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the name of W. Bulmer, hitherto little known, was born into a permanent and prominent place in the line of famous typographers. This position was firmly established in 1794, by the publication of the unrivalled edition of Milton's Poetrical Works in three volumes referred to above. In appreciation of Bulmer's work as well as that of Steevens, the Monthly Magazine speaks as follows:

It is to his own, (George Steevens's) indefatigable industry, and the unremitting exertions of his printer that we are indebted for the most perfect edition of our immortal Bard that ever came from an English Press.

The attractions of the Gallery still increasing, another catalogue was issued in 1790 which, as an additional source of income, was sold for 18. 6d. By 1791 the works numbered sixty-five, and although after that year the additions came more slowly, the growth was steady and all things seemed to prosper.

The year 1790 saw John Boydell Lord Mayor of London. In this same year, while his active preparations were going forward, there were active preparations of a very different nature on foot across the channel in France, whence news came constantly pouring in of Revolution raging at blood heat. Active measures, it is true, very different from those of which we treat, but measures which ten years later had all to do with the financial condition of John Boydell. In his business of exporting, his receipts from abroad had been, and were ample to cover all his expenses. To this add his home receipts from his Gallery, his Shakespeare, and regular stock of art works, and we see he had little reason to tremble for success. The work ran smoothly; the public enthusiasm continued; and so with little variation we come to the year 1802. By this time the number of the works in the Gallery had reached 162, 84 of which were large size. The final number shortly after was 170, containing three pieces of sculpture. These were the two bas-reliefs by Mrs. Damer, illustrating scenes from Antony and Cleopatra and Coriolanus, and the famous Alto-Relievo, by Sir Thomas Banks, which stood over the entrance to the Gallery. This is entitled The Apotheosis of Shakespeare, and represents the Poet seated between the Dramatic Muse and the Genius of Painting. These two figures are well executed and the whole work is very graceful except Shakespeare himself. There is not enough repose in the position of the figure. To put it plainly: he looks as if it was with the greatest difficulty that he was preventing himself from slipping off, and out of the group entirely. And then the face! It is true we have not much authority for any one likeness of Shakespeare, so that there is much room for the exercise of taste in the matter, but we cannot believe that the immortal Bard bore such a striking resemblance to George Washington, as this monument would lead us to suppose. Besides these two sculptors the Gallery represented the work of 33 painters. Whatever may now be said of these works, at least the purpose of the founders was accomplished, for it was a period of great revival of English art, and as such its importance must be acknowledged. The separate works have often been reviewed depreciatingly by art critics, but as Shakespeare illustrations they are very great. There are many series of illustrations, excellent in some ways, but when brought face to face with a page of the great Poet's work, they dwindle into insignificance. They are too colloquial, if we might use the word. The Boydell pictures bear out the majesty and grandeur of the text as no others do. As on the stage there are always women to rant their way through the words of Lady Macbeth, so there are existing many illustrations representing wicked looking vixens with knives dripping with the blood of Duncan; but Westall's picture of Lady Macbeth takes its place with the classic representations of Mrs. Siddons.

In the following year, 1803, the eighteenth and last number of the Shakespeare appeared, and the work, now complete, was published in nine volumes, folio, bearing the date 1803. After the title page is a full page engraving of the Stratford Bust, executed by Neagle. This is followed by an advertisement, by George Nicoll, in which he states some of the circumstances of the origin and forwarding of the work. He also acknowledges the kind support of the subscribers and states that Mr. Boulton, of Soho, was to superintend the execution of a medal to be presented to the subscribers as a small mark of the appreciation of the publishers. He further states :

That they intend that the name of each subscriber to the Shakespeare sball be engraven on the medal presented ; and that this may be done with accuracy they entreat the favor of every subscriber to sign his name, with his own hand, on sheets of vellum, which will be presented to him for that purpose. These sheets will afterwards be bound in a volume to be placed in the Shakespeare Gallery.

As an additional and accompanying work to the Shakespeare, Boydell issued a series of large engravings, executed by Bartolozzi, Schiavonetti, Ryder, and other eminent engravers, the subjects being selected from the paintings. The first number was issued in 1790 and the subsequent numbers with some interruption, appeared at intervals of about six months, until 1804. They were then published complete in two volumes, atlas folio. The title page of the work bears the date 1803, but the last plates were published on December 1, 1804, and the preface, by Josiah Boydell, was dated March 25, 1805. The title page

reads as follows: A Collection of Prints from Pictures painted for the purpose of illustrating the Dramatic Works of Shakespeare, by the Artists of Great Britain. Volume I

Volume I opens with a frontispiece portrait of His Majesty, King George III, engraved by B. Smith from Beechey's full-length painting. On the title page is the vignette of Mrs. Damer's bas-relief from Coriolanus. Then follow the Dedication to the King, the list of plates, and the plates themselves, 46 in number, including Bank's Alto-Relievo, and Smirke's 'Seven Ages.' The second volume is uniform, containing as a frontispiece the portrait of Queen Charlotte, by the same artist; and on the title page a vignette of Mrs. Damer's bas-relief from Antony and Cleopatra. This volume, however, contains fifty prints, the last three of which were not engraved from any of the regular large Shakespeare paintings but treated of the subject and were therefore added. They were as follows:

Shakespeare nursed by Tragedy and Comedy, (Romney);
Imogen in Boy's Clothing, (Westall);
Desdemona Asleep, (Josiah Boydell).

The plates of the two volumes, including frontispieces and vignettes number 100. There was also a special issue of which we quote from Lowndes as follows:

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Oply 98 etchings are said to have been taken, the two deficient being Plate 49, (Cymbeline, III, ii.) and 50, (Othello, V, ii.) in Vol. II.

The reason of this we can understand when we consider that these are two of the three above referred to as having been additionally inserted. Lowndes further says S

The etching of Sir Joshua Reynold's 'Death of Cardinal Beaufort,' has the figure of a demon in the background, which is obliterated in the print.

This great work was published at 60 guineas. The Alderman himself did not live to dedicate it, but it was finally completed by Josiah Boydell, in 1905. This is commonly called the Boydell Gallery. It must not be confused with the smaller series, also 100 in number, published about the same time, and which was simply a separate issue of the same plates which were used in the Shakespeare edition. It does not duplicate the small plates, for, although likewise 100 in number, it is entirely a different selection, and is distinguished from the other by being called 'the small set.' But now comes the unfortunate and yet in some respects the most interesting part of the story. The French Revolution began to tell on the continental trade in a degree utterly beyond calculation. Financial embarassment closed about the Alderman at the moment when success should have been assured. His disbursements had been enormous. The Gallery had cost upwards of £30,000, while the edition of Shakespeare incurred an outlay of £150,000 more. When we consider that this was all additional to his regular stock, which demanded a considerable outlay, we can see what an enormous income was necessary to make ends meet. And now, suddenly, came an almost complete loss of his continental trade, his chief source of revenue; a contingency he had little foreseen, and the only one to be feared. The result was a total crash. He states his position as follows:

My receipts from abroad had been so large, and continued so regular that I at all times found them fully adequate to support my undertakings at home. I could not calculate on the present crisis which has totally annihilated them. I certainly counted on some defalcation of these receipts by a French or Spanish war, or both, but with France or Spain I carried on but little commerce. Fla

ind, and ermany (and these countries

no doubt supplied the rest of Europe) were the great marts. But alas ! they are no more. The convulsion that has disjointed and ruined the whole continent I did not forsee. I know no man that did.

This passage

is from his letter of February 4th, 1801, addressed to J. W. Anderson, representative of London, through whom he applied to Parliament for permission to dispose of his Gallery by lottery. To such an extremity was he reduced, and he met it with a manliness which was evinced in his letter of explanation as follows :

I hope you, my dear sir, and every honest man at any age, will feel for my anxiety to discharge my debts ; but at my advanced age of 85 I feel it becomes doubly desirable.

It had been his desire and intention to bequeath the Gallery to the English nation, and it is indeed deeply to be regretted that this became impossible. The lottery consisted of 22,000 tickets, and before the 12th of December, 1804, when the Alderman passed to his rest, he had seen every ticket sold and his debts honorably discharged. It was estimated that during his life he had spent £350,000 in promoting art at home. His patriotism earned for him the reputation he deserved, and though his last days were clouded with misfortune, he died as he had lived, high in the reverence and esteem of his fellow men. But the lottery is too interesting to leave without a passing notice. The 22,000 tickets were sold at three guineas each. In this number there were sixty prizes, and each purchaser not drawing a prize was entitled to one guinea's worth of prints selected from the general stock of the Boydells. So we see there were really no blanks. The lottery was drawn in Guildhall, on January 28th, 1805, The chief prize consisted of the whole Shakespeare Gallery, including the premises, for an unexpired term of 64 years. The excitement, which had been constant throughout, culminated in this novel festival of Dame Fortune. A lottery with so much to win and no blanks was a rare chance, and we do not wonder at the ready sale of tickets. When the lots were drawn, the fortunate winner of the Gallery was found to be Mr. Tassie, the modeller of Leicester Square. In a humorous article in the Gentleman's Magazine, Projector' states that the blank prizes of selected plates were judiciously arranged' to suit the

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