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ART. VIII. A Treatise on Watering Meadows. Wherein are thewn

some of the many Advantages arising from that Mode of Practice, particularly on coarse, boggy, or barren Lands. With four Copper-plates. 8vo. 2 s. 6d. Printed for the Author, and sold by Almon. 1780. HE practice of making water-meadows, one of the most

beneficial and lasting improvements, where the situation of the ground will admit of it, that can possibly be adopted, is at present chiefly confined to the West of England. Of late years, indeed, it has been extended, in some few instances, to other parts of the kingdom ; particularly to Halifax in Yorkfhire, where land, that in its uncultivated state was of very trifling value, has been improved by this method fo as to fetch a higher rent than any other grounds in that neighbourhood. It is much to be lamented that a practice, replete with so many advantages, lhould not be more general. There are few districts in the kingdom that might not in some degree or other be benefited by it. One circumstance, which poslibly may have retarded its progress, has been the want of tome intelligent guide to direct the process, and to explain the principles upon which the necessary works are to be constructed. This excuse, however, can now no longer be pleaded. Whatever information may be necessary in this business, seems to be amply supplied in the work before us. The Author, Mr. George Borwell, appears to be a sensible understanding man, who writes, which cannot be said of all our de re rufticâ authors, about what he really is acquainted with. Whoever has land capable of being converted into water-meadows, though it were but a single acre, will do well to read the present treatise. That our Readers may know what lands will admit of the improvement here recommended, we shall give them an extract from that part of the work which treats of lands capable of being watered,

• All lards, which lie low and near the banks of rivulets. brooks and springs, are capable of being watered, wherever the water is alseady higher than the lands, and kept within its course by the banks. If the rivulet, &c, have a very quick descent, the improvement by watering will be very great, and the expences (mall, for the greater the descent, the quicker the improvement. In all level lands the water runs slowly, which in general is the case also in large rivers ; therefore but little land can be flooded by them, in comparison of what may be by smaller streams. But whenever large rivers run rapidly, are capable of being controuled, and can be brought over the adjacent lands, the advantage is far greater than can be obtained from rivulets,

• The water in large rivers is generally the most fruiiful, for more land floods falling into them, they are fatter, and consequently more cariching to the meadows; but in many parts of the kingdom, where


the great rivers are navigable, or have mills erected upon them, these are capital objections to the perfect improvement of the contiguous lands. By small rivulets and springs usually the most land may be watered, and certainly with the lealt expence.

• The various forts of soils to be found near the banks of rivers, brooks, &c. may all be reduced under the three following heads :

First, A gravelly, or sound, warm, firm, fandy soil, or, which often happens, a mixture of such, or indeed almost any foil that partakes of such qualities.

• These foils, when there happens to be a descent from the river, make an almost instantaneous improvement; the faster the water runs over these foils the better. “ Should there happen, says Blythe, to be a quantity of land that comes under this description, not one momene's hesitation should be made about the success, for the advantage is the greatest that can be obtained by any mode of husbandry, with the least expence, and the greateft degree of certainty."

Second, Boggy, miry, and rushy soils (which always are found by the banks of rivers, where the land lies pretty level) are certainly to be greatly improved; perhaps equally so with the other already deScribed, when the value of each in their unimproved flate is confidered ; for this sort of land is scarcely worth any thing in that state; but by being properly watered, may be made to produce a large quantity of hay that will winter, and greatly forward horned cattle; although in its uncultivated form, it would not maintain any kind of stock all the winter, and but very little in the summer months. It mult be observed, that to bring this sort of land into a proper ftate, much more expence and judgment is necessary, than in the former.

. Third, Strong, wet, cold, clay soils are the most difficult to be improved, as well from their situation, which is mostly a dead level, as from their tenacity, which will not admit of draining, but with great expence, much care and attention, and even then, unless a trong body of water can be procured to throw over them, and that from a river, whose water is fruitful, little advantage will be reaped ; but whenever those advantages can be had in the winter, and a warm spring succeeds, the crops of grass upon these lands are immense,

• Rivulets and brooks are the streams that can be used to the greatest advantage, because the expence of erecting wares across them, will not be great, neither are there any of those objections to which large rivers are liable ; beldes, if they run through a cultivated country, the land foods, occasioned by violent rains, bring a very large quantity of manure, such as chalk water, sheeps dung, and the itraining of the arable fields, as well as the scourings of the roads and ditches, the runnings of the farm-yards, the drains and finks from the towns and villages; all of which are otherwile carried, by the rains, into the leffer, and from thence into the larger ftreams, and are totally lost to the farmer.'

After pointing out some very important advantages to be derived from water-meadows, such as increasing the quantity of winter-food, and consequently the quantity of manure for the uses of the farm, &c. he takes notice of what we think the most important advantage of all, which is, the guarding against the danger of a dry summer, where the lands are lo fituated, that they can be watered at any season.


• It is inconceivable, what twenty-four hours water properly con. veyed over the lands will do, in such season ; a beautifai verdure will arise in a few days, where a parched, rusty soil could only be feen; and one acre will then be found to maintain more stock than ten would before. The peculiar benefit of such feed at such time, let those farmers estimate, who have experienced a dry summer with a large stock, and no meadows. A third advaniage must not be passed over, as it may possibly stimulate some farmers to attempt to water their coarse lands. Every person who has a breeding stock of ewes knows the difficulty of procuring proper food for the lambs in February, March and April, after the turnips are eaten, or when they have failed, and before the natural or artificial grasses are fic to take them. This difficulty is effectually remedied by the Water Meadows, which, when laid up in time, properly watered, and drained, will have a sufficient bite for the ewes and lambs by the end of February, and they may be kept in them with perfect safety, till the end of April; nothing makes the cwe thrive better than this Spring grass, or produces more milk; this is called spring feeding the meadows. To these advantages another may be addressed to the gentleman, who wilhes to improve his estate ; and whose benevolent heart prompts him to extend a charitable hand to the relief of the induftrious poor, and not to the encouragement of idieness and vice; almost the whole of the expences in this mode of cultivation is the actual manual labour of a class of people, who have no genius to employ their bodily frength otherways, for their's and their families fupport; consequently viewed in this light, the expences can be comparatively but small, the improvement great and durable.'


Art, IX. Elegy on Captain Cook. To which is added, an Ode to the Sun. By Miss Seward. 4to. 1 s. 6d. Dodney. 1780. APTAIN COOK's singular and unfortunate death has

been lamented, and indeed most juftly, by every one who has regard either for personal merit, the enlargement of knowledge, or the general interests of humanity. No testimony of gratitude to his memory, or veneration for his character, has been with-held by those who had power to do justice to either. His surviving family has been marked out by Royal munificence, and the celebration of his fame has been proposed as the subject of poetical contest at both universities.

The first, however, who has started in this poetic race is the ingenious Authoress of the Elegy before us-an Atalanta, if we may judge from her present career, that will not easily be overtaken.

While o'er the deep, in many a dreadful form,
The giant Danger howls along the form,


Furling the iron fails with numbed hands,
Firm on the deck the great Adventurer ftands ;
Round glitering mountains hears the billows rave,
And the + vast ruin thunder on the wave.-
Appallid he hears !—but checks the rising sigh,
And turns on his firm band a glift'ning eye.
Not for himself the sighs unbidden break,
Amid the terrors of the icy wreck;
Not for himself starts the impaffion'd tear,
Congealing as it falls ;-nor pain, nor fear,
Nor Death's dread darts, impede the great design,
Till I Nature draws the circumfcribing line.
Huge rocks of ice th' arrefted hip embay,
And bar the gallant Wanderer's dangerous way.-
His eye regretful marks the Goddels turn

Th’asiduous prow from its relentless bourn. The following passage is, embellished by imagery truly poetic, original, and just.

On a lone beach a l rock-built temple stands,
Stupendous pile! unwrought by mortal hands;
Sublime the ponderous turrets rise in air,
And the wide roof basaltic columns bear;
Thro' the long aifles the murm'ring tempefts blow,
And Ocean chides his dating waves below.
From this fair fane, along the silver lands,
Two filter-virgins wave their snowy hands;
First gentle Flora-round her smiling brow
Leaves of new forms, and flow'ss uncultur'd glow;
Thin folds of ** vegetable filk, behind,
Shade her white neck, and wanton in the wind;


Furling the iron fails.—“Our fails and rigging were so frozen, that they seemed places of iron."

And the vast ruin.-- The breaking of one of these immense mountains of ice, and the prodigious noise it made, is particularly described in Cook's second voyage to the South Pole.

I Till Nature, &c.-" After running four leagues this course, with the ice on our starboard side, we found ourselves quite embayed, tbe ice extending from north-north-eall, round by the west and south, to eaft, in one compact body; the weather was tolerably clear, yet we could see no end to it.”

|| A rock-built temple. On one part of this ifle there was a soli. tary rock, rising on the coalt with arched cavities, like a majestic temple.”

Fir gentle Flora.-Flora is the Goddess of modern Botany, and Fauna of modern Zoology: hence the pupils of Linnæus call their books Flora Anglica -- Fauna Danica, &c.-" The Flora of one of these islands contained thirty new plants."

** Vegetable filk.-In New-Zealand is a flag of which the natives make their nets and cordage. The fibres of this vegetable are lorger and Itronger than our hemp and fax; and some, manufactured in


Strange sweets, where'er she turns, perfume the glades,
And fruits unnam'd adorn the bending Thades.
-Next Fauna treads, in youihful beauty's pride,
A playful * Kangroo bounding by her side;
Around the Nymph her beauteous + Pois display
Their varied plumes, and trill the dulcet lay;
A Giant-bat, with leathern wings outspread,
Umbrella light, hangs quiv'ring o'er her head.
As o'er the cliff her graceful Rep the bends,
On glite’ring wing her insect-train attends.
With diamond-eye her scaly tribes survey

Their Goddess-nymph, and gambol in the spray.' The allusion to the funeral ceremonies at Otaheite is introduced with great happiness and propriety :

Gay Eden of the south, thy tribute pay,
And raise, in pomp of woe, thy Cook's || Morai!
Bid mild Omiah bring his choicest stores,
The juicy fruits, and the luxuriant flow'rs;
Bring the bright plumes, that drink the torrid ray,
And itrew each lavish spoil on Cook's Morai!

Come, Oberea, hapless fair-one! come,
With piercing shrieks bewail thy Hero's doom! -
She comes!--the gazes round with dire survey !-
Oh! Ay the mourner on her frantic way.
See! see! the pointed ivory wounds that head,
Where late the Loves impurpled roses spread;
Now ftain'd with gore, her raven tresses flow,
In ruthlefs negligence of madd'ning woe;

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London, is as white and glossy as fine filk. This valuable vegetable will probably grow in our climate.

* A playful Kangroo.--The kangroo is an animal peculiar to those climates. It is perpetually jumping along on its hind legs, its fore legs being too fhort to be used in the manner of other quadrupeds.

+ Beauteous Pois." The poi-bird, common in those countries, has feathers of a fine mazarine blue, except those of the neck, which are of a beautiful silver grey; and two or three Thort white ones, which are in the pinion-joint of the wing. Under its chroat bang two little tufts of curled white feathers, called its poies, which, being the Otaheirean word for ear-rings, occasioned our giving that name to the bird; which is not more remarkable for the beauty of its plumage, chan for the exquisite melody of its note.”

I Å Giant-bat.— The bars which Captain Cook saw in some of these countries were of incredible dimensions, measuring three feet and an half in breadth, when their wings were extended.

| Morai.— The Morai is a kind of funeral altar, which the people of Olaheite raise to the memory of their deceased friends. They bring to it a daily tribute of fruits, flowers, and the plumage of birds. The chier mourner wanders around it in a state of apparent distraction, shrieking furiously, and striking at intervals a thark's cooth into her head. All people fly her, as lhe aims at wounding not only herself, but others.


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