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vided into 8 provinces, which are subdivided into 25 regencies, and these again into 328 circles. The capital is Berlin: lat. 52° 32′ N.; long. 13° 23′ E.: population, 236,830.

BRANDENBURG.-Berlin, Potsdam, Brandenburg, Prenzlau,


POMERANIA.-Stettin, Stralsund.

SAXONY.-Magdeburg, Halberstadt, Burg, Quedlinburg, Halle, Naumburg, Erfurt, Muhlhausen, Nordhausen.

SILESIA. Breslau, Brieg, Neisse, Görlitz, Gross-Glogau, Liegnitz.


PRUSSIA PROPER.-Königsberg, Tilsit, Danzig, Elbing, Marienwerder.


CLEVES-BERG, or the RHENISH PROVINCES.-Köln (Cologne), Bonn, Dusseldorf, Barmen, Elberfeld, Krefeld, Coblentz, Treves, Aachen (Aix-la-Chapelle).



209. Situation and Boundaries.-Denmark consists of the peninsula of Jutland, with the islands of Zealand, Funen, &c.; and lies between 53° 20′ and 57° 44′ N. lat., and 8° and 15° 28′ E. long. Its greatest length is 300 miles; its greatest breadth 180; its area about 22,000 square miles. Population, 2,025,000. It is bounded on the north by the Skager-Rack and Cattegat; south, by the Elbe; east, by the Baltic and the Sound; west, by the German Ocean.

210. General Description of the Country.Denmark is an almost uniformly level country. Much of it is insular. The continental portion is a long

narrow peninsula, projected from Germany, and terminating in the Skaw. The straits which divide the islands present a difficult and dangerous navigation. The Sound lies between Zealand and Sweden; the Great Belt, between Zealand and Funen; the Little Belt, between Funen and Jutland. Cape Skaw projects from the northern extremity of Jutland. The principal islands of Denmark are Zealand, Funen, Laaland, Falster, Moen, Langeland, Femern, Bornholm, Anholt, and many others, in the Baltic; Fano, Romo, Heligoland, and others, in the North Sea; and the Färoe islands, in the Atlantic, twenty-two in number, of which seventeen are inhabited. The principal river is the Eyder, which falls into the North Sea below Tonningen. The climate of Denmark, notwithstanding its northern latitude, is milder than might be expected; but the sky is foggy, spring and summer are variable, winter is stormy, and autumn is of short duration.

211. Produce, Manufactures, and Commerce.-The constant humidity is favourable to vegetation, but the storms are injurious to the growth of forest trees. The larger wild animals have disappeared, but game is very abundant. Domestic animals-horses, cattle, fowl, swine,-form the principal wealth of Denmark, which is essentially an agricultural country. The Danes have made very little progress in manufactures; but their country is favourably situated for trade, and their commerce is advancing in prosperity. The principal trading towns are Copenhagen, Altona, Elsinore, Flensborg, Aarhuus, Kiel, Rendsborg, Tonningen, and Glückstadt. The canal of Kiel is a valuable means of internal communication. A railway from Altona to Kiel has been projected.

212. Government and Institutions.-The government was made an absolute monarchy in 1660; but in 1834 the King granted his people a free constitution. The schools of Denmark are very numerous; but the intellectual and moral condition of

the Danes is depressed. The universities are those of Copenhagen and Kiel. Denmark is distributed into three military divisions: the war navy is small, but respectable; and the merchant navy is flourishing.

213. Provinces and Chief Towns.-Denmark is divided into four great provinces, each of which is subdivided into bailiewicks and smaller districts. Copenhagen, the capital, is situated in 55° 41′ N. lat., and 12° 36′ E. long. Population in 1834 was 119,292.

KINGDOM OF DENMARK.-Copenhagen, Roskild, Helsingor (Elsinore), Aarhuus.

DUCHY OF SCHLESWIG.-Schleswig, Flensborg.

DUCHY OF HOLSTEIN.-Glückstadt, Kiel, Altona.

214. Foreign Possessions.-Iceland; the west coast of Greenland; the islands of Santa Cruz, St. Thomas, and St. John, in the West Indies; portions of the coast of Guinea; Serampore and Tranquebar, in India. Heligoland belongs to Great Britain.



215. Situation and Boundaries.—Sweden and Norway form the Scandinavian peninsula. Physically they are one region, but politically two independent kingdoms. The peninsula lies between 55° and 71° N. lat., and 4° and 32° E. long. Its greatest length is 1190 miles; its greatest breadth 470. Area of Sweden, 170,240 square miles; of Norway, 122,460. It is bounded north by the Northern Ocean; south, by the Baltic, Cattegat, and Scaggerack; east, by Russian Lapland, Gulph of Bothnia, and the Baltic; west, by the North

Sea and Northern Atlantic Ocean. Population of Sweden, 3,109,772; of Norway, 1,150,000.

216. General Description of the Country.-The coast of Sweden is irregular in its outline, and much indented with small bays: in Norway immense fiords penetrate the country in all directions. The surface of Scandinavia is very mountainous, especially in Norway; but the more southern parts of Sweden are low and flat. The chief mountains are the Langefeld, between Aggerhuus and Bergen; and the Dovrefeld and Kolen mountains, between Norway and Sweden. Among the larger bays are West Fiord and Drontheim Bay, on the west; Christiana Bay, on the south. The Moskoeström (Malstrom), near the southern extremity of the Lofoden Islands, is a dangerous whirlpool, caused by the rushing of the tide among these islands, and the great inequalities of the bottom. Nordkun is the most northerly cape of continental Europe. North Cape, the most northerly point of all, projects from the island of Mageroe. The Naze is the most southerly point of Norway. The chief islands are Gothland and Oland, in the Baltic; the Lofoden and Lofoden-Mageroe groups, in the ocean. The Glommen is the largest river of Norway; it falls into the Scaggerack after a course of 400 miles. The Tornea falls into the Gulph of Bothnia; the Mottala into the Baltic; the Gotha into the Cattegat; the Drammen into the Christiana Fiord; the Tana, which forms the northeastern boundary between Norway and Russia, into the Tana Fiord. The lakes are very numerous, and Sweden contains three of the largest class: the Wener, 90 miles long by 36 broad, covering an

area of 2136 square miles; the Wetter, containing 830 square miles; and the Mälar, crowded with innumerable islands. The climate of Sweden is very severe; that of Norway less so. The extremes of heat and cold are violent, and the change from winter to summer is very rapid. The air of Sweden is generally dry and salubrious; that of Norway is more moist and changeable, and less healthy.

217. Produce, Manufactures, and Commerce.-The mines of Sweden are a principal source of her wealth: those of iron are the most extensive and rich. All the mountains of Norway, and especially those of the south, contain a great number of minerals and metals, among which may be mentioned gold, silver, iron, copper, and cobalt. The soil is poor: the forests are of great extent, consisting chiefly of beech, oak, fir, and birch. The domesticated animals are chiefly reindeer, horses, beeves, goats, sheep, and swine. The agriculture of Sweden is increasing; in Norway cultivation is chiefly confined to the valleys. The fisheries are very extensive and valuable, especially in Nordland and Finmark. The manufactures are insignificant. The commerce of Sweden is depressed: that of Norway is more flourishing; its exports are timber and fish. Sweden possesses several useful canals; but there are neither canals nor railroads in Norway.

218. Government and Institutions.—The government of Sweden is a limited monarchy, hereditary in the male line. The principal executive body is the Council of State. The legislative power is vested conjointly in the King and a diet of four chambers, elected by the nobles, clergy, burghers, and peasants. Although Norway is under the same crown as Sweden, its constitution is very different. The executive power is exercised by a Viceroy and a Council of State; but the legislative power resides in an elected body called the Stor-thing, or Great Court. Elementary instruction is very generally diffused; and there are universities at Upsal, Lund, and Christiana.

219. Political Divisions and Chief Towns.-Sweden is divided into three regions-Norland, Svealand, and Gothland. These are subdivided into 24 lans, or governments; and these

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