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lost all grace to the offender, and received double

• censure from all others.

'The king was greatly inclined to the Normans, had

• created a Norman archbishop of Canterbury, and had 'heaped extraordinary favours on him. I had no other 'objection to this man than that he rose without my 'assistance; a cause of dislike, which, in the reign of 'great and powerful favourites, hath often proved fatal 'to the persons who have given it, as the persons thus 'raised inspire us constantly with jealousies and appre'hensions. For when we promote any one ourselves 4 we take effectual care to preserve such an ascendant

• over him that we can at any time reduce him to his 'former degree, should he dare to act in opposition to 'our wills; for which reason we never suffer any to 'come near the prince, but such as we are assured it 'is impossible should be capable of engaging or im'proving his affection; no prime minister, as I appre'hend, esteeming himself to be safe, while any other 'shares the ear of his prince, of whom we are as jealous 'as the fondest husband can be of his wife. Whoever, 'therefore, can approach him by any other channel than 'that of ourselves, is in our opinion a declared enemy, 'and one whom the first principles of policy oblige us 'to demolish with the utmost expedition. For the af'fection of kings is as precarious as that of women, and 'the only way to secure either to ourselves is to keep 'all others from them.

'But the archbishop did not let matters rest on sus'picion. He soon gave open proofs of his interest with 'the confessor, in procuring an office of some importance 'for one Rollo, a Roman of mean extraction, and very 'despicable parts. When I represented to the king the 'indecency of conferring such an honour on such a 'fellow, he answered me, That he was the archbishop's relation. Then, Sir, replied I, he is related to your enemy. Nothing more passed at that time: but I soon perceived by the archbishop's behaviour, that the king had acquainted him with our private discourse, a sufficient assurance of his confidence in him, and neglect of me.

'The favour of princes, when once lost, is recoverable only by the gaining a situation which may make you terrible to them. As I had no doubt of having lost all credit with this king, which indeed had been originally founded and constantly supported by his fear, so I took the method of terror to regain it.

'The Earl of Boulogne coming over to visit the king gave me an opportunity of breaking out into open opposition: for as the earl was on his return to France, one of his servants, who was sent before to procure lodgings at Dover, and insisted on having them in the house of a private man in spite of the owner's teeth, was, in a fray which ensued, killed on the spot; and the earl himself, arriving there soon after, very narrowly escaped with his life. The earl, enraged at this affront, returned to the king at Gloucester, with loud complaints and demands of satisfaction. Edward consented to his demands, and ordered me to chastise the rioters, who were under my government as Earl of Kent: but instead of obeying these orders, I answered with some warmth, that the English were not used to punish people unheard; nor ought their rights and privileges to be violated; that the accused should be first summoned: if guilty, should make satisfaction both with body and estate; but if innocent, should be discharged. Adding, with great ferocity, that as Earl of Kent it was my duty to protect those under my government against the insults of foreigners.

'This accident was extremely lucky, as it gave my

quarrel with the king a popular colour; and so ingra'tiated me with the people, that when I set up nay standard, which I soon after did, they readily and cheer'fully listed under my banners, and embraced my cause, • which I persuaded them was their own; for that it was 'to protect them against foreigners that I had drawn my 1 sword. The word foreigners with an Englishman hath 'a kind of magical effect, they having the utmost hatred 1 and aversion to them, arising from the cruelties they • 'suffered from the Danes, and some other foreign nations. 'No wonder therefore they espoused my cause in a 'quarrel which had such a beginning.

'But what may be somewhat more remarkable is, that 'when I afterwards returned to England from banish 'ment, and was at the head of an army of the Flemish, 'who were preparing to plunder the city of London, I 'still persisted that I was eome to defend the English 'from the danger of foreigners, and gained their credit. 'Indeed, there is no lie so gross but it may be imposed 'on the people by those whom they esteem their patrons 'and defenders.

'The king saved his city by being reconciled to me, 'and taking again my daughter whom he had put away 'from him; and thus having frightened the king into 'what concessions I thought proper, I dismissed my 'army and fleet, with which I intended, could I not have 'succeeded otherwise, to have sacked the city of London, 'and ravaged the whole country.

'I was no sooner re-established in the king's favour, or 'what was as well for me, the appearance of it, than I 'fell violently on the archbishop. He had of himself 'retired to his monastery in Normandy; but that did not 'content me, I had him formally banished, the see de'clared vacant, and then filled up by another.

'I enjoyed my grandeur a very short time after my

restoration to it; for the king hating and fearing me to a very great degree, and finding no means of openly destroying me, at last effected his purpose by poison, and then spread abroad a ridiculous story of my wishing the next morsel might choke me, if I had bad any hand in the death of Alfred; and, accordingly, that the next morsel, by a divine judgment, stuck in my throat, and performed that office.

'This of a statesman was one of my worst stages in the other world. It is a post subjected daily to the greatest danger and inquietude, and attended with less pleasure, and less ease. In a word, it is a pill, which, was it not gilded over by ambition, would appear nauseous and detestable in the eye of every one; and perhaps that is one reason why Minos so greatly compassionates the case of those who swallow it: for that just judge told me he always acquitted a prime minister who could produce one single good action in his whole life, let him have committed ever so many crimes. Indeed, I understood him a little too largely, and was stepping towards the gate: but he pulled me by the sleeve, and, telling me no prime minister ever entered there, bid me go back again; saying, he thought I had sufficient reason to rejoice in escaping the bottomless pit, which half my crimes committed in any other capacity would have entitled me to.'


Julian's adventures in the post of a Soldier.

'I was born at Caen in Normandy. My mother's name 'was Matilda; as for my father, I am not so certain; for the good woman on her death-bed assured me she herself could bring her guess to no greater certainty than to five of Duke William's captains. When I was no more than thirteen (being indeed a surprising stout boy of my age) I enlisted into the army of Duke William, afterwards known by the name of William the Conqueror; landed with him at Pemesey, or Pemsey in Sussex, and was present at the famous battle of Hastings.

'At the first onset it was impossible to describe my consternation, which was heightened by the fall of two soldiers who stood by me; but this soon abated, and by degrees, as my blood grew warm, I thought no more of my own safety, but fell on the enemy with great fury, and did a good deal of execution; till unhappily I re~ ceived a wound in my thigh, which rendered me unable to stand any longer, so that I now lay among the dead, and was constantly exposed to the danger of being trampled to death; as well by my fellow-soldiers as by the enemy. However, I had the fortune to escape it, and continued the remaining part of the day, and. the night following, on the ground.

'The next morning, the duke sending out parties to bring off the wounded, I was found almost expiring with loss of blood; notwithstanding which, as immediate care was taken to dress my wounds, youth and a robust constitution stood my friends, and I recovered, after a long and tedious indisposition, and was again able to use my limbs and do my duty.

'As soon as Dover was taken I was conveyed thither with all the rest of the sick and wounded. Here I recovered of my wound; but fell afterwards into a violent flux, which, when it departed, left me so weak that it was long before I could regain my strength. And what most afflicted me was, that during my whole illness,

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