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communion ; and expired about two o'clock on Thursday July 12, aged fortyseven years.

Gen. Hamilton possessed very uncommon powers of mind. To whatever subject he directed his attention, he was able to grasp it, and in whatever he engaged, in that he exceiled. So stupendous were his talents, and so patient was his industry, that no investigation presented difficulties which he could not conquer. In the class of men of intellect, he held the first rank. His eloquence was of the most interesting kind, and when new exertions were required, he rose in new strength, and touching at his pleasure every string of pity or terror, of indignation or grief, he bent the passions of others to his purpose. At the bar, he gained the first eminence.

Me undoubtedly discovered the predominance of a soldier's feelings ; and all, that is honor in the character of a soldier, was at home in his heart. His early education was in the camp; there the first fervors of his genius were poured forth, and his earliest and most cordial friendships formed; there he became enamored of glory, and was admitted to her embrace.*

HENRY HUDSON.

Henry Hudson, the discoverer of our state, was an eminent English navigator. Of the place of his birth, the manner in which he was educated, and the private circumstances of his life, we have no account. He first made his appearance in 1607; and, during the three following years, immortalized his name by a series of the most brilliant discoveries.

Of his most important discoveries, and the manner of his death, some account has already been given. While on a voyage of discovery, a mutiny broke out among his crew, and Hudson was bound, and, with his son John, and seven of the most infirm of his men, put into an open boat, and abandoned to their fate, at the west end of the straits that now bear his name. The crew then proceeded

* Allen's Biography. Ames's Sketch.

to England: but landing near the mouth of the strait, four of them were killed by the savages. The remainder, after enduring the most severe sufferings, arrived at Plymouth, September, 1611.*

* The sensation produced in London, upon the disclo. sure of these tragical events, may be conceived to have been very great. Such indeed was the interest felt in England, that the London company, prompted by the benevolent motive of searching for Hudson and his companions, flattered also by the hope of discovering an unexplored passage at the west side of the bay, fitted out another expedition the following year, which, after wintering, returned, disappointed in both objects of search.'

“ Hudson had become deservedly a favorite with a large portion of the British public. The English long regretted the loss of their countryman, whose achievements as a navigator had reflected honor on a nation already distinguished for its illustrious seamen.

Hudson's personal qualities and virtues, displayed during four voyages, at times which were calculated to try character, will ever be contemplated with admiration and pleasure; but to the citizens of the state of New York, the character of this heroic navigator will be peculiarly the theme of eulogium, and his misfortunes the subject of regret."

• Hudson was not faultless; but no record imputes to his conduct any crime or wilful vice. He had at times that irritability of passion, which is so peculiarly the trait of those whose lives are passed upon the ocean.

But few, who have so conflicted with its dangers, and at the same time combatted the turbulent dispositions of mutinous crews, could have preserved presence of mind, exercised moderation, and displayed magnanimity in a more exalted manner, than Hudson. His faults, whatever they were, are eclipsed by the splendor of his virtues. When the river, which he discovered, shall display upon its banks, in a range of three hundred miles, a free, vigorous, and intelligent population, crowded into numerous additional cities, villages, seats, and farm houses, the merits of Hudson will be reiterated with increased praise, while his name shall be handed down from generation to generation.”+

* Allen.

| Yates and Moulton.

FRANCIS LEWIS.

Francis Lewis was born in March, 1713, at Landaff, in the shire of Glamorgan, South Wales, where his father was established as a protestant episcopal clergyman. After completing a classical education at Westminster school, he served a regular clerkship with a merchant in London ; and, at the age of twentyone, embarked, with a large amount of merchandise, to establish himself in mercantile business in the city of New York.

In commercial and mercantile pursuits, Mr Lewis displayed much enterprise and activity; and, during the French war, rendered important services to the country. He was an active and distinguished member of the colonial assembly of 1765. In 1775, he was unanimously elected delegate to the colonial congress, and was one of the first to enrol his name among the sons of liberty,” in the declaration of 1776. In 1777, he received the formal thanks of the state convention ; and, the two following years, was appointed to a seat in the general congress. In December, 1803, this venerable man, and excellent citizen, was gathered to his fathers, bequeathing to his posterity a name, which will long flourish in the annals of liberty, affording a bright example of virtue and integrity.*

PHILIP LIVINGSTON.

Philip Livingston was born at Albany, in January, 1716. He was educated at Yale College, in Connecticut, where he graduated in 1737. He then directed his attention to commercial pursuits; and, by his integrity, sagacity, and comprehensive views, laid the foundation, and crected the superstructure of extraordinary prosperity.

He commenced his career in public life in 1754, as an alderman of the east ward of the city of New York ; and, in 1759, was returned by the freeholders of this city as a member of the assembly. In this body, he soon became conspicuous for his talents and devotedness to the interests of the people. In 1769, he declined an election for New York, and was returned a member of the house for the manor of Livingston. His liberal views, and powerful exertions in defending the rights of the citizens, soon after, rendered him obnoxious to the governor; and, as a majority of the assembly were now under the influence of the crown, his seat in the house was vacated, by a vote of that body, on the plea of nonresidence.

* Wala.

Mr Livingston was chosen a member of the first congress, which met at Philadelphia, 1774. He was, the following year, appointed president of the provincial congress, assembled at New York. In 1776, in conjunction with his colleagues, he affixed his signature to the Declaration of Independence, in behalf of the state of New York.

During the recesses of the general congress, he rendered important services in the organization of the state government. In May, 1778, he took his seat in congress for the last time. Although feeble in body, and low in health, he consented to forego all considerations but those of patriotism ; and, at a distance from his family, willingly devoted to his country the last hours of his life. He expired on the 12th of June, at the age of sixtytwo years.

WILLIAM LIVINGSTON. William Livingston, LL. D. governor of New Jersey, was born in the city of New York, about the year 1723, and was graduated at Yale College, in 1741. He studied law, and possessing an understanding of great energy, a brilliant imagination, and a retentive memory, and devoting himself assiduously to the cultivation of his mind, he soon rose to distinction in the profession. He early exhibited himself an able and zealous advocate of civil and religious liberty, and employed his pen in vindicating the rights of the colonies against the arbitrary claims of the British. After enjoying several important offices in New York he removed to New Jersey, and as a representative of that state was one of the most distinguished of the congress of 1774. On the formation of a new constitution for that state in 1776 he was appointed the first governor, and was annually reelected to the office till his death in 1790. He was characterized by simplicity in his man

course.

ners, and ease, amiableness, and wit in his social inter

His writings display uncommon vigor, keenness, and refinement, and are often eloquent. He devoted himself, during the revolution, ardently to the cause of his country, and did much by the shrewdness and severity of his writings both to encourage his countrymen and exasperate the British.*

ROBERT R. LIVINGSTON. Robert R. Livingston, chancellor of New York, and minister of the United States to France, was born in the city of New York, September 20, 1747, and educated at King's College, where he was graduated in 1765. He studied law, and commenced its practice in New York, but was soon after appointed recorder of that city, and held the office till near the commencement of the revolution, when he was dismissed by governor Tryon, on account of his attachment to liberty. Mr Livingston boldly advocated the cause of his country at that crisis, was elected to a seat in the first congress, and was one of its ablest and most influential members. He was one of the committee which drew up the declaration of independence, and on the establishment of the executive departments in 1780 was appointed secretary of foreign affairs, and held the place till 1783. He was chosen in 1777 a member of the convention which formed the constitution of New York, and on its adoption was appointed chancellor of the state, and continued in that office till he went to France in 1801. It was in that capacity that he administered the oath of office to president Washington on his first inauguration. In 1783 he was a member of the convention of New York, which assembled to consider the constitution of the United States, and was a principal instrument in procuring its adoption. He was appointed minister to France in 1801, and rendered the most important services to his country while residing there, by negotiating the purchase of Louisiana, and procuring redress for the numerous spoliations by the French on the commerce of the

This article and the two following were taken with some immaterial alterations from Lord's Dictionary.

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