessly pure of all Shake-
speare's heroines.

MACAULAY

OLIVER GOLDSMITH

STONES OF VENICE: ST. MARĶ's
From the first part of chapter iv, vol. II.
Following the paragraph with which this
selection closes, comes Ruskin's descrip-

tion of the interior of the building.
666. 8. Unworthy thenceforth, etc. Acts, xiii:

13; XV: 38, 39. (Ruskin.)
40. Vite de Santi, etc. Lives of the patron
saints of the Venetian Churches.
56. Una stupenda, etc. A wonderful
city, never seen before.
73. Cloister-like and quiet. St. Mark's
Place,“

partly covered by turf, and planted with a few trees; and on account of its pleasant aspect called Brollo or Broglio, that is to say, Garden.” The canal passed through it, over which is built the bridge of the Malpassi. (Rus

kin.)
667. 283. Cortile. An enclosed court-yard in

a large house.
320. Vendita Frittole, etc. A fritter and
liquor shop.

The life of Goldsmith illustrates the
vigor and picturesqueness of Macaulay's
style; it is not, however, a thoroughly
accurate biography. In particular it
should be noted that Macaulay inherited
from Boswell the condescending attitude
which appears in this essay; more recent
critics feel less of this, and are inclined to
treat Goldsmith more seriously, both as

a man and a thinker. 676. 75. Glorious and Immortal Memory. The

memory of William III.

79. The banished dynasty. The Stuarts. 679. 386. The Dunciad. Pope's greatest sat

479. Bayes in the Rehearsal. The Rehearsal was a burlesque attack on heroic tragedy, written by the Duke of Buckingham and his friends. John Bayes was a

satirical portrait of Dryden, 680. 553. Kelly and Cumberland. Hugh Kelly

(1739-1777), whose sentimental comedy False Delicacy was brought out with great success at Drury Lane six days before the first performance of The Good-Natured Man at Covent Garden; Richard Cumberland

ire.

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their old friend among the gipsies; and he gave them an account of the necessity which drove him to that kind of life, and told them that the people he went with were not such impostors as they were taken for, but that they had a traditional kind of learning among them, and could do wonders by the power of imagination, their fancy binding that of others; that himself had learned much of their art, and when he had compassed the whole secret, he intended, he said, to leave their company, and give the world an account

of what he had learned.” 690. 95. Lasher. Originally the turbulent wa

ter running through an opening in a
weir; then applied to the weir itself, or,
as here, to the pool below the weir into
which the lasher empties.
129. Christ-Church hall. The dining-

hall in Christ-Church College, Oxford. 692. 208. Averse, as Dido. Æneas, on his

journey through Hades, met the shade of
Dido, queen of Carthage, who had slain
herself when deserted by him; the shade
turned away from Æneas with a gesture
of a version.
245. The Syrtes. The ancient name for
the modern Gulfs of Sidra and Cabes, on
the northern coast of Africa.
249. Iberians.

Iberia was the ancient name for the Spanish peninsula.

COWS.

ARNOLD

PHILOMELA

SOHRAB AND RUSTUM

687. Philomela, daughter of Pandion, King of

Attica, was dishonored by her brother-inlaw, Tereus, King of Daulis, in Phocis, a country in northern Greece. Tereus cut out Philomela's tongue that she might not bear witness against him, but she made her secret known to her sister Procne, wife of Tereus, by words woven into a robe. Procne killed her son Itys, served him up as food to his father, and fied with Philomela. On being pursued by Tereus, the sisters prayed for deliverance, and were changed into birds by the gods, Philomela becoming a nightingale. Arnold has reversed the positions of

Philomela and Procne. 688. 21. The too clear web. The woven robe

which only too clearly revealed the story
of the crime.
27. Cephissian vale. The valley of the
Cephissus, the chief river of Phocis.

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THE SCHOLAR-GIPSY

The poem is based on the following passage from Glanvil's Vanity of Dogmatizing, 1661; cf. II. 11, 31, 133, 159. “ There was very lately a lad in the University of Oxford, who was by his poverty forced to leave his studies there; and at last to join himself to a company of vagabond gipsies. Among these extravagant people, by the insinuating subtilty of his carriage, he quickly got so much of their love and esteem as that they discovered to him their mystery. After he had been a pretty while exercised in the trade, there chanced to ride by a couple of scholars, who had formerly been of his acquaintance. They quickly spied out

LITERATURE AND SCIENCE 709. One of Arnold's Discourses in America, writ

ten for his lecture trip of 1883-4. 711. 185. To know the best, etc. Quoted from

Arnold's essay The Function of Criticism

at the Present Time. 714. 511. The powers. The component parts.

540. The desire to relate these pieces of knowledge to our sense for conduct. We acquire knowledge, and then try to answer the questions, " What difference does it make? What bearing has it upon my life? How does this new fact fit into my own

schedule of facts and values? 716. 630. Professor Sylvester. James Syl

vester (1814–1897), an English mathema

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