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just been touched. The different institutions doing this work must cooperate in the development of courses, that each can reach the highest efficiency in covering its field.

Results of Work Done.

Since the inception of this work over five years ago, the numbers of students who have been enrolled in the various divisions of the technical branches are as follows:

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In addition there are numbers who have taken general courses in engineering. Many of these students are still studying, some have completed their work, while others have been dropped for various reasons-some because of circumstances which made further study impossible, some because of change of occupation, and some for lack of interest or for inability to carry the work. Our records for the past year show that of the students of the engineering courses eliminated in that period 436, or 60 per cent., had completed their work and 295, or 40 per cent., had been dropped. Certainly this is a remarkable showing when we consider the conditions under which most of these students work and study. Many of the students who are dropped have accomplished some work and derived much of value from their studies. The real results are measured in the increased efficiency and economic value of the men and of this we have abundant evidence. There are numerous cases of students who have become foremen, superintendents or managers or who have advanced to other responsible positions. The following short extracts from voluntary letters show the value of the instruction and the appreciation of the students:

"I cannot speak too highly of it. It has done me a world of good so far, and I am only partly through it. I never thought a person could learn so much through correspondence. I am beginning to think that I never knew anything about meters at all, and I have been working with them for about five years. How I used to rip them apart to get at some trouble which I thought was on the inside! But now, knowing the action of the current and how it acts on the moving element, it doesn't seem to be any trouble at all to repair them. I think your course is the finest thing I ever got a hold of." "Assignment seven has given me a better understanding of the steam tables than I have been able to obtain from any or all of the engineering books I have at hand. Therefore, when I make another test, which will be in about three weeks, I will be able to figure the results with a better knowledge of the different factors involved in the test."

"Let me say in closing this last lesson that I have enjoyed the course very much and have profited by it immensely. My object in taking it, aside from the incidental one of finding a way to spend my time, was to obtain an insight into the fuel conditions at the local water plant and also an idea as to the manufacture of gas and its uses as fuel. This course suited my purpose admirably and I am more

than satisfied with it. The concise and practical methods of analysis given are specially valuable."

"In reply to your letter of the 30th, I wish to say that I will complete the course as soon as I can. For the last month I have had all I could do just applying what I learned from the trigonometry part of the course.

"We received a gear hobber which was not complete for cutting spiral gears, so I had to design a differential gear for it. This brought in other things, cutting mitre gears, spirals and worm gears to complete the gear train. I would not have been able to do this if it had not been for the course in mathematics.

"Thanking you for interest in my work, I remain.”

"As to the work I did under your tuition, will say that I executed all drawings for my various patents in United States and Canada, which were accepted without demur by the patent offices of both countries. I also worked out and detailed the motor of the new Flanders motorcycle in Detroit last year. Thanking you for your assistance, I am."

"There is no reason in my mind why the university extension division with a force of live wires at the front hewing the rough corners from raw material, and trying to teach a mechanic to think while working with his hands, or leading a boy to better things, while he is learning how to make a living, cannot gain for itself greater laurels. I shall always be a friend of the university extension division and those connected with it, because it has proved a benefit to me and others whom I know of."

It will be seen that this work has filled a real need and has found a permanent place in the educational system of the state. It enters into competition with no other public educational agency. With the organization of continuation schools throughout the state, some of the elementary industrial work has been taken over by them. The extension division has cooperated in the organization of these schools, which will serve as natural feeders to the extension courses. They will conduct the more elementary class work, and awaken a desire for further instruction. After completing the work offered by the continuation schools, the men's interests diverge and the extension method then offers the logical means of developing the individual along the line of his chosen interests.

Lectures.

Aside from the lectures which are given to classes in some of the regular courses of study, there is considerable opportunity to supply single lectures to various organizations,-engineers' clubs, civic clubs, business men's associations, labor organizations, etc.

Service.

There yet remains to be discussed the means of service in matters of general information and welfare. There is an immense fund of valuable technical knowledge in the publications of the national, state, and university research departments and of the national engineering societies. These publications usually have a limited circulation and the information is largely latent. The seeker after knowledge can be directed to the proper source of information and if necessary the material can be edited into simple form to make it available for wider distribution. Any number of valuable bulletins and pamphlets on matters of general interest might be prepared. We have not done a great amount of work in this line, but the possibilities are enormous. Just at present a bulletin is being prepared on the subject of sani

tation and sewage disposal for rural homes. This will suggest some of the possibilities in this kind of service. Under the municipal reference bureau, with the advice of the engineering staff, another form of service is being carried on with most beneficent results. Many wasteful experiments in public improvements can be prevented if our city officers and the public are properly informed of the experiences of others. In this department are collected the results of experiments on such matters as highways and pavements, sewage and garbage disposal, municipal ownership, systems and costs of street lighting, and other questions of municipal government. This information may be given in the form of digests or reports, or as lectures to groups of interested citizens. The service rendered by this department has reached practically every municipality in the state.

The department also offers expert service to the citizens of the state on matters of general welfare. A recent example will show the nature and value of this service. In a small northern town some of the more progressive citizens felt the need for a sewage system. Before public sentiment could be crystallized it was necessary that they should know something of the proper plan to be followed and the probable cost. In this predicament they appealed to the extension division and an expert from the university was sent to advise them. With a definite proposition outlined for them, public sentiment was easily aroused and the plans adopted. Having secured the sewer, the same people are now planning for a municipal water supply. In the same way, they have been shown the best location for their wells and equipment to ensure pure water and good service; they have been given data on the approximate cost and the value to the community. Great care is taken not to encroach on the field of the consulting engineer, and the employment of an expert is advised at the proper point. This service rather creates business for the professional expert and educates the people to the need of securing competent engineering talent.

What Others Are Doing.

This brief outline will give some idea of the possibilities for service and instruction to the people of a state. The experience in Wisconsin shows a real need for university extension as a permanent part of the state educational system, and the results achieved have brought forth ever increasing moral and financial support. In other states the people are beginning to look to their state universities and colleges for similar service. Out of 41 state institutions that have responded to a request for information on their engineering extension work, 19 have been giving or are starting vocational instruction either in evening classes or by correspondence; 8 offer courses for credit; 9 offer lectures on technical subjects; 8 give free expert service and advice on some matters of general welfare, and 7 are issuing bulletins on engineering topics of general interest. With but one or two exceptions, the replies indicate a great interest in the work, and a desire to do much more if the necessary funds were available.

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Surveying:

Plane and topographical surveying..
Plotting and topographical drawing.

Drawing:

(See also under Mechanical Engineering.) Elements of mechanical drawing. Advanced mechanical drawing

Descriptive geometry

Freehand lettering

Related Business Courses:

Business organization and management..

Cost accounting

Law of contracts

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Law of corporations

CHAIRMAN REBER.-Before calling on the next speaker, I wish to note that in many of our classes I find college graduates. We had a class in structures, 12 were college graduates, most of them having taken some other engineering course and took up structures with us by correspondence.

The question of cooperation is exceedingly important, which I suppose you will recognize. If we do not cooperate, rather than dominate, we will not get any where.

CHAIRMAN REBER.-President Demarest wishes to make a statement. PRESIDENT DEMAREST.-I would like to make a report at this time with regard to the action taken yesterday as to our membership in the other association. I may perhaps leave Washington very soon and would like to mention this at this time.

We discussed with the members of the Executive Committee of the other association the best course of procedure. The matter came up before the college section yesterday afternoon and there we found obtaining just the idea that was expressed here on the floor yesterday. It is their feeling that we are part of that association, thoroughly on a level with the men in agriculture.

After this announcement by President Demarest the situation was discussed at length with reference to what action might be taken by the engineering organization. It was the consensus of opinion that the Land Grant College Engineering Association should continue its organization, pending adoption or absorption of the organization into the A. A. A. C. E. S. The question of the basis of affiliation with the other association was discussed fully, as well as the voting powers of representatives and delegates in the sessions of the association, and articles of the constitution were cited in this regard. President Demarest fully explained the present situation.

DEAN JACKSON.-I move that we thank President Demarest for his report, and request that he go ahead in the same manner as at present, with the addition that he also, if possible, arrange to have "agriculture" struck out of the title of the Association of American Agricultural Colleges and Experiment Stations or some qualifying clause added with reference to experiment stations which will enable engineering experiment stations to be admitted to the proper section of the old general organization.

The motion was seconded, and after some further discussion, was carried.

DEAN JACKSON.-We have rather an unusual condition arising this afternoon. Among other items coming before the other association

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