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tician, who held chairs at Johns Hopkins

and Oxford Universities.
716. 636. Cambridge. The study of mathe-

matics has long been an important part
of the curriculum at Cambridge Uni-
662. Mr. Darwin's famous proposition.
The proposition occurs in Part IV, chap-
ter 21, of The Descent of Man, and is really

a summing up of the whole book.
716. 741. A Sandemanian. A member of the

religious sect founded in Scotland by

Robert Sandeman, about 1725. 718. 952. A school report. Arnold was for

many years a government inspector of

719. 1005. Letters will call out, etc. In this

sentence Arnold sums up his entire argu-

720. This essay was delivered as a lecture in

London, January 7, 1866, and is included
in Volume I, Methods and Results, of Hux-

ley's collected works.
721. 89. Laud. William Laud (1573-1645),

Archbishop of Canterbury. He was the
head of the established English Church,
and a violent enemy of the anti-Stuart
parties, who accomplished his execution
in 1645. The Earl of Rochester and Sir
Charles Sedley were court wits and poets

in the time of Charles II.
722. 187. Principia. Sir Isaac Newton (1642–

1727) published the Philosophia Naturalis
Principia Mathematica, setting forth his
theories about gravitation, in 1689.
208. Inquisitorial cardinals. Galileo (1564-
1642) was persecuted by the Inquisition
because of his acceptance of Copernicus's
theories concerning the solar system.
214. Vesalius and Harvey. Vesalius was
a Belgian anatomist of the 16th century;
William Harvey (1578–1657) was
English physician who published in 1628
a treatise De Motu Cordis et Sanguinis
in which he set forth the theory of the
circulation of the blood.
239. Writ in water. Keats suggested as
his epitaph: “ Here lies one whose name

was writ in water."
723. 266. Revenant. Ghost.

309. Boyle, ... Evelyn. Robert Boyle
(1627-1691), an English chemist; and John

Evelyn (1620-1706), the diarist.
726. 653. Count Rumford. Benjamin Thomp-

son (1753-1814), a scientist of interna-
tional reputation.

731. 361. “ The world is all before it.” An

adaptation of Paradise Lost, xii: 646–7:
“ The world was all before them, where to

Their place of rest, and Providence their

guide.” 375. The judgment-stricken king. Pentheus, in Euripides's Bacche, in his

madness sees two suns. 732. 446. St. Thomas. · Thomas Aquinas

(1227?-1274), canonized in 1323; one of

the greatest of the scholastic philosophers. 733. 524. Pompey's Pillar. A column erected

at Alexandria in honor of Diocletian. 734. 627 ff. τετράγωνος.

Four square.

Nil admirari. To wonder at nothing. Felix qui, etc. Happy is he who has come to know the relationships of things, and has placed beneath his feet all fear, and inexorable fate, and the roar of

greedy Acheron. Virgil's Georgics, ii. 736. 704. The learning of a Salmasius or a

Burman. Claude Saumaise (1588-1653)
was a French classical scholar. Pieter
Burmann the Elder (1688-1741) and his
nephew Pieter Burmann the younger
(1714-1778) were both Dutch scholars.
706. Imperat aut servit. It is either mas-
ter or servant.
710. Vis consili, etc. Brute force with-
out intelligence falls by its own weight.
712. Tarpeia. A woman of Roman leg-
end, crushed to death by the shields of
Sabine warriors, when she asked for what
they wore on their arms (bracelets) as a

reward for betraying Rome.
738. 1031. Genius loci. Genius of the place.
739. 1153. The exiled prince. See As You

Like It, II. i. 16.
1156. The poor boy in the poem.
“ Črabbe's Tales of the Hall. This poem,
let me say, I read on its first publication,
above thirty years ago, with extreme de-
light, and have never lost my love of it;
and on taking it up lately, found I was
even more touched by it than hereto-
fore.” (Newman's note.)


APOLOGIA PRO VITA SUA Early editions of the A pologia contained the correspondence between Newman and Charles Kingsley, author of Westward Ho! The correspondence as a whole, and Newman's summary which is here reprinted, had been given to the public by Newman before the Apologia was published; they were omitted from later editions of the Apologia.




728. 33. On an occasion like this. The Dis-

740. The pictorial quality of this poem is char

courses on University Subjects were delivered in 1852 before the Catholics of Dublin.

acteristic of the work of Rossetti, famous as painter as well as poet; his painting of “ the fat weed That roots itself in ease on Lethe wharf,”

the same name corresponds exactly to

the poem.

dream passed through a gate of horn; if false, through one of ivory.



746. 7. Below bridge. Navigation stopped at

London Bridge. 747. 15. Bills of lading. Chaucer was for a

time a clerk of the customs.

741. Founded on the old superstition that a

woman deserted by her lover, could obtain the power of life and death over his body by making a waxen image of him, and laying it in the heat of the fire; as the wax melted the man's life ebbed away. There are three speakers,—the wronged woman, her small brother, who does not understand what is going on, and a spectator, whose comments, slightly varied from verse to verse, keep pace with the progress of the story.


746. The name given by Rossetti to a sequence

of one hundred and one sonnets; this and Mrs. Browning's Sonnets from the Portuguese are generally conceded to be the finest collections of sonnets since Shakespeare's.

ATALANTA'S RACE 748. 63. Fleet-foot One. Ordinarily the epi

thet would indicate Hermes; in this con

nection it may mean Artemis. 760. 177. Saffron gown. Saffron was the

color used at marriages by the Greeks and Romans; cf. L'Allegro:

“ There let Hymen oft appear

In saffron robe, with taper clear.” 184. Sea-born one. Venus. 761. 208. Adonis' bane. The wild boar. 762. 275. Three-formed goddess. Artemis,

or Diana, so called because she was wor-
shipped as Diana on earth, as Luna in
heaven, as Hecate in hell.
279. Her. Diana.

282. Sea-born framer. See note on l. 184. 766. 516. Damascus. Astarte, the Phænician

goddess of love, was identified with Venus. 756. 535. Saturn's clime. Saturn ruled the

world before his place was usurped by Zeus, or Jupiter; Saturn's reign was identified with the golden age, a time of peace,

plenty, and happiness. 768. 663. Mighty Lord. Zeus.

664. Her. Venus.



Similar sonnets on the sonnet-form are
Wordsworth's Scorn not the Sonnet, and
Richard Watson Gilder's Sonnet on the
Sonnet: “ What is a sonnet?”
13. Dark wharf's. Compare




760. 22. Efforts to limit art a priori. By argu

ment from hypotheses concerning ma-
terial, etc.
92. Absence or presence of metrical
beauty. Wordsworth's views are
pressed in the Preface to the Lyrical Bal-

Hamlet, I. v. 32–33. 14. Charon's palm. Charon ferried the souls of the dead over the river Styx to Hades; a piece of money was buried with the body to serve as fee for the passage.

746. The Earthly Paradise is a collection of

twenty-four tales in verse, commonly
considered the best body of narrative
verse that has been given to English
poetry since Chaucer's time. In the
Prologue Morris tells how “ certain
gentlemen and mariners of Norway,
having considered all that they had heard
of the Earthly Paradise, set sail to find it,
and after many troubles and the lapse of
many years came old men to some West-
ern land, of which they had never before
heard”; the inhabitants of this land are
of Greek descent. For the entertainment
of the wanderers, the dwellers in the
western land give semi-monthly feasts,
at each of which a story is told. The duty
of telling a story alternates between the
two peoples; half the tales are, accord-
ingly, from the Greek mythology, half
of Scandinavian or Romance origin.
25. The ivory gate. The house of Mor-
pheus, god of sleep, had two gates,
through which dreams issued: if true, the

761. 96. Dichotomy. A division into two

109. I propose here to point out. Pater
here states the purpose of the essay. He
is to discuss not prose or poetry, but both,
finding in both certain identical charac-
teristics, the qualities of " literature as a
fine art."
165. Livy, Tacitus, Michelet. Jules
Michelet (1798-1874), like the two

Romans, was a historian.
762. 253. At this point Pater notes: “Mr.

Saintsbury, in his Specimens of English Prose, from Malory to Macaulay, has succeeded in tracing, through successive English prose-writers, the tradition of that severer beauty in them, of which this admirable scholar of our literature is known to be a lover. English Prose, from Mandeville to Thackeray more rethe University because of its Romanism. 768. 952. Blake's rapturous design. One of

at a

358. Well!

cently chosen and edited' by a younger scholar, Mr. Arthur Galton, of New College, Oxford, a lover of our literature at once enthusiastic and discreet, aims

more various illustration of the eloquent powers of English prose, and is

a delightful companion.' 763. 338. Le cuistre. The academic pedant.

Pater is fond of this interjectional use of well. It suggests the French eh bien! 364. Dictionary other than Johnson's. Johnson's Dictionary, though comparatively slight in extent, contains few words to which exception may be taken on the score of utility, and is equipped with illustrative quotations which make it still

valuable. 764. 417. “ Its " which ought to have been in

Shakespeare. Shakespeare uses “his,” in conformity with regular Elizabethan usage, for the neuter possessive.

The Greek word from which the English ascetic and asceticism

are derived. 766. 540. Michelangelo. For a discussion of

one phase of the work of this great Italian artist, see Pater's essay in The Renais609. Dean Mansel.

Henry L. Mansel (1820-1871), Dean of St. Paul's from 1868

to his death. 767. 769. Swedenborg. Emanuel Swedenborg

(1688-1772), founder of the New Church, or Swedenborgians. The Tracts for the

Times were written and published by John Henry Newman and his associates in the so-called Oxford Movement," during the years 1833-1841. The last of the tracts, No. 90, was condemned by

briand (1768-1848) and Victor Hugo (1802-1885) were both significant in the

development of French romanticism. 773. 173. Reynolds or Gainsborough. The

two greatest English portrait painters:
Sir Joshua Reynolds (1723-1792), and
Thomas Gainsborough (1727-1788).
211 ff. The first three quotations are from
The Prelude; the fourth is from The Pet

Lamb. 776. 411. A selection of language really used

by men. See the Preface to the Lyrical

Ballads, p. 389. 776. 452. George Sand. Her most famous

novel, La Petite Fadette, is known in
English translation as Fanchon the Cricket.
The author's real name was Mme. Aman-
dine Dudevant.
457. Meinhold.

Johannes Meinhold (1797-1851) was a little-known novelist whom Pater considered significant in the

453. Ascêsis.


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the illustrations made by Blake for Blair's Grave represents

“ Soul and Body Reunited.” 769. 1057. Buffon. Le Comte de Buffon

(1707-1788), a famous French naturalist.

history of German romanticism. 777. 588. Ánima mundi. Soul of the universe. 778. 703. The Ode . . . had its anticipator.

See Henry Vaughan's The Retreat, p. 123. 779. 747. Grandet, Javert. Characters in

Balzac's Eugenie Grandet and Victor
Hugo's Les Misérables, respectively.
785. Antique Rachel. In Dante's Pur-
gatorio, xxvii, Rachel is a type of the
contemplative life.
797. One who had meditated. Lord




780. 24. Dule tree. A tree used as a gallows.
781. 104. The blue-peter. A blue flag indicat-

ing that a ship was about to sail.
141. The valley at Balaclava. The scene
of the famous charge of the “ Light Bri-
gade " in the Crimean War.
145. Curtius. A hero of Roman legend
who leaped into a chasm in the Forum,
and sacrificed his life that the gulf might
be closed.
159. Caligula.

The third emperor of
Rome, who proclaimed himself a god.
782. 187. The sheet. The rope by which the

position of a sail is controlled. If it be
tied, or “made fast,” a sudden gust of
wind may upset a small boat before the
sailor has an opportunity to loosen the
206. Omar Khayyam ... Walt Whit-

Omar Khayyam was a Persian poet who died c. 1123.

Walt Whitman, an American poet famous for his wholesale violations of the conventions of poetry, died in 1892. 214. The same stuff with dreams. See Shakespeare's Tempest, IV. i. 156:

* We are such stuff As dreams are made on, and our little life

Is rounded with a sleep.” 783. 303. As the French say. A cul-de-sac.

772. 36. Most serious critical efforts. See the

selections from the Preface to the Lyrical
38. The excesses of 1795. The culmina-

tion of the Reign of Terror.
773. 117. Disciplina arcani. Discipline, or

learning, of the mystery.
158. Senancour. Obermann, by Etienne
de Senancour (1770-1846), is characteris-
tic of this interest in nature. Gautier
(1811-1872) was an enthusiastic Roman-
ticist, a dramatist, poet, and playwright.
161. Rousseau. The importance of Rous-
seau's La Nouvelle Héloïse in awakening
people to the influence of nature upon the
soul, and the influence of Rousseau's
theories concerning the “ state of nature,"
have been often pointed out. Chateau-



to the better known story of Philomela, ravished by her brother-in-law, Tereus, who cut out her tongue that she might not bear witness against him; she was afterward changed a nightingale.

Cf. Arnold's poem Philomela, p. 687. 786. 10. Maiden . lady. Artemis, the

moon-goddess, patroness of chastity. 786. 38. The oat. The shepherd's pipe of

oaten straw, contrasted with the lyre,
symbolic of a more elaborate, sophisti-
cated society.
44. Mænad, Bassarid.

Names equivalent to Bacchanal (1. 49), one of the Bacchantes, female followers of Bacchus, who engaged in wild orgies in the god's honor.


787. Whitman seemed to Swinburne, as to

many others, to be the prophet and poet of the new democracy which America was to offer to the Old World.


783. 312. A Bath-chair. An invalid's chair,

much used at Bath, the health resort.
320. Our respeci od lexicographer. Sam-
uel Johnson.
327. Bound with triple brass. The title
of the essay,

“Æs Triplex,” meaning triple brass,” is from Horace, Odes, I. iii. 394. Nelson. Before the battle of the Nile, Nelson made the remark to his officers. See Southey's Life of Nelson, chap

“ Before this time tomorrow, I shall have gained a peerage, or West

minster Abbey.” 784. 416. The last paragraph might almost

have been written by Stevenson as prophetic of the close of his own life.

ter v.:



ATALANTA IN CALYDON 786. The poem is a drama in the Greek form.

5-8. There is reference here to two stories of the nightingale, both accounting for the melancholy in its song. According to one, Ædon killed her son Itylus by error, and was changed by Zeus into a nightingale. The tongueless vigil refers

CHRISTOPHER MARLOWE 790. 9. If all the pens, etc. A quotation from

Marlowe's Tamburlaine, Part I, V. i.


Addison, Joseph..
Arnold, Matthew.

Bacon, Francis..
Ballads, English and Scottish Popular.
Ballads, Loyalist Stall..
Beaumont, Francis.
Blair, Robert..
Blake, William.
Boswell, James.
Bowles, William Lisle.
Browne, Sir Thomas.
Browne, William..
Browning, Elizabeth Barrett.
Browning, Robert..
Burke, Edmund.
Burns, Robert..
Byron, George Gordon, Lord.




239 Lamb, Charles ...,

685 Landor, Walter Savage.

Lodge, Thomas.

107 Lovelace, Richard.

32 Lyly, John....

. 77, 97

90 Macaulay, Thomas Babington, Lord...... 675
337 Macpherson, James.

383 Malory, Sir Thomas.

301 Marlowe, Christopher.

387 Marvell, Andrew.

I 24
128 Meredith, George.

91 Milton, John.

632 Moore, Thomas.

603 Morris, William.
366 | Nash, Thomas :

Newman, John Henry, Cardinal.

Noah's Flood.

508 North, Sir Thomas.

Pater, Walter Horatio.

644 Peele, George..

Pepys, Samuel.

Piers the Plowman.

683 | Pope, Alexander.

339 Raleigh, Sir Walter..

79, 103
126 Ramsay, Allan.

360 Rossetti, Dante Gabriel.

385 Ruskin, John..

I 21
Sackville, Charles, Earl of Dorset.

72 Scott, Sir Walter...


Shakespeare, William.
84 Shelley, Percy Bysshe.

551 Shirley, James..

88 Sidney, Sir Philip.

.69, 76, 100
. 72, 85 Southey, Robert

Southwell, Robert.

76 Spenser, Edmund.

.49, 71
Steele, Sir Richard.

353 Stevenson, Robert Louis.
636 | Suckling, Sir John..

90 Swift, Jonathan.

Swinburne, Algernon Charles.


Campbell, Thomas.
Campion, Thomas.
Carew, Thomas.
Carlyle, Thomas.
Chatterton, Thomas.
Chaucer, Geoffrey.
Clough, Arthur Hugh.
Coleridge, Samuel Taylor.
Collins, William.
· Cowley, Abraham.
Cowper, William.
Crabbe, George.
Crashaw, Richard.

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Daniel, Samuel..
Defoe, Daniel.
Dekker, Thomas.
DeQuincey, Thomas.
Dor John...
Drayton, Michael.
Dryden, John..
Dyer, Sir Edward.


Fergusson, Robert.
Fitzgerald, Edward.
Fletcher, John..
Fuller, Thomas.

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