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the work in the night classes were cared for mostly out of the fees paid by the students. Of course, overhead expenses were cared for from the budget of the extension division. The pay received by our regular instructors for the additional night work taken over by them was inadequate, and on the basis of last year the extension work could not successfully go on.

This year we have brought in a director of extension, Mr. R. R. Price, who is creating an adequate organization. The extension appropriation available is $40,000 for the university, and in addition a special appropriation for agricultural work. This means that our extension work is to be tolerably well supported this year, and we may assume that the future will be much better supported.

Speaking of the special appropriation for extension work in agriculture, I think I ought to say that our agricultural department has been doing extension work for some time, and has been fairly adequately provided with funds. Agriculture has its own separate agricultural engineering department, and I wish to put on record a statement growing out of the discussion of yesterday, I wish to say that the relations between the College of Engineering at Minnesota and the College of Agriculture, or more properly the engineering department of agriculture-these relations are most cordial. The College of Agriculture has been adequately provided with funds. In making up the budget the president and the deans get together and thrash it out. Each college states what it wishes but of course usually does not get all it wishes. Perhaps if we should all get what we wanted it might mean a disaster for the state. We thrash out our budget in many strenuous meetings. In our final meeting for the budget of this year we reached an ultimate distribution of our support funds at 3 o'clock in the morning at the president's house. In this final distribution we had apportioned to agriculture nearly one-third of the amount available. Now we do not object to this large proportion for agriculture in Minnesota. We want two blades of grass to grow where but one grew before. But we have a further feeling that engineering should be likewise adequately provided for. We wish to make sure that two wheels are turning where but one turned before. Now out of the funds available for extension work this year $40,000 as I stated, engineering had allotted to it about $10,000.

We discussed very carefully the best method of carrying on our extension work. We were not certain that the Wisconsin method of a separate extension staff in engineering was altogether wise for our peculiar situation and conditions. As I understand it in Wisconsin the men who give instruction in extension work are not of the faculty of the college of engineering, but of the extension faculty alone. With us at Minnesota, where our extension immediately touches half a million people, and the work is administered for these at least on our own campus, it seemed wise to utilize to the fullest extent the strong men of our engineering faculty in night classes. It seemed that a specialist in his given subject, as for instance structural engineering might more adequately present this subject even to students with preparation not equal to that of our regular collegiate students. We were a little afraid of having an omnibus instructor, who might present many subjects in a conventional way, address himself to the type of men we were getting in our night classes. It was therefore finally arranged that while the administration of extension work was properly under the direction of the extension, that the fullest articulation should exist between the extension division and the college of engineering, and the staff of the college was to be utilized to the fullest extent.

We had this peculiar situation at Minnesota that the high schools gave extension work in night schools, and that the Young Men's Christian Association did likewise. While the work given by both of these agencies was doubtless of high grade, we found that a considerable number of the men who wished extension work in this college wished it primarily because they would come in contact with the strong specialists of the faculty of the college. The confidence in the men of the faculty was of another degree from the confidence in the men giving the more academic and less professional work in the existing agencies.

Now I ought to interpolate here that we entered extension work with a good many misgivings, and in making this statement I have in mind that that is the ordinary attitude of a college faculty when the need of extension work is presented to it, and the suggestion made that this sub-collegiate work be added to the regular tasks of the instructor. It is a feeling for which I have the utmost respect, and it is in part a defensive feeling which is a wholesome thing for the collegiate work itself. There was a fear that participation in extension work would weaken the quality of the work of the higher institution in its original function.

Possibly the extension function taken over by our state universities in particular is a transient one and to this extent only a proper function of the university. Perhaps some day we will have intermediate schools whose primary function is to care for the very needs which are uncared for now in the absence of the activity of the university itself.

We have a very comfortable feeling at Minnesota of the adequacy of our students. We feel that they are men of mentality and character and robust in their attitude towards life and in their habits. We do not feel that they are impractical visionary little men to whom the title of "Reginald Rockafell" would be at all appropriate. I regret exceedingly that Professor Knox in his paper on extension appeared to view the men in the collegiate courses as other than practical, wholesome, large men. I hope when his paper is printed this facetious belittling of the collegiate engineer and the heroic enlargement of the extension engineer, whom he designates as "Bill Jones," will be eliminated. This characterization was unworthy of the paper presented, and mars the discussion.

Returning to our faculty's view of the proper organization of extension in Minnesota we had in mind that the faculty of the college itself would take a prominent part in the extension work, and I must state that we did not entirely win out in the organization finally brought about. We expected to put in each department at least one man, with possibly the title of instructor, whose services would be paid for out of extension funds. These men would have given some work in extension, and some work also in the regular collegiate work, so as to release in part the energies of the faculty proper, or such members of the faculty proper as would give work in night classes. This was an ideal arrangement from the point of view of the college, but it was objected to as being an over complex organization for administration. There appears to be always a little fear that the extension funds may be utilized improperly for the use of the college. As a matter of fact the fear of this possible misappropriation of extension funds has acted so as to bring about an encroachment by the extension service on the regular funds allotted for college purposes. This is a somewhat amusing outcome, when we consider the difficulty of securing adequate support funds for our proper college work. In Minnesota it appears that the money which the legislature

appropriates most easily is for agriculture, next in order of ease is money for extension, then comes money for equipment, then money for buildings, and the hardest money of all to secure is for the current expenses of the institution including the salary roll. In practice we do encroach on this support fund, or on the time of men paid out of this support fund for the better and wider work in extension.

At the present time the regular faculty of the college of engineering is doing the extension work, with the addition of just one instructor dividing his time between Duluth, Minneapolis and St. Paul. The pay received by the men of our regular faculty for night work is, I think, very liberal. An instructor receiving a salary of $1,200 a year receives for his night work $10.41 per evening, and a professor receiving a salary of $3,000 receives $18.75 per evening.

The work begins the latter part of October or the first of November and is given in either one or two evenings a week. The costs to the students are from $7.50 to $10.00 per course.

I was very much interested in and thoroughly approve of the paper presented and I know that the little old state across the river from Minnesota needs to be watched with a view of bettering our extension and for any state even as far away as the Atlantic seaboard it will be well to watch Wisconsin just the same.

CHAIRMAN REBER.-I understand that President Patterson, of Kentucky, is present. President Patterson a number of years ago was instrumental in having the term "mechanic arts" properly recognized by the A. A. A. C. E. S. I am sure we would all be glad to hear from him before we go on with our discussion.

President Patterson took the floor and delivered a short, stirring and inspiring address, encouraging the organization in its work. He was vigorously applauded and was thanked by the chairman for his words of etncouragement.

CHAIRMAN REBER.-Mr. C. S. Nichols, of Iowa, will describe engineering extension work at Iowa State College.

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MR. NICHOLS.-Mr. Chairman and gentlemen of the convention: would like to have it written in the records that this paper was prepared by Professor A. G. Smith, in charge of engineering extension work, Iowa State College, who came from Wisconsin, where he had been in active charge of Milwaukee district, in the engineering extension department. It is entitled "Engineering Extension at Iowa College."

COLLEGE ENGINEERING EXTENSION AT IOWA STATE COLLEGE. PROF. A. G. SMITH, AMES, IOWA, (PRESENTED BY C. S. NICHOLS). The thirty-fifth general assembly of the State of Iowa provided an appropriation to establish a two-year vocational course at Ames, correspondence study along engineering lines, and extension classes in as many of the industrial centers of the state as the funds would permit. This work as now organized, constitutes one department of the division of engineering and, while it has a separate instructional force, bears the same relation to the division and college as a whole as the other departments in the division. Its position is a strategic one for it articulates closely with the engineering division at Ames on the other hand, through the two-year course, and with the vocational high schools authorized by the recent legislature on the other, by means of its extension work.

In its relation to the college and the state the department is similar

to that of agricultural extension and reasoning from analogy it would be natural to infer that engineering extension would aim to do for the manufacturer and engineer what agricultural extension has done for the farmer. Broadly speaking, this is true. The aim of the two departments is the same; namely, to assist in the development of the state in their respective lines by extending the teaching and influence of the college beyond the limits of the campus. The means taken to accomplish this end are vastly different owing to the inherent differences between agriculture and manufacturing. Agriculture is wide spread; manufacture is localized. Agriculture is carried on by individuals; manufacture by organized bodies of men. Agriculture is confined to well defined lines throughout the state; manufacturing is greatly diversified. Agricultural extension deals directly with the manager and employer; engineering extension deals with the tradesman and employee. Agricultural extension deals with men who are, to some extent at least, masters of their own time; engineering extension deals with men whose working hours are sharply defined by their employer. These and other differences make the problem of engineering extension a distinctive one.

The Problem of Engineering Extension.

There exists today in every industrial community a large class of men and boys who left school before reaching the high school or even completing the lower grades. Few attempts have, as yet, been made to provide systematic training for these employed men and boys. Night schools have developed as the best way of meeting their needs. Courses of study especially adapted to particular trades have not been developed until very recently and those which are developed are confined to a narrow field. The problem of engineering extension then becomes two-fold, to aid in the organization and development of industrial classes and schools suited to the needs of the workingman and to provide teachers and courses for such schools when organized. The main problem for the present, at least, is that of developing or assisting in developing an educational system rather than that of experiment and research, though the connection with the engineering experiment station as a source of scientific information is close.

Proposed Lines of Work.

Five lines of activity are planned for the department of engineering extension as an aid in the solution of the problem of industrial education.

(1) Resident short courses.

(2) Class work in industrial centers.

(3) Correspondence study.

(4) Aid to public schools in industrial work.

(5) Technical lectures.

At the opening of the fall semester this year there was established at Ames a short course in engineering for boys who had had a little or no high school training. This course differs quite sharply from the four-year engineering course even in the fundamentals of mathematics and drawing. It is more directly practical and not intended as a foundation for more advanced collegiate work. Laboratory and shop work is made prominent. Seventeen are enrolled at the present time.

A two-weeks' short course is to be given during the winter for clay and cement workers, road men and engineers, covering clay and cement working, road engineering, steam engines, gas engines, tractors, automobiles, power plants and application of electricity.

In developing class work in the industrial centers two things are necessary: (1) a practical course adapted to the needs of the men accompanied by definite questions for study and discussion; (2) an enthusiastic instructor who has had practical experience. Classes of young employees or apprentices meet during working hours for the period of one hour or more per week for the study and discussion of the lesson. Such classes in time ought to develop into regular part time or continuation schools for the benefit of apprentices and beginners in any trade. Older and more highly paid men must necessarily meet out of working hours and usually call for instruction of a more advanced character. In both day and evening work the extension workers will endeavor to coperate with existing agencies such as the public schools, the Y. M. C. A. and the manufacturers themselves. Courses especially adapted for this work in shop arithmetic, carpenters' and builders' arithmetic, shop drawing, gas engines, strength of materials, heat, heating and ventilation, steam boilers and structural work are already available and work has begun.

Class work naturally accompanies correspondence study as an aid and incentive when needed. Then, too, correspondence study courses with their full and complete explanations fit the needs either of the individual, isolated student or of the class group. The successful correspondence course is precisely the course needed for successful class work.

True to its policy of cooperation so far as possible with existing agencies the department stands ready to aid public schools and high schools in organizing courses in manual training and industrial work by furnishing expert instruction and outlines when desired. То teachers in smaller towns and outlying districts the outlines in manual training especially appeal for they furnish them in concrete form the material with which to work. Some of the high schools in industrial centers are desirous of adding one or more industrial subjects to the school curriculum, not being ready as yet to formulate a distinctly industrial course. For this work the department furnishes a part time instructor and a special course. Another field already mentioned is that of night schools for older men. Few cities in the state have conducted these successfully, largely because the courses given have been too long and too general in character and the instructors too much inclined to follow the time honored methods of the regular night school.

The combination of the public school building and the engineering extension short unit course and special instructor is proving a happy one. In some places this is the only way in which industrial work may be started because the local industries represented are so small and so diversified. In time this work may develop into state aided part time or all day industrial schools. The difficult thing is to make a beginning "somehow, somewhere," and in this pioneer work in industrial education for the state, Iowa State College is leading the way. In the field of technical lectures the two-weeks' winter short course in engineering marks a new step and is an experiment, the results of which will be watched with interest. There are two general classes of instruction which this work is designed to provide: (1) to present the problems of engineering and industrial lines which the rapid advances of the industrial era keeps pushing into the foreground for solution, and (2) to provide a definite, systematic plan for the imparting of technical information of a fundamental nature to men who have no such means now available other than what they can "pick up" from trade and engineering journals and association conventions. In developing both fields the instruction is condensed for the busy

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