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CHAP. V.

DISCOVERY AND SETTLEMENT.

Discoveries of Columbus and the Cabots. Great River discovered

by Hudson. Hudson detained in England. Dutch trade to the Great River. Licensed Trading Company. First Settlement. West India Company. New Netherland. First Governor. Van Twiller's Administration. Kieft Stuyvesant. New Netherland surrendered to the English,

41

CHAP. VI.

FROM 1665 to 1710.

Administration of Nichols. Lovelace. New York retaken by the

Dutch, and soon after restored to the English. Andros. Dongan. Revolution. Leisler. Sloughter. Bellomont. War with the French, &c.

53

CHAP. VII.

FROM 1710 To 1743.

Hunter's administration. Expedition against Canada. Administration of Burnet, Montgomery, Crosby, and Clarke,

64

CHAP. VIII.

FROM 1743 to 1760.

George Clinton appointed Governor. War with France. Expedition

against Louisburg. Incursions of the French and Indians. Operations of the war in 1746. Capture of the French fleet. Indian depredations. Termination of the war. Osborne appointed Governor, dies, and is succeeded by Delancey. Hostilities again commenced with the French. Colonial Convention. Hardy appointed Governor. Colonies prosecute the war,

77

CHAP. IX.

CONTINUATION OF THE FRENCH WAR.

Formal declaration of war. Campaign of 1756, and capture of Oswe

go. Campaign of 1757, and capture of Fort William Henry. Expedition against Ticonderoga. Capture of Fort Frontenac. Campaign of 1759. Surrender of Ticonderoga and Crown Point.

Capture of Niagara. Wolfe's expedition against Quebec. War terminated in 1760 by the entire conquest of Canada,

91

CHAP. X.

FROM 1760 TO 1775.

Prospects of the Colony. Controversy relative to the New Hamp

shire Grants. Opposition from the settlers. Stamp Act. Congress at New York. Disturbances occasioned by the Stamp Act. Stamp Act repealed. Assembly restrained. Further attempts to tax the Colonies. Controversy with the Grants becomes serious. Parties prevented from proceeding to hostilities by the controversy with Great Britain, .

103

CHAP. XI.

COMMENCEMENT OF THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR.

Origin of the controversy with Great Britain. State of affairs in the

colony. Convention appoint delegates to the Provincial Congress. War breaks out at Lexington. Disturbances in New York. Capture of Ticonderoga and Crown Point. Gov. Tryon arrives. Expedition against Canada. Surrender of Chambly, St Johns and Montreal. Montgomery appears before Quebec. His death. Inhabitants of Tryon county disarmed. Provincial troops enter New York. Americans evacuate Canada. Declaration of Independence,

114

CHAP. XII.

THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR.

FROM 1776 TO 1778.

Disposition of British and American troops at New York. Battle on

Long Island, Americans evacuate New York. Americans continue to retreat. Fort Washington taken by the British. Operations on Lake Champlain. Convention adopt the State Constitution. Commencement of the northern campaign in 1777. Invasion of Burgoyne. His capture. Enterprise of Clinton. State Government organized,

126

CHAP. XIII.

REVOLUTIONARY WAR, CONTINUED TO ITS TERMINATION.

Legislative proceedings. Revival of Controversy relative to the

Grants. Treaty of Alliance with France. British army concen trated at New York. French fleet arrives. Campaign of "79. Operations at Stoney Point and Verplank's. Expedition against the Indians. Campaign of 1780. Depredations of the Royal Army. Arnold's Treachery. Campaign of '81. Capture of Cornwallis. Independence acknowledged,

141

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CHAP. XIV.

FROM 1783 to 1812. Condition of the country at the close of the war. Organization of

the General Government. Internal concerns of the State. Set. tlement of the Vermont controversy. Agriculture, Arts, Manufactures, and Commerce. Civil Policy. Attention of the Legislature directed to the subject of Internal Navigation, 163

CHAP. XV.

WAR WITH GREAT BRITAIN.

War declared. Preparation for the invasion of Canada. Battle of

Queenstown. Capture of York and Fort George: Operations on the Lakes. Battles of Bridgewater, Chippewa and Plattsburg. Termination of the war. Commencement and completion of the Northern and Erie Canals,

187

GENERAL VIEWS. Constitution and Laws. Political divisions. Cities and Villages.

Agriculture, Manufactures, Commerce, Canals. Banks. Militia. Education. Literary Institutions. Religion. Population. Character,

209

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. Sketches of the lives and characters of some distinguished men in the colony and state of New York,

254

List of the Governors and Lieutenant Governors of the Colony and

State of New York, with the time of their appointments, 278,

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PREFACE.

The present volume is offered to the citizens of New York as a humble contribution to the means of educating youth. It is the opinion of the Compiler that History may be most successfully taught, by beginning with details concerning the spot where the pupil lives. The knowledge also of what belongs to the story of “our own, our native land," is not only interesting, but in the highest degree useful and necessary.

So far as the Compiler of this volume is inforined, there is no work on the History of New York, susceptible of introduction into schools, or capable

of conveying, even to mature minds, an outline of the subject. An attempt therefore to supply what seems an obvious blank in the list of books for education, in this State, with whatever degree of success it may be executed, it is thought will be looked upon with favor.

In preparing the work, the Compiler could of course aim

only to give an abstract of the subject; and his endeavor has been therefore merely to exhibit the principal events which belong to the History of the colony and State of Sec. II.' Climate. New York, extending through more than four degrees of latitude, presents a considerable diversity of climate. It is cold in the north towards the St. Lawrence; but milder in the southeast, and in the country lying on the shore of Lake Ontario. The greatest range of the thermometer is from 24° below to 950 above the cipher of Farenheit.

The climate of the counties between Lake Ontario and Pennsylvania is much warmer, than that of those farther east in the same latitude. The earliest forest trees in this tract put forth their leaves about the first of May; and the oak and other late trees by the 20th.

The shallow ponds and brooks usually freeze in October, and snow commonly falls by the last of November, but seldom during the winter exceeds a foot in depth. Cattle are sometimes kept in pastures till January, and on the Genesee flats nearly the whole winter.

The fever and ague is the most common disease throughout the state. It prevails on the Hudson, lake Champlain, on the Mohawk and the St. Lawrence, on the Chenango and the Oswego, on the Genesee and the Niagara. This disease is however becoming less frequent, than formerly, and in many places, where but a few years since, its prevalence was severely felt, it now very seldom oc

The country, between Pennsylvania and lake Ontario, is the most unhealthy part of the state. Malignant bilious fevers are common, and prove extremely prejudicial to strangers. This is particularly true on the banks of the Genesee, and on the low lands in the vicinity of the lakes. They sometimes occur between the Champlain and the St. Lawrence.

curs.

II. What is said ofthe climate? Of the counties between Lake Ontario and Pennsylvania ?- What is the most common disease? Where does it prevail ?- What is said of this disease ?

—What is the most unhealthy part of the state ?- -- What fevers are cummon ? - In what other parts do they occur?

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