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as in those of the air, and deserve to be mentioned, even proverbially, as Horace mentions it. But the barrel, though not corroded, is partly covered with a thick incrustation of thells, mixed with gravel and sand, and hard as a rock; a proof that a species of petrefaction is continually going on, at the bottom of the sea, on our coasts, in a manner similar to that mentioned by Dr. Donati, at the bottom of the Adriatic, of which an account is given in the Philosophical Transactions * We are farther informed, that there was a very large old cannon, of extraordinary length, which had the date 1354 on it, and therefore was, probably, one of the very pieces used by Edward III. at the battle of Poictiers, in 1356, which was one of the first occasions on which they were introduced into the field in Europe ; ' but I am sorry to add, says Mr. King, that it was last year taken away in order to be melted down.

A notion has prevailed, though it is questionable whether it generally prevails at present, that Ireland and Thanet are void of serpents. Mr. Pegge examines it, and calls it a mistaken opinion; but he does not so much deny the fact, as the miraculous cause, to which it is attributed, viz. the blessing and in. fluence of some early faints. When we consider that they are islands, it seems, says he, no more than natural, that they should be destitute of noxious animals, as is said to be the case with some other islands; and what occafion is there for superftitious notions, and incredible manoeuvres, when the facts, supposing them real, can be fo readily accounted for on the fightest confideration, from the common course and nature of things?

Several hundred gold coins, in excellent preservation, were discovered a fhort time since, on demolishing the ancient castle of Fenwick, in Northumberland, and in the possession of Sir Walter Blackett. One of these coins, a very fair noble of Edward III. was exhibited to the Society, Feb. i, 1776. This anonymous article tells us, that they had been deposited in an open cheit, covered with fand, twelve inches deep; the chest was placed over the arch of a cellar door which stood immediately under the fags of the threshold of the castle gate. A short account here given cf the Fenwick family, the original proprietors, renders it probable, that the coins were lodged there about the year 1360, by a Sir John Fenwick, who, in troublesome times, took this method of concealing a treafure, of no inconsiderable amount in those days, which was also the more scarce and curious, as being a novel and valuable species of English coinage : and it is likely be alone was privy to the concealment of it.

* Vol. xlix. p. 388--40. Rev. Feb. 17804



In a letter to Dr. Milles, dated from Venice, Mr. John Strange gives a farther account of some ancient Roman inscriptions observed in the provinces of Istria and Dalmatia : these are communicated to him, as were the former *, by the learned Abbe Fortis, who also hoped to have made a collection of the kind, in a late Appennine tour, but was rather disappointed in his researches, since Italy has been so thoroughly visited with this view, that it is no easy matter to make new discoveries ; some few, however, he imparts, which are here inserted. To compensate for the Abbe’s ill success, Mr. Strange avails bimself of some information he received from his friend Sir Roger Newdigate, who having visited the city of Aofte, in Savoy, sends some account of its remaining antiquities, and adds a few Roman inscriptions, which he copied from the collection at the convent of St. Bernard; but the stones are no longer remaining. It is to be withed, that this learned Society would favour the public with some short remarks on, and explications of, these inscriptions, without which, to the greater part of readers, they are often of little use or amusement.

Dr. Morell, in a Latin letter to the Hon. Daines Barrington, offers considerations to confirm his opinion concerning the Corbridge altars. Vid. Archaeol. vol. iii. p. 333.

This letter is followed by an illustration of a Saxon inscription on the church of Kirkdale, in the North Riding of York fire. John Charles Brooke, Esq; fent an exact representation of it, to Mr. Gough, with a view of the church, which are here engraved. Memorials of the erection and consecration of our churches by inscriptions, are said not to be numerous; but, antecedently to the Norman conquest, to be indeed exceeding rare. 'This, therefore, is regarded as a fingular curiosity. The inscription translated is this; “Orm, Gamal's son, bought St. Gregory's church, then it was all gone to ruin and fallen down. Chehitle, and others, renewed it from the ground, to Christ and St. Gregory, in Edward's days the king, and in Tofi's days the Earl.” Under the dial, “ And Hawarth me made, and Brand the priest.” This inscription is engraved on one entire freeftone of large dimensions, being feven feet five inches long, one foot ten inches high, and in perfect preservation, except a small part in the centre, where the inscription is disfigured, but not obliterated by the weather. It may be inferred with a great probability, that the church was rebuilt, and this inscription engraved, between the years 1056 and 1065.

Hayman Rooke, Erq; furnishes a description of two Roman camps in Lydney Park, Gloucestershire, the seat of Thomas

• Vid. Archaeol. vol. iii. p. 337–349 ; also, Review for Dec. 1775, p. 499.



Bathurst, Esq; about eight miles eaft of Chepstow; a spot abounding with pleasing prospects and romantic scenes. On two hills, of considerable eminence, stand two camps, or forts, overlooking the Severn, which, with some works on the opposite fide, on a spot now called Oldbury, entirely command the passage of that river. As the command of luch a river made these parts of confiderable consequence, they were undoubtedly entrusted to officers of some rank, and accordingly they appear to have had all necessary accommodations for the Roman ftyle of living. A very elegant bath is still pretty entire ; and from remaining foundations of buildings, it appears that some of the pavements were tesselated. Various coins are found here; a silver one of Galba, with many of Adrian and Antoni

A good engraving of these camps attends the article, and also four different views of them; which are indeed elegant and pleasing

Mr. John Charles Brooke, of the Heralds college, presents us with the following Number, which gives an account of an ancient seal that belonged to Robert the Vth, Baron FitzWalter, who was, he says, the son of Walter, and grandson of Robert, Lord Fitz-Walter, Marshal of the army of God, and holy church, as appears by the shield of arms under the horse's head (in the seal), which bears the coat of his second wife, who was a Ferrors. This, and much more, is in the Heralds style. The feal was found at Stamford, in Lincolnshire, in the reign of Charles Ild, and was given to Robert Saunderfon, then bihop of Lincoln, whose great grandson, John King, Esq; fold it to the Rev. Richard Neate, LL. B. of Whetstone, in Middlesex, the present poffeffor. It is of filver, and weighs leven ounces and seven penny weights. The extreme elegance of the workmanship, we are told, might induce a common observer to doubt its antiquity; but Mr. Brooke offers arguments to remove the objection. He particularly proves, from ancient manuscripts, that this Robert, Lord Fitz. Walter, possessed Baynard's Castle, in the city of London, which was then called the Castle of London, and as constable of the fame, enjoyed divers liberties and priveleges. In time of war, it was ordered, that he thould ride on a light-horse, with twenty men at arms, to the door of St. Paul's church, with the banner of his arms carried before him; and that there he should be met by the Mayor, and others, when the Mayor should appoint him BanDer-bearer to the city, and present him with a horse worth twenty pounds; which borse, it is added, shall be saddled with a' Jaddle of his arms, and covered with folk, depicted likewise with the same arms. In memory of this privilege and honour, Mr. Brooke supposes the seal in question to have been made. This feal is here engraved, together with the drawing of another of

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the same Baron, which he is said to have used 28 Edw. I. anno 1300.

(To be concluded in our next.] Art. III A Charge delivered to the Clergy of the Archdeaconry of Rochester, in the Year 1779. By John Law, D. D. Arch. deacon of Rochester. 40). IS. Payne, &c. T is an unequivocal proof of the progress of a liberal spirit,

in the present times, that so many of our clergy adopt, and have the courage openly to avow, the principles of universal toleration. There are, we are persuaded, not a few respectable names among this Reverend body, who, with the judicious and candid Author of this Charge, have not opposed the late measures for the extension of religious liberty, merely from a deference to legislative authority, but from a conviction that these indulgences were justly granted :' and who assure themselves, that this liberal, tolerating disposition, will secure to them the public esteem, instead of subjecting them to the groundless charge of inattention to the cause of genuine christianity.'

It is the intention of this Charge, to vindicate the equity and propriety of the late acts of the legislature, in favour of Protestant Diflenters and Roman Catholics.

Dr. Law, at the same time that he acknowledges the neceflity of rigorous measures with respect to the Roman Catholics at the beginning of the Reformation, when the revival of persecution, and the destruction of civil liberty, would have been the probable consequences of indulgence, judges it perfe&tly reasonable, that the severity of the laws against them should be relaxed, when the political dangers arising from Popery are removed. Let a distinction (says he) be always observed between the political and religious tenets of a party, and where they are not so neceffarily joined, as to prove hostile or dangerous to a state, the toleration of the latter is surely warranted by every rule of distributive justice and general benevolence. Nor, if experience is to be our guide, need we fear any great political inconveniences from the allowance of the Romish worship, since we find that this has been long admitted, without any apparent ill consequences, among the zealous Protestants in 'Holland and America.'

With respect to Protestant Diflenters, Dr. Law pleads for them, both on the ground of equity and gratitude. — As the happy restoration of civil liberty at the Revolution had been effected by the joint efforts of the members of the Church of England, and of those who dislented from it, was it not fit, independently of other arguments, that as each party had been equally zealous in the recovery of legal rights, cach should be equally intitled to every privilege compatible with the lecurity of the state? And, as it is well known, that no privileges are more highly esteemed, than those which relate to the exercise of religion, had not the Diffenters a claim, from gratitude, to be indulged in a liberal toleration of their modes of religious worthip.'

To the objection, that withdrawing subscription to articles of faith, is removing the strongest barrier against false doctrines, heresy, and schism, our Author makes this manly and judicious reply:

However a subscription to our articles of religion might seem, in theory, an adequate mean to prevent the rise and incursions of error, and to guard the boundaries. of religious truth, yet, in fact, neither of these ends was answered by it. The non-subscribing teacher was indeed subject to heavy penalties for his wilful contempt and disobedience; but so unreasonable did it appear to infict thefe penalties upon him, that scarcely an infance can be heard, of late, of their being put in force; and if the diffenting ministers and school-masters had not publicly complained of cruelty, in being subject to such heavy punishments, it is more than probable that the very subscription required from them would have been unknown to the generality of their own persuasion, as well as to those within our pale. Whenever, then, a law ceases to operate to its intended design, whether from the general difapprobation of it, or from its supposed inexpedience, there cannot, I think, be any great hazard in repealing it; especially, if a part of the community solicit its reverfal, and the part wishing its continuance admit that they have regularly declined to carry it into execution. If laws are not observed, and we think it prudent not to enforce them, to what purpose are they retained ? For, in general, it may be observed, and particularly on this occasion, that nothing tends more effectually to abate the reverence due to our laws, than the formal maintenance of such of them, as, from a change of circumstances, are not only allowed, but even wilhed, to be transgressed with impunity.Admitting then, that the Diflenters differ from us in some points which we deem essential, yet have they not heretofore as freely propagated their heterodox opinions, whilst exposed to the terrors of the law, as they possibly can in future, when ex. empted from them? And if no mischief has ensued from an utter relaxation of legal coercion, can more be apprebended from the removal of it? Truth wants not for its defence the sanction of pains and penalties, but may be confidently trusted to its own efficacy.'

From this frank acknowledgment of the rights of toleration, we cannot help entertaining an expectation, that the same liberal principles will lead our Author to question, what he seems at I 3


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