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coagulated slowly and imperfectly; the corpuscles were scattered, and entirely modified, some collapsed, and all more or less irregular in shape—oval or manysided. The animal was also unwell, was thirsty, and inactive; yet he took his food, as he had done throughout, with avidity. On the evening of the 9th he vomited. His breath from the first administration was markedly ammoniacal. It was observed, too, that the animal, although he had eaten heartily in the course of the inquiry, was losing flesh.
In the course of the 10th and 11th days of December, the animal received four five-grain doses of the carbonate. On December 12th, two doses of eight grains each were given. On the morning of December 13th, before any dose was administered, the breath was examined, and found markedly ammoniacal. The blood-corpuscles were much more generally modified; there were none perfect. Some were oval, some many-sided, some star-like. The dark central point was absent in all.
On December 14th, an eight-grain dose was administered in the morning; on December 15th and 16th, the same; on December 17th and 18th, ten grains were given each forenoon. On this latter date, a little blood was extracted, and was watched for twenty minutes, during which time it did not coagulate.
On December 19th, 20th, and 21st, ten-grain doses were given each day. On December 21st, the breath was strongly ammoniacal, as before.
Dr. Barker now gave the animal a respite for seven
days. On December 28th, he recommenced by giving a scruple dose of the carbonate in the morning, and a second dose of the same quantity in the evening. These doses produced vomiting and a staggering gait; but the effects passed off in a few minutes.
On December 29th, one scruple dose was given in the morning. On December 30th, a little blood was drawn, which did not coagulate for nearly an hour. After this observation, another scruple dose was administered. On December 31st, a scruple dose was given in the morning and in the evening.
On January 1, 1857, a scruple dose was given ; but none on the 2nd. The breath continued markedly ammoniacal on January 1st, 2nd, and 3rd. On the 3rd, a scruple dose was given; two scruple doses on January 4th, and three scruple doses on the 5th. At this point, the animal became decidedly ill; his appetite fell off, and he was prostrated and drowsy. On January 6th and 7th, two scruple doses were given each day; on January 8th, three similar doses ; on the 9th, two; and on the 10th, three. During this time, the symptoms above described became more evident; the breath was more strongly ammoniacal; the blood coagulated slowly and feebly, and the red corpuscles underwent remarkable modifications. They assumed various shapes-stellate, many-sided, and oval. Some were entirely disintegrated. All were free from central opacity. They sometimes aggregated loosely in circular groups, lying out flattened, not surface to surface like coins. They continued long in motion, and had but little mutual attraction. On January 11th, a dose of half a drachm of the carbonate was given, and proved final. A few minutes afterwards, the animal rolled on his side, became convulsed, with opisthotonos, and died.
In another experiment, conducted by myself, a female guinea-pig was placed in a chamber containing 3,350 cubic inches of space, the air of which was kept constantly charged with ammonia vapour. The symptoms produced were very remarkable, and indicated, perhaps as clearly and succinctly as can be desired, the influence of the long continued effects of the volatile alkali on the animal organismi.
The experiment commenced on January 19th, 1857; provision was made for the easy introduction of food into the chamber, and also for renewal of the air in a steady stream. From the 19th to the 21st, the animal lived in the vapour without presenting any signs of distress or danger. The only peculiarity was, that her craving for food increased, and that she devoured ravenously all vegetable matter. On the evening of the 21st she was removed from the chamber. She was warm and lively. A little blood drawn from her nose was rather more dusky than natural; and the corpuscles were irregular in form, some being serrated at the edge, others many-sided. They continued for a long time in motion between the glasses, and their force of aggregation was feeble. The blood coagulated in two minutes.
The animal was again placed in the chamber. The times of supplying the ammonia were made the same; but the amount of ammonia supplied was increased doubly. At first the vapour excited some irritation of the nostrils, but this effect soon wore off.
On January 23rd, the animal became restless, and her breathing was quick and feeble. She took her food ravenously, and seemed as if she wished to be constantly eating ; the instinctive desire for vegetable food was predominant. The blood, examined day by day, showed further modification of the corpuscles. A perfect corpuscle was not to be met with. The blood rather dried on the glass than coagulated ; and the fibrous net-work was scantily developed. The experiment was rigidly carried on for several days: the ravenous appetite continued, the animal slept well, and there was little variation in the other signs until January 30th. At this date she became very feeble; she reclined on the side in part, and was for the first time unusually sensitive to sounds. The merest noise, a scratch on the side of the chamber, or any rustling sound, at once startled her and made her uneasy, This day she refused milk, but sought more ravenously after green food. In the evening of this day her sight also must have become disturbed ; for when food was put into the chamber, instead of going to it at once in her usual way, she sought about for it, without being able to find it. When it was placed under her nose, she ate cabbage leaf with great eagerness. Left quiet, but watched at a little distance, she was seen to recline a little on the left side, and to remain for several hours in a half comatose
state with the ears involuntarily twitching, the limbs occasionally starting, and the breathing sharp and spasmodic, as in singultus. On removing her from the box, the tongue was found dry, the breathing hurried, and the heart-beat feeble, quick, and irregular. When the hand was placed over the back, all the muscles were felt to be tremulous, and now and then the body was momentarily drawn up by a feeble spasmodic movement.
The blood-corpuscles were now so much modified, that it seemed a marvel how the animal could exist. On the ammonia vapour being removed, however, the serious symptoms quickly passed off. The ammonia was given less frequently, but was occasionally repeated in full dose for two or three days, and always with a repetition of the same train of symptoms. Once I carried on the administration till complete coma was produced, and afterwards exposed the animal freely to air. At the end of two hours the signs of recovery commenced.
On February 28th, the administration was altogether withdrawn, and the animal was allowed to run about as usual. The desire for food, especially for green food, was most extraordinary. In a week she seemed as lively and as well as ever, but the bloodcorpuscles did not lose their irregularity for several weeks. It was as curious as instructive to watch the process of repair in those little floating cells. Their restoration was coincident with, if not dependent on, a restoration of the plasticity of the liquor sanguinis. Towards the end of April, but not until then, the