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Fellow citizens of the Senate and House of Representatives :
At the time of the adjournment of the Extra Session, in May last, it was hardly contemplated that it would be found indispensable to call the Legislature together again within the year, The Southern Rebellion, just then initiated by the formal secession of several States, and the seizure of Fort Sumter by military power, had not yet assumed the gigantic proportions which it now wears. It found the loyal States in profound repose, diligently engaged in the cultivation of the arts and humanities which belong to peace, but wholly unused to war. They had long accustomed themselves to believe that under our form of government every dispute that could arise would be peacefully settled by the verdict of the ballot box, and when they perceived that a considerable number of States preferred the ba; barism of war, and had deliberately appealed to the sword, they were very illy prepared to meet that appeal. Of nen, loya', hardy, patriotic men, there were enough, and much more than enongh; but of the knowledge of war, and of supplies of arms and munitions, there was a sad lack everywhere. Michigan, with more than a hundred thousand fighting men, bad arms for hardly more than a thousand, and for military organization, she had next to none at all. The ordinary courses of trade and business had been rudely and almost instantaneously broken up, and new ones had to be sought out. Doubt and distrust were everywhere. In the midst of these conditions we started out to explore the new paths which were to be trodden hereafter. We were now to learn war; to create armies; arm and equip them for the field and send them forth to fight those against whom they had done no wrong and had never intended any, and who were bound hy obligations the most solemn to keep reace towards them. The ordinary machinery of government has been found inadequate to meet the exigencies of our present rapidly changing affairs, and a frequent resort to the legislative power is rendered imperative. Nor ought this to be regarded as at all strange. It is only in the light of events themselves that their logic is clear, and human forecast cannot always be relied upon to meet the demands of the future. Es pecially is this true of times like the present. Our good Ship of State is driven before a furious gale, and the best navigator can hardly tell what of disaster the next wave may bring. It is the duty of every one on board, wisely, prudently, and bravo ly to stand always at his post. Michigan has endeavored to meet this responsibility faithfully — even enthusiastically. Whatever sacrifice has been required of her, she has at once prepared herself to make. Both by her gallant soldiers in the
. field and her patriotic citizens at home, she has promptly obeyed every call made by the Federal Government upon her, and I dare promise that she will not fail in this respect hereafter.
The Congress of the United States, in consequence of the unusual magnitude of the demand upon the Treasury, caused by the war, has been compelled to resort to heavy loans, and is rapidly creating a large public debt, for the payment of the interest upon which it was necessary that new sources of rev. enue should be found. For this purpose an act was passed on the 5th day of August last, entitled “An act to provide increased revenue from imports, to pay interest on the publio