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be composed with precision, and must be more especially of use to those who trade with the French islands in America.

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A RT. XII. L'Intrigue du Cabinet fous Henri IV. et Louis XIII. terminée par la

Fronde. — The Political Intrigues or Negociations of the Cabinet Council under Henry IV. and Lewis XIII. ending with the Troubles of the Fronde. By M. ANQUETIL, Regular Canon of the Congregation of France, Correspondent of the Royal Academy of Inscriptions, &c. 4 vols, in 12mo.

HIS interesting Work comes from the same hand to

which the public is indebted for the juftly-applauded piece of modern history, intitled, The Spirit of the Leagu!, which unfolds with such accuracy and candour the scenes of blood and horror that were exhibited by the ambition and bigotry of the faction of the Guises. The present Work, though Jess striking, is not however less instructive; for if it does not exhibit a series of warlike exploits, which astonish, it opens useful views of the workings of ambition, and the other human passions, that nestle in the cabinets of princes, and from thence spread their pernicious influence through human fociety.

The Work is divided into nine Books. In the first, we fee the painful efforts of Henry IV. to restore order and subor. dination in his kingdom-the spirit of faction and the remains of the League forcing this prince to acts of feverity, against his natural propensity to clemency and indulgence - the progress of navigation and agriculture, and the flourishing state of the kingdom. In the second, we see this monarch, victorious over his enemies, enjoying peace at home and abroad, but imbittering his felicity by an inconsiderate passion, which cafts a cloud over the remainder of his days, and furnishes a pretext for the Queen-Confort to persevere in a line of conduct that is pernicious to the kingdom.- In the third, Mary de Medicis, devoted and abandoned to insolent favourites, adopts all their prejudices against the princes, who arm, and the parliaments, who murmur. Here we meet with a variety of objects, presented in a very interesting manner; such as, the character of Mary de Medicis, the triumph of Condé, the remarkable history of the Marefchal D'Ancre, the disgrace of the QueenMother, the contest between her and Condé, &c. In the fourth, Mary de Medicis regains her credit, opposes her son, who, incapable of governing without a leader, falls into the hands of Richlieu, whose influence and ascendency, after having suffered several checks, is confirmed by the disgrace of his principal enemies. In the fifth, the genius of this minifter displays all its powers, and renders him master of the King. His accumulated succefles excite envy-powerful cabals are formed, into which the Queen-Mother, the King's brother and nearest relations, and several magistrates and military commanders of the first rank enter; all of whom are punithed, for their attempts to overturn the minister, by exile, imprisonment, or death. In the fixth, the Frondeurs, though supported by the parliament, and become makers of the metropolis, by the famous four des Barricades, are obliged to conclude a peace, which is followed by a variety of intrigues, in which the political operations of Richlieu are curious, and well represented. The death of that cardinal and Lewis XIII, the rise, favour, and qualities of Mazarin, and the beginning of the regency of Anne of Austria, make also an interesting part of the contents of this book. The seventh, eighth, and ninth books exhibit to us a kind of moving picture, in which the figures, fometimes visible and sometimes concealed, advance, retire, unite, separate, change fides, every moment, and espouse different and opposite plans and interests with the utmost inconstancy.

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Here we see Paris blockaded by Condé, through the instigation of Mazaring this prince arrested by the joint efforts of the Frondeurs and the minifter,--set at liberty again by the former, in spite of the latter, who is obliged to quit the kingdom, ---the Frondeurs joining the court to destroy Condé, -- the return of Mazarin, the re-union of all the factions against him,-civil war,-the Aight, return, and triumph of Mazarin, --while the Fronde, like a fire-work, after throwing out, for a while, {quibs and rockets, consumes itself, and goes out in smoke.

The events related in these Volumes, when joined with the Spirit of the League, forin a regular and connected history of the cabals and factions that agitated the court and kingdom of France during the course of a century. Our Author obferves, in his Preface, that these events exhibit to us important truths and useful lessons, relative to the true ends and methods of government. Some of these leffons are relative to the French nation, but the following seem to be of much more general application and utility: ift, That the monarch must be unhappy who is implicitly governed by his ministers, and becomes, in their hands, a crowned Dave, forced to maintain, against his discontented subjects, principles and measures that have not his own approbation ; 2dly, That as authority has its limits, so has resistance its limits allo; and that it is therefore the indispensable duty of the supreme councils of a nation, whore proceedings are the objects of public examination and attention, to follow measures and rules of conduct, equally remote from a servile condescension and an inflexible and factious obltinacy:

At the head of this instructive and entertaining Work we find a catalogue of the principal political writings ihat have been

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published, published, relative to the reigns of Henry IV. Lewis XHI. and the wars of the Fronde, with observations on each article. These observations alone are a sufficient proof of the concise eloquence, the accurate judgment, and the candid impartiality of this excellent Author: they are sensible, elegant, and mafterly, and discover the nicest touch in appreciating the merit of historical publications.

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ART. XIII.
Memoire sur un Para-Tremblement de Terre et un Para-Volcan.-

A Memoir concerning a Counter-Earthquake and a Counter Vol.
cano (by which the Author means a Meihod of preventing these
Convulsions in the Bowels of the Earth). By M. BERTHOLON DE
ST. LAZARE, Member of the Royal Academies of Montpellier,
Beziers, Lyons, Marseilles, Dijon, &c.
HIS learned academician, after an eloquent description

of the horrors that accompany earthquakes and volcanos, gives an historical list of these tremendous phenomena, from the feparation of Offa and Mount Olympus, to the present times; and indeed their number is so great in all parts of the world, as to justify that emphatic faying of an ancient writer, that we walk upon the carcaffes of cities, and inhabit only the ruins of our globe. The destruction of twelve cities of Asia, at once, by an earthquake, as the fact is related by Seneca, Straho, and' Tacitus, fills the Reader with astonishment; and the frequency of earthquakes in our days is adapted to excite apprehension and terror. It is more peculiarly adapted to excite the inquiries of natural philosophers into the means of preventing these dreadful explosions, or of avoiding their fatal effects. Such is the object of the Memoir before us, whose ingenious Author Aatters himself with having succeeded in this inquiry. His ideas on this subject are as follows:

He considers earthquakes as electrical phenomena ; and this he proposes to prove and illustrate in a separate differtation, though it be an hypothesis already adopted by the moft eminent observers of nature. An earthquake is no more (as Pliny observed long ago) than subterraneous thunder; and when we confider the extent of the shock of the earthquake that destroyed the Asiatic cities, and of that which fome years ago laid Lisbon in ruins ;-when we reflect how the deep moving power must have been below the surface of the earth, to affect such a confiderable part of that surface, and what an enormous mass of folid matter was set in motion by these dreadful earthquakes, we shall perhaps be engaged to think, that the electrical com: motion alone can operate at such distances, and produce such astonishing effeds. This, at least, is the conclusion to which

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Our Author designs to lead us up by calculations and reasonings, for which we reter the Reader to the Memoir itself.

It is, therefore, according to our Author, the interruption of the equilibrium between the electrical matter which is diffused in the atmosphere, and that which belongs to the mass of our globe, and pervades its bowels, that produces earthquakes. If the electrical fluid be superabundant, as may happen from a variety of causes, its current, by the laws of motion peculiar to fluids, is carried towards those places where it is in a smaller quantity; and thus sometimes it will pass from the internal parts of the globe into the atmosphere. In such a case, if the equilibrium is re-established with facility, the current produces no other effect than what our Author calls ascending thunder ; but if considerable and multiplied obstacles oppose this re-establishment, the consequence then is an earthquake, whose violence and extent are in exact proportion to the degree of the interruption of the equilibrium—the depth of the furnace of the electrical matter-and the obstacles that are to be surmounted. If the electrical furnace is large and deep enough, so as to give rise to the formation of a conduit

or issue, a volcano will be produced, whose successive eruptions are no more in reality, fays our Au. thor, than electrical repulfions of the matters contained in the bowels of the earth.

Having thus investigated the cause of the evil, our Author thinks it not difficult to find out a preservative or remedy ;as it is the electrical matter which causes this evil, he proceeds in his method of preventing or removing its fatal consequences, upon the same principles that have been followed in preventing the pernicious effects of thunder-storms. Long, or rather enormous metal-conductors, sunk as deep as poflible into the earth, and having both their extremities armed with several divergent fharp points (verticilles), are the essential parts of our Author's inethod. The inferior points, considerably dispersed and lengthened, in order to render their influence more extensive, will draw out from the interior parts of the earth, the superabun. dant electrical or fulminating matter, which being transmitted along the metallic substance or conductor, will be di charged into the air of the atmosphere under the form of tuffs (aigrettes), by the divergent points at the superior extremity of the conductor. Our Author enters into a long detail in describing the construction, and pointing out the effects, of this preservative against earthquakes and volcanos : he acknowledges, that his method. must be attended with confiderable expence, as a great number of these enormous electrical rods or conductors will be required; for the number must be proportioned to the permanent quantity of electrical matter in the distriệt that is to be preserved, and to the extent of that diftri&t. But

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great as this expence may be, provinces laid waste, cities overturned, and thousands of their inhabitants buried in their ruins, testify how indispensably necessary it is, at least, in certain parts of the globe ; besides, it is the business of princes and sovereign Itates, and not of particular persons. We refer our Readers to the Memoir itself for a more circumstantial account of our Author's method ; where also they will find a chronological history of the earthquakes. and volcanos, that have produced havock and defolation in many countries. This Memoir is published in the Journal de Physique of the Abbé Rosier, for the month of August 1779.

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ART. XIV. Recherches sur le Commerce

, ou Idies relatives aux Interéts des Peuples de l'Europe. ---Inquiries concerning Commerce, containing Ideas relative to the Interests of the European Nations. Vol. II. Part I, Amsterdam. 1779.

E mentioned the first Volume of this work with the

high esteem to which it has so just a title *, as it dira covers, in its Author, a most extensive knowledge of the subject of commerce, and large and philosophical views with respect to its connection with the interests of humanity.

The ingenious Author shewed, in his first Volume, in opposition to the affertion of Mr. Hume, that the great quantity of gold and silver that has been poured into Europe fince the discovery of America, and the variations consequent upon this that have taken place in the value of money, have been really detrimental to society in general. He observed, moreover, that this evil has been considerably increased by paper-circulation and credit ;-- he promised to thew this at length in a subsequent Volume, and he fulfils his engagement, in a masterly manner, in that now before us; at least in part: for of the three Parts into which this second Volume is divided, we have only the first in this publication ; and we cannot disguise a sentiment of uneasiness, which we really feel, at receiving this precious Work piece-meal, and, as it were, dismembered. When an eminent artist uncovers the contour of one side of his statue, we are impatient to see the whole.

Be that as it may, what we see pleases us much, and gives us a full persuasion, that the rest will answer our utmost exs pectations.

The first Part, then, of this second Volume contains some difcuffions and ideas relative to modern banks and paper-credit in general. These discussions, which are not exempt from

See in our Review for July 1778, the first article of Foreige Literature,

digreffions,

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