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The manufactures of Moravia are second only to those of the Viennese district.

The Polish Countries of the Austrian Empire.

198. These consist of the single government of the kingdom of Galicia, which formed part of the extinct kingdom of Poland. It chiefly consists of a succession of plains, bordered on the south by the Carpathian mountains. The climate is temperate; but agriculture is backward, and, generally, the industry of the country is depressed.

The Hungarian Countries of the Austrian Empire.

199. The Kingdom of Hungary is bounded on the north by Moravia, Silesia, and Galicia; south, by the military frontier, which divides it from Turkey; east, by Transylvania; and west, by Illyria, Styria, Lower Austria, and Moravia. Its frontier is formed by the Carpathian mountains and branches of the Alps. The chief Hungarian affluents of the Danube are the Inn, Drave, Save, and Theiss. The two principal lakes are the Balaton Tava and the Ferto Tava. An extensive portion of the interior consists of vast plains, called puszta, once the bed of some inland sea. These plains are divided into two great portions, by a ridge of hills running south-west and north-east. Nearly half the kingdom is occupied by marshes, mountains, sandy plains, and other uncultivated tracts. The natural pastures are good; they are grazed by vast herds of flocks of moderate quality. The horses, though small, are swift and active. The banks of the rivers are frequented by

immense flocks of ducks and wild fowl. The northern part of Hungary is rich in minerals of various kinds: gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, and other metals; and various precious stones, as garnets and the opal. Throughout Hungary agriculture is in a rude state generally, and manufactures are yet in their infancy.

200. Slavonia is a long narrow peninsula between the Save and the Drave. Croatia consists of ranges of mountains, with narrow intervening valleys. Transylvania, south-east of Hungary, consists of alternate tracts of mountains and valleys, which are exposed to many changes of temperature. Its products are not dissimilar from those specified above. The Military Frontier is a long and narrow tract of country, extending from the Bukowine in the east to the shores of the Adriatic on the west. The climate and state of agriculture resemble those of the adjacent provinces. The kingdom of Dalmatia and Albania consists of a long narrow tract of mountainous country, and a number of large islands along the northeastern coast of the Adriatic.

201. Produce, Manufactures, and Commerce.-Under this head we have only a few general observations to add to the foregoing. The extent of mineral produce in the Austrian empire is very great. Some of the mountains in Styria and Carinthia are almost solid masses of carbonate of iron; but the comparative want of fuel checks the process of smelting. Vast mines of rock-salt extend with little interruption from Moldavia to Swabia. The forests of Austria are very extensive. The vine is much cultivated in the central parts of the empire; but the export of wine is small, being chiefly confined to Tokay, a wine raised on one of the Carpathian chains. The manufacturing establishments of Austria are numerous and progressive, but small; and little is exported: but the export

of hides is considerable; and cheap paper and glass are extensively manufactured. Austria, being an inland country with only very limited access to the sea, labours under great commercial disadvantages: its chief port is Trieste, on the Gulph of Venice.

202. Government and Institutions.-The Emperor is theoretically absolute, except in Hungary and Transylvania; but most parts of the empire enjoy their local laws and customs. Hungary is a feudal kingdom, whose crown is at present vested in the Emperor of Austria: the states of Hungary enjoy a considerable amount of rude freedom. The three classes of nobles, citizens, and peasants are strictly defined in all the Austrian provinces. As every province forms a separate land, each has its peculiar language or dialect, and its local usages. A jealous system of education, over which the clergy have not their due control, is administered by the secular power. There are numerous schools, gymnasia, and universities; but education is not compulsory. The whole empire is divided into twelve military provinces; whose respective head-quarters are Vienna, Gratz, Prague, Brunn, Lemberg, Buda, Verona, Peterwardein, Agram, Temeswar, Hermanstadt, and Zara.

203. Governments and Chief Towns.-The empire is divided into 15 governments. The capital is Vienna: lat. 48° N.; long. 16° E.: population, about 360,000.

LOWER AUSTRIA.-Vienna, Neusadt.

UPPER AUSTRIA.-Lintz, Steyer, Salzburg. TYROL.-Innspruck; Trent, where a celebrated council (not œcumenical) sat between 1542 and 1563; Brixen. STYRIA.-Gratz.

CARINTHIA AND CARNIOLA.-Laybach, Clagenfurth. TRIESTE.-Trieste, one of the most important ports on the Mediterranean.

KINGDOM OF BOHEMIA.-Prague; Carsbad and Toplitz, celebrated for their baths.

MORAVIA AND SILESIA.-Brunn, Austerlitz, Olmütz, Iglau, Troppau.

KINGDOM OF GALICIA.-Lemberg; Brody, chiefly inhabited by Jews; Drochobicz.

KINGDOM OF HUNGARY.-Buda, Pesth, Presburg, Fiume.

TRANSYLVANIA. Klausenburg, Hermanstadt, Kronstadt. MILITARY FRONTIER.-Peterwardein, Semlin.

KINGDOM OF DALMATIA.-Zara, Spalatro.

KINGDOM OF VENICE.-Venice.

KINGDOM OF LOMBARDY.-Milan.

SECTION IX.

PRUSSIA.

204. Situation and Boundaries.—This kingdom consists of several detached portions, separated at wide intervals by other states. It lies between 49° and 56° N. lat., and 60° and 23° E. long.; and its whole area is about 107,894 square miles English. Population, 14,098,125. It is bounded on the north by the Baltic, Mecklenburg, Denmark, and Hanover; south, by Austria, Saxony, Bavaria, and Hessia; east, by Russia; west, by France, Belgium, and Holland.

205. General Description of the Country.-The western detached portion lies along both sides of the Lower Rhine; the eastern is a part of the vast sandy plain which extends from the North Sea to the Oural Mountains. Pomerania has been chiefly redeemed from the sea. The Baltic is the only sea that washes the Prussian coasts. The chief gulphs are the Gulphs of Danzig and Frische-haf, at the mouth of the Vistula; the Curische-haf, at the mouth of the Niemen; and the Stettiner-haf, at the mouth of the Oder. The principal rivers are the Vistula and Oder, flowing into the Baltic; the Elbe,

Ems, and Rhine, into the German Ocean; the Pregel, into the Frische-haf; and the Niemen or Memel, into the Curische-haf. Large lakes and morasses are exceedingly numerous, especially in East Prussia and Brandenburg. The climate is generally temperate, especially in the central and western provinces; but on the borders of the Baltic the winters are severely cold, and in the sandy plains the heats of summer are very oppressive.

206. Produce, Manufactures, and Commerce.-Three-fourths of the inhabitants are engaged in the cultivation of the soil: the chief products are corn and flax. The breeding and fattening of cattle is also a productive branch of rural economy. Fine wool is largely exported from Brandenburg, Saxony, and Silesia. The province of Westphalia enjoys a high reputation for its swine. Prussia possesses numerous minerals; but the mines are not worked to the extent of their capabilities. Amber is found in large quantities in Prussia Proper. The principal manufactures are linens, cloths, woollens, silks, and iron wares. The great manufacturing district is along the valley of the Wupper, about the towns of Elberfeld and Solingen. Commerce is increasing. The principal ports are Danzig, Königsberg, Elbing, Memel, Stralsund, Colberg, Rugenwald, Stolpe, Barth, Swinemund, and Wolgast. The principal trading towns in the interior are Berlin, Elberfeld, Breslau, Cologne, Frankfort, Aachen (Aix-la-Chapelle), Coblentz, Posen, and several others.

207. Government and Institutions.-The government is an unlimited monarchy: the administration is vested in a Council of State, of which a Chancellor is president. The military force is great the ranks of the army are supplied by conscription and ballot. Prussia has no maritime power. Elementary instruction is widely diffused, by means of a compulsory system administered by the Minister of Public Instruction and subordinate officers. There are seven universities; viz. at Berlin, Breslaw, Halle, Bonn, Königsberg, Munster, and Greifswald.

208. Political Divisions and Chief Towns.-Prussia is di

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