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Finally, a careful study of the organic act of 1862, and the supplementary acts of Congress, and of the results already achieved by the agricultural and mechanical colleges, shows that these institutions have been developed in strict accord with the laws under which they are maintained, and in response to the demands of the people; and that the different courses in agriculture, engineering, commerce, and household technology, maintained coordinately as the distinctive features of land grant college work, together with the related scientific and general subjects, constitute a unity and completeness of educational endeavor peculiarly adapted to the needs of American industry and of American life.

CHAIRMAN DEMAREST.-The discussion will be continued by Dean F. Paul Anderson, of Kentucky.

DEAN ANDERSON.-Mr. Chairman and Gentlemen: It seems to me that the definition of mechanic arts is quite clear to all of us. It appears that the main thing for us to do is to devise some means to secure a better portion of the funds being given to these land grant institutions for carrying on the work in engineering.

Let us look for a moment into the history of these federally supported colleges. Evidently when Senator Morrill fathered the bill for securing money for these schools, he had in mind, "institutions" whose work should be quite distinct to the liberal art colleges as they were organized at that time. Most of those present have seen the great advances made in engineering in a number of these institutions. You remember the fundamental work done at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the pioneer achievements at Stevens Institute; the work started by Dr. Thurston and carried into Cornell, and the masterly organization effected by Dr. Goss at Purdue University. In all probability, Senator Morrill had in mind, when he referred to mechanic arts, the technical arts pertaining to industrial activities. Agricultural science was not even a dream then; today, great stress is placed on agricultural training.

The engineer has been progressive. For a considerable period, the American Society of Civil Engineers and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers have been efficient in disseminating engineering facts. The agriculturist for a long time seemed to have had no particular medium for the discussion of the scientific problems bearing particularly on his work, except perhaps through some national scientific society. So there was formed the association which was organized by agriculturists, known as Association of American Agricultural Colleges and later changed to the Association of American Agricultural Colleges and Experiment Stations. It seemed to be difficult in the early days for the agriculturists to gain recognition, but they are now leading the engineers; at least as far as obtaining funds for development are concerned.

The engineer has been interested in his own problems and he has been too busy to plan legislation that will provide ample funds. Engineering professors in land grant colleges have been too content in the realization that the engineering departments were strong and vigorous. The matriculation of engineering departments is entirely out of proportion to the money available for either routine teaching or expansion. The agriculturists are getting the money.

In Kentucky, everything is agriculture. The agriculturist pervades the university. He has directed agricultural trains through the state until all the natives are alive to the importance of agriculture. Agricultural extension is evident in all of its forms.

The general thought is that the engineer will take care of himself.

The impression seems to be that he will come out on top somewhere. Yet, I do think that we can justly request at this stage of development adequate money for engineering experiment station work. For thirty years, experimental engineering work has been carried on as a part of the regular work of land grant colleges. The agriculturists have been able to secure funds for agricultural experiment work. The engineering school is entitled to more money for research work. The engineer must stick close to the agriculturist. Through the medium of agriculture, we will be able to secure large amounts of money for engineering. The University of Wisconsin has grown largely through the great work done by the agricultural college. We will have to appeal to the presidents of our various institutions to give us our part so that we can grow a little along experimental engineering lines and establish engineering experiment stations.

I have not found the agriculturists crafty or greedy. They simply have taken the attitude so long that they have been neglected; that they must have support; that the engineer will handle himself all right, until they are now getting help not only for themselves but the whole university as well.

Make friends with your agricultural brethren for they will hold the purse strings of our land grant colleges for some years to come. PRESIDENT JACKSON.-The subject is now open for general discus


PRESIDENT ALEY, of Maine. It is a very interesting thing as a college president to get into an organized body of kickers. It is a point of view we do not ordinarily get.

I am somewhat in doubt, however, as to the correctness of the notion that the agricultural people, the farmers, are disposed to aid agriculture at the expense of engineering or other departments.

I believe if you understand the situation all over this country that the agricultural people are not disposed to wield the whip in the ring; if they are, I should like to know it. That apparent situation is due to the engineering men failing to do what the scientific men in agriculture have done; they have failed to go out into the state and show that scientific engineering work is of value to the state. I have only lived in two states; at present in the State of Maine. I am perfectly free to say that in both states, and from what I learn, in many other states, the men in engineering have not taken the trouble that the men in agriculture have taken, to actually keep up with the every day life of the state. Now, I believe that in many of our states, by reason of the character of the industries, engineering has a better opportunity to show its value than agriculture has. There is a tremendous amount of work going on in the industrial districts. Secondary schools need to be established, and it seems to me that engineering colleges and land grant institutions ought to determine what place that work shall take.

I believe that the reason that you have failed to get into the game the same as the agricultural men have gotten into the game is because you have not grasped the opportunity. It seems to me the engineering college ought to have a tremendous influence in shaping the work that will be of the utmost importance in the next 25 years, in our secondary schools. You will have to know the conditions of secondary schools and you cannot do that by sitting in the laboratory; you have got to get busy. I think if you will do that, in 20 years from now you will find that you are playing just as big a part as is agriculture. PRESIDENT JACKSON.-Who is going to pay the expense of getting the extra men to go out and do the work?

PRESIDENT ALEY.-I think the institution will gladly pay that when the results are shown.

DEAN R. L. WALES, of Rhode Island.-May I have just a word in this connection? In the little State of Rhode Island, some four years ago I think it was, we had an agitation which was in the direction of trying to take away the engineering work from our college, and of degrading it to the trade school basis. It was a serious matter with me and others connected with the college and at the meeting in Portland, Oregon, I introduced a resolution, asking the American Association of Agricultural Colleges and Experiment Stations to pronounce upon the relation and condition of engineering education in the land grant colleges.

I simply want to call attention to the fact that there is on record in the minutes of the Association of Agricultural Colleges and Experiment Stations, held at Portland, Oregon, a resolution determining that it is the sense of that Association that the words "mechanic arts" mean "engineering."

DEAN MARSTON.-I have a copy of that resolution here and would like to have it read into the minutes of this meeting. The resolution was very seriously debated at Portland but was finally adopted unanimously.

On motion, permission was duly granted and the resolution was read by the Secretary as follows:

Resolution offered by President Howard Edwards of Rhode Island and passed unanimously at the twenty-third annual convention of the Association of American Agricultural Colleges and Experiment Stations at Portland, Oregon, August 18-20, 1909.

Resolved, That it is the sense of this Association that the national laws which constitute the charter of the land grant colleges distinctly prescribe work of collegiate grade in agriculture and the mechanic arts, including engineering in all its branches and the sciences related to the industries, irrespective of whether the colleges are established separately or as parts of universities.

PRESIDENT SPARKS, of Pennsylvania.-The present unusual growth in agricultural interests in our "land grant" colleges has its origin outside ourselves and we are in no way responsible for the increase. It has come from outside the colleges and from causes over which we have no control. The first 40 years of the "land grant" colleges fell within the great industrial or manufacturing era, which followed the Civil War, and which naturally developed our present lines of engineering. During this period, agriculture played the part of a Cinderella, whilst engineering was her favored sister.

Let me briefly enumerate some of the causes why agriculture has recently come into her own: First, we name the final settlement of all the western government land that is tillable. Horace Greeley once said, "Go west, young man," but we no longer hear that advice. The second cause lies in the prevalent alarm at the exhaustion of our national resources, and the third is the increased cost of living. If we desire a fourth reason, I believe it is a general reaction from the city to the country. When the first census of the United States was taken, three people out of every hundred dwelt in the cities, now the ratio is thirty-five to every hundred. But recently there has come a reaction and it is manifest in increased methods of transportation, in the "back to the farm movement," the relocation of manufacturing plants in the country; the revival of the country estate, etc., etc. These are a few reasons why agriculture is now rivaling engineering and we have no control over them.

Agriculture will naturally have a great advantage over engineering. The agriculturist is an individualist who has no affiliation other than the agricultural college, but the engineer may be a graduate from any one of a dozen engineering schools in any state and he is likely to be part of a corporation which embraces graduates of other schools. Consequently when you mention agricultural support for the college, you include the entire class of people, but you cannot name a united engineering support for any "land grant" college. It is to be further noted that the agricultural support comes from the country where interests are simple and where devotion to the cause is easily secured. The engineering interests lie largely in the city where life is complex and devotion to any one interest difficult to secure.

I am delighted to mark in these discussions a tendency to accept historical facts and not to indulge in rivalries or charges. We have long needed in all our institutions a cooperation and a harmonious working between these two great agencies. I look upon the present organization as an almost inspired opportunity for such harmonious relations.

DEAN MARSTON.-Mr. Chairman, I would like permission to print in the proceedings several letters from Senator Morrill, relating to the meaning of "mechanic arts," as used in the Morrill Land Grant Act. These letters were written in 1890 and 1891 to men in Iowa, at the time when some attack was being made upon the character of instruction given by land grant institutions.

On motion, permission was granted and the letters read, as follows:

United States Senate,

December 22, 1890.

Dear Sir:-Your favor of 19th inst. has been received, and I sincerely trust that no effort will be successful which attempts to reduce your institution below the rank of a college. It was, of course, intended by giving the lead to agriculture and the mechanic arts to enable the sons of farmers to obtain an education to fit them as farmers or for any other vocation which they might choose.

It was hoped to be particularly valuable to the industrial classes but it was never intended to exclude education of the highest dignity. [Signed] JUSTIN S. MORRILL.

Dr. Albert Richmond,

Ames, Iowa.

United States Senate,

December 23, 1890.

Dear Sir:-Your favor of the 20th inst. has been received. Civil engineering in the agricultural colleges is perhaps one of the most useful and important branches of the mechanic arts that can be taught and, of course, it was included in the act of 1862. The study is also very nearly related to the practical sciences. Agriculture could not afford to do without it for surveys of land, for drainage, roadmaking, bridges, and for the foundation of buildings. Yours very truly,


Mr. E. W. Stanton,
Ames, Iowa.

Stafford, Vt., June 11, 1891.

My Dear Sir:-I much regret that other and paramount duties for the month of June will deprive me of the pleasure of accepting your invitation to be present, on the 16th instant, to the dedication of your

"Morrill Hall," that is to contain the chapel, library and museum of the Iowa Agricultural College. The picture of it received is an attractive one. Rest assured that the honor so kindly proposed by the trustees, of associating my name with your large and ornate building, dedicated to purposes so noble and forever useful, is fully appreciated by me, and you will please tender to the trustees my sincere thanks for the generous compliment. Let me add, that I hope you will permit me to cling to the idea of visiting the well equipped college of your great and populous state, as a pleasure only postponed, and to be consummated if life remains to me, at an early and more convenient season.

It is a joy to me to know that the land grant colleges in nearly every state are fully meeting the original purpose, as well as public expectations, and are offering an American system of liberal education to the great masses of our people formerly limited mainly to the instruction offered by common schools and academies. American colleges, prior to 1862, having been created almost wholly on the plan of ancient English universities, bestowed very narrow attention to practical sciences, with perhaps a little more of modern languages, and awarded their highest honors to scholarship in the dead languages. Anything useful except discipline appeared to be carefully avoided. A professorship of agriculture was quite as alien to these long established literary institutions as would have been a professorship of hypnotism, and yet they served very satisfactorily, and may continue to serve, the so-called learned professions, as all of their graduates must have a subsequent three years' training to supply that part of their education required for practical use. A liberal culture for these professorships only, however important it may be, includes but a small portion of the whole community. Arts and sciences have been vastly extended and multiplied, and special learning is everywhere in demand and early rewarded. The land grant colleges are aiding in supplying in large measure this want felt by more than fifty million of the American people, that is to say, a want felt by all those who hope to achieve personal independence, through some industrial employment, and also to win such reputation as sound learning nearly always confers. The great bulk of our people urgently seek that instruction which can be utilized before the average of human life is more than half exhausted.

The land grant colleges, however, by no means exclude classical branches of education and they should be supplied. It is only provided in the organic act that the lead shall be given to "such branches of learning as are related to agriculture and the mechanic arts," but "without excluding other scientific and classical studies and including military tactics"-"in order to promote the liberal and practical education of the industrial classes in the several pursuits and professions of life." It will be seen that these colleges were not limited to one or two pursuits or professions of life but included many.

Agriculture and the mechanic arts should be the foremost to be provided with the best instruction of all the ages, but, having this lead, all other branches of liberal learning should not be arrogantly ignored or excluded, and whatever is included should be taught with absolute thoroughness.

The Cornell University, with its abundant endowments, is able to cover a very broad field, and to a long procession of learned pursuits and professions of life it offers the highest instruction to numerous and diverse classes. It cannot be expected, however, that other states with far less funds, can equal the matchless resources and appliances

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