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A Roman ftation at Caerwent, together with remnants of walls, roads, buildings, causeways, &c. have much employed this gentlemari's attention. Among other discoveries, he informs us of a Roman Mosaic pavement within the walls of the camp at Caerwent; it is in a kind of cellar, or outhouse, in the middle of an orchard belonging to Mrs. Ann Williams. A print is given of the remains of this pavement, engraved from an original drawing, by Mr. Hay of Brecknock. Mr. Strange was assured, by a friend, that he remembered the figures of a lion, a tyger, and a stag, all which are now destroyed, though part of the figures of a vase and a bird are still to be seen. The design of this pavement appears to have been very regular and elegant; and no design, as Mr. Strange obferves, can exceed that of the scalloped border, the like to which he does not recollect to have seen in any other work of the kind. From Caerwent he proceeds to Caerleon, where he meets with several objects to engage his attention, and among the rest, a hollow circular spot, known at Caerleon by the name of Arthur's Round Table, which is generally supposed to be a Roman work, and to have served by way of amphitheatre; this occasions fome pertinent remarks. The greatest Roman curiosity, lately found at Caerleon, is a triangular hooped gold ring, with an intaglio set in it, representing the story of Hercules strangling the Nenæan lion: it is in the possession of Mr. Thomas Norman, of that town.
Mr. Strange closes the article with an account of some other remains of antiquity; three grave-stones, of which prints are given, that seem to have been laid upwards of four or five hundred years ago : one of them in the church of Christchurch, is remarkable for a custom which parents have of expusing their fick children on it, on the eve of Ascension-Day. In the third volume of this work, Mr. Daines Barrington
account of the remains of the Cornish lan, guage *, to which he now makes some additions, written in 1776, at which time, he informs us, Dolly Pentraeth, then ninety years of age, was ftill living; but we apprehend the is fince dead: however, as a proof that the Cornish language is not entirely lost with her, a letter is produced, dated Mousehole, July 3, 17:6, written by one William Bodener, a fisherman, both in English and Cornish. This man is fixty-five years of age, and speaks the language very readily. He has been at fea with five other men in a boat, and has not heard, he says, a word of English among them for a week together ; and he adds, that there are four or five other persons, ftill fiving, in the village of Mousehole, who can converte in Cor
Vid. Rev. for Dec. 1775. p. 497.
nith. The article contains some other information on the fubje&t.
The Rev. John Watson, M. A. of Stockport, presents the Society with an account of fome hitherto undescribed remains of antiquity. The first is called Bullon Castle, in the parish of Mottram Longdendale, Cheshire, the relics of which are on the summit of a high hill, and from them, it appears not to have been merely a temporary but a fixed station, the refidence of some very considerable person, especially as a workman, a few years ago, digging at the foot of the hill, turned up a quantity of alhes, and found under them a gold chain with eighteen large beads on it, having a locket quartered crossways by four sceptres, the whole weighing near two ounces, Troy weight: this might be a Danilh military work. The next is a large faxon fortification, called Mowllow Castle, on the top of a very high hill, in the parish of Glossop, Derbythire. To this is added, an account of a piece of fortified ground, near the village of Bradfield, Yorkihire, supposed to have been a station of the Danes : its name Bailey Hill, which is, it is said, an ancient word for a fort. Of this, and Button, mentioned above, prints are exhibited. Some other curiosities, which appear to be British remains, in and about BradfieldCommon, are also here described.
Mr. West, author of the Antiquities of Furness, relates the discovery of a Roman burying-place, on finking the cellars for a large house, at the upper part of Church-street, in Lancaster, in 1776.
About fix feet below the surface of the street, were found two fragments of thick walls, five yards distanc from each other; within which were a great quantity of burnt wood, bones, and ashes, broken pateræ, urns, Roman brick, gutter-tiles, coins, horns of animals, an earthen fepulchral lamp entire, &c. and at a farther distance, were also found a small brazen head like a dog's, the pedestal and feet of a small image, pieces of glass of a blueish-green colour, &c. One bottom of a patera had stamped on it Cadgatema, perhaps, Mr. Wett says, the maker's name. These vessels are of a fine brown colour, far superior, we are told, to the Staffordshire brown ware, elegantly varnished or glazed; fome plain, others emboiled with different forts of figures, animals, and birds. The inscriptions on the coins are none of them perfect, except a brals one, of Marcus Aurelius, and a small one of filver,-a fine impression, and in high preservation, of Faustina, his wife.
Governor Pownal's remarks on the boundary stone of Croyland Abbey *, we had thought not only ingenious but folid,
* Vid. Review for Nov. 1775. p. 415.
and were disposed with him to conclude, that the names of the other four monks had been broken off, and that the word AIO (which was before regarded as the Latin verb, fignifying, I say) was the name of the fifth monk concerned in erecting the monument: but Mr. Pegge, who, at first, appears to have been highly pleased with the Governor's observations, finds some objections against the hypothefis, and we think they have great weight. He obferves, that the monks did not erect the ftone, but Turketulus, the Abbot, as is exprefly afferted by the historian; that the inscription is a Leonine, or rhyming verse, and should the word 410 be detached from the rest, and made to depend on a former part of the legend now broken off, the verse will be absolutely spoiled. Farther, that according to the Governor's figure of the stone, as running taper to the top, in the nature of a small obelisk, there could not be room for the other four names. Lastly, and principally, that the stone has been lately visited by John Lloyd, Eig; who made a fac fimile of it, by which it appears, that it is complete, having never been longer than it is at present, and in fact a parallelogram. From Stukeley's representation, which the Governor feems to have followed, a portion of it might reasonably be imagined to have been broken off; but now, says Mr. Pegge, we can be sure there never were any more letters on it, than those which at present appear. He acknowledges it to be a fingular and extraordinary incident (as indeed it seems to be), that there should have been a monk belonging to the abbey, and mentioned by Ingulphus, of the name of A10, and the Governor's conjecture on this ground was doubtless acute and ingenious; but for the reasons above, he concludes, that antiquaries have rightly interpreted the inscription, and we have no reason to desert them. An engraving is added, of the stone, from Mr. Lloyd's draught. It appears to have stood upwards of 800 years. The inscription is only this.
Aio hanc petram Guthlacus habet sibi metam. Mr. Lort's observations on Celts, will hardly admit of any particular account from us. His immediate subject is a brass instrument lately found, by digging in the ruins of Gleaston castle, in Lancashire. It is about 9 inches long, and half an inch thick in the middle; one end, formed like our common hatchet, with a sharp edge, is five inches broad; from this end it tapers on both sides, gradually, to the other end, which is not aboveone inch and a half broad, and is formed also with a sharp edge. It is for the most part finely polished, and covered with a beautiful patina, except where it has been injured by ruft; and weighs two pounds five ounces. It may come under the denomination of those instruments called Celts, which have been found in great numbers in different parts of this island; buc
they, in general, have only one end sharp, and the other formed into a kind of groove or socket to fix a handle in, and some have a loop annexed to them; but this is deftitute of every thing of that kind, and seemis intended to have been held in the hand only for use, whatever that use might be. To what purposes the different kinds of Celts were applied, has been a matter of much debate : some suppose them to have been the heads of spears, or walking staves, of the civilized Britons; others, that they were chissels used by the Romans for cutting and polishing ftones. Dr. Scukely imagines, that they were not weapons, but instruments employed by the Druids to cut off the boughs of oak and mifletoe, and that they often hung them to their girdles. One exactly similar to this of Mr. Lore's, was found at Herculaneum, and exhibited by the Count de Caylus. Mr. Lort intimates, that they might be appropriated to facred uses, and asks, why may we not suppose, that they were applied to the taking-off the skins of the victims? To this article, is added, an account of a variety of Celts from the minutes of the Society, with some short descriptions, and also engravings of them all, as well as of Mr. Lort's, and another exactly fitted with a brass case, in the poffeffion of his friend Mr. Bartlett.
The Hon. Daines Barrington has employed his time very laudably, in reading, with attention, the book of Genefis, one effect of which has been, the forming a sketch of the patriarchal customs and manners, which he here exhibits to public notice. We cannot enumerate the different subjects he mentions, and on which he enlarges. We do not find ourselves entirely fatisfied with the explication he gives of the phrase, which he supposes, confined to the death of a patriarch, that he was gathered to his people : as he did not, we are told, understand the meaning of either the English or Latin translation, he consulted the Septuagint, the words of which he translates, the corpse was produced before his people (according to the first fente" which Stephens gives to the verb portleOn), and infers, that the honour of producing the dead body, and wecping over it in public, was paid only to the head of the patriarchal family.--He expresses his earnest with that travellers into the Promised Land would look out for many patriarchal antiquities which are not of a perishable nature. Dr. Shaw informs us, that the Mahometans continue to Thew the cave of Macphelah, and Mr. Barrington sees no greater difficulties in discovering the cave near Zoar, in which Lot and his daughters lived. Some of the pillars also commemorating particular events may, he apprehends, remain, and farther esteems it likely that the twelve stones whicb Joshua ordered to be placed where the Israelites should 5
encamp after the passage of the Jordan, may still be found out by an inquisitive and persevering traveller.
The Rev. Mr. Drake's observations on two Roman stations in Effex, are chiefly designed to determine some of the places mentioned in the Itinerary of Antonine as lying in the Roman roads that pass through this county. Camulodunum or Colonia is agreed to be Colchester, and it is remarkable how nearly the present number of miles from London to that town agree with the distance fixed in the Itinerary. Durolitum has been, by general consent, assigned to Layton-Stone. Cæfaromagus is attended with more uncertainty ; it has been taken for Burghfted, or for Chelmsford. Bishop Gibson is the only person who fixes it at Dunmowe; in which opinion Mr. Drake concurs with him, and offers some reasons, particularly the discovery of some reliques of Roman antiquities in and about the place, which he thinks confirm and establish the fact. The Itinerary mentions a middle station between Camulodunum and Cæfaromagus, which is called Canonium. Mr. Drake apprehends he has difcovered a place which exactly coincides with the numbers of the Itinerary; the town he means is Coggeshall, where he says fufficient remains of antiquity (some of which he inserts) have been found to entitle it to the character of a Roman station.
An old piece of ordnance was dragged out of the sea by some fishermen, near the Goodwin Sands, in 1775, and is said to be ftill in their poffeffion, at Ramsgate. Edward King, Esq; gives a particular description of it, accompanied with many fenfible remarks, together with engravings of the piece, and of the figure of a great gun resembling it, exhibited by an old Spanish writer and engineer. From some of its ornaments, Mr. King thinks it may fairly be judged to be so very old as to have been cast about the year 1370, that is, not long after the very first introduction of these formidable instruments of war into Europe : he supposes it to have been caft in Portugal, and probably lost from on board some of the ships which came to negociate with John duke of Lancaster. He particularly describes the construction of this ancient piece, and minutely examines every part, the engravings of which are also lo exact, that we may form a very good idea of it without having personally viewed it. The ornaments also undergo a strict inquiry; they are chiefly arms, and clearly hew that it is of Portuguele original. To observations of this kind he adds a few circumstances of its present condition, remarking that the handle and swivel, which are of iron, are much corroded and injured, but the barrel, which is of brass, is very little affected by lying so long in the sea, and is nearly as entire as ever ; so well does this metal maintain its durability amidit the salts of the sea, as well