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ruin. The recent confiscation of Church property, for the use of the state, has exasperated the evils it was intended to


229. The government of Portugal was originally a monarchy; but this country has been agitated by political convulsions no less than Spain. The present constitution was devised in 1820; and Portugal is now little better than a democratic republic, with an hereditary chief magistrate, exercising limited powers of royalty, under the counsel of responsible ministers. As regards its social condition, this country is backward and ill-organised in all respects. The Church has been unduly depressed; her revenues have been sacrilegiously confiscated; and infidelity has superseded religion.

230. Provinces and Chief Towns of Spain. - Spain is divided into 14 provinces. Madrid, the capital, is in 40° 25' N. lat. and 3° 38′ W. long. Population, about 170,000.

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231. Provinces and Chief Towns of Portugal.-Portugal is divided into 6 provinces. lat. and 9° 6' W. long.


Lisbon, the capital, is in 38° 42′ N. Population, about 250,000.







Chief Towns.

Oporto, Braga.

Villa Real, Braganza.

Coimbra, Lamego.

Lisbon, Setubal.

Evora, Elvas.

Faro, Lagos, Tavira.

232. Foreign Possessions of Portugal.-The Azores, in the Atlantic, 9 in number; of which San Miguel and Terceira are the chief. Madeira, off the north-west coast of Africa, whose capital is Funchal.



233. Situation and Boundaries.-Italy lies between 36° and 47° N. lat., and 5° and 19° E. long. It consists of two distinct portions: a continental peninsula, whose greatest length is about 700 miles, whose breadth (which varies greatly) averages 100 miles; and the islands of Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, together with several smaller islands. Total area, 123,000 square miles. Population, upwards of 20 millions. Italy is bounded on the north by Austria and Switzerland; west, by France and the Mediterranean; south, by the Mediterranean; east, by the Adriatic.

234. General Description of the Country.-The northern border of Italy is formed by the Alps. Between the Alps and the Apennines, in northern Italy, lies the great plain of Lombardy, traversed by the Po, and gradually sinking towards the east to a fertile level terminating in a low sandy shore. Apennines, in their progress southward and along the Gulph of Genoa, inclose many narrow valleys, but leave in some places spacious plains. The principal gulphs of Italy are those of Genoa, Gaeta,


Naples, Salerno, Policastro, and St. Eufemia, on the west; Squillace and Taranto, on the south; Manfredonia, Venice, and Trieste, on the east. The straits are that of Bonifacio, between Corsica and Sardinia; of Messina, between Italy and Sicily; and of Otranto, between Italy and Turkey. To the above-mentioned islands must be added Elba, between Corsica and Tuscany; the Lipari Isles, north of Sicily; and Malta (under Great Britain), south of Sicily. The Po is the largest river of Italy, and has numerous affluents. The other chief rivers are the Arno and the Tiber, both fed by many tributary streams. Italy is a well-watered country throughout. Its lakes are numerous, the principal being Lake Maggiore, Lake of Lugano, Lake of Garda, Lake of Perugia, Lake of Albano, Lake of Como, and Lake Averno. The Pontine Marshes, between Rome and Naples, though still insalubrious at certain seasons, have been considerably drained, and form a luxuriant pasturage for cattle. In consequence of its extent of latitude, mountainous and broken surface, and proximity to the sea, Italy has great varieties of climate. Besides this, it may be divided into four regions, passing from cold to sultry: Lombardy; Tuscany, the Papal States, and the northern part of the kingdom of Naples; central Naples; Calabria, Sicily, and the Lipari Isles. The clear blue sky of Italy gives a deceitful beauty to the landscape; but malaria, the Sirocco, and rapid and extensive changes of temperature render this country very insalubrious.

235. Produce, Manufactures, and Commerce.-Lombardy is extremely fertile: the soil is naturally rich, and is well

watered upon a regular system. Silk is much cultivated in the north. The rice districts are valuable, but unhealthy. The Genoese territory yields the olive in abundance. The crops of Tuscany are considerable, especially in the valley of the Arno. Agriculture is generally backward in the Roman States. In the kingdom of Naples, the cultivation of the olive, the mulberry, and the vine is advantageously combined with arable industry. The plains of Apulia are devoted to pasturage. The minerals of Italy are of small amount: the most important are the rich iron mines of Elba. Several districts yield statuary marble. The fisheries contribute largely to the food of Italy: the principal are those of the tunny and the anchovy. The manufactures of Italy are comparatively unimportant: yet those of Lombardy and Venice are extensive; especially that of silk. The commerce of Genoa is active and valuable. The roads throughout northern and central Italy are generally good; and Lombardy abounds with canals.

236. Government and Institutions.-Italy is divided into 9 sovereign states; in all of which, the republic of San Marino excepted, the government is vested in an absolute monarch. The sovereignty of the States of the Roman Church is held by the Pope; who is elected for life by the college, of cardinals, out of their own body. The Pope unites in his own person two distinct offices; he is Bishop and Patriarch of Rome, and temporal sovereign of the States of the Roman Church. The patriarchate of Rome does not legitimately extend beyond the limits of Italy and the adjacent islands. The universities and academies of Italy are numerous: as are also its libraries, museums, and institutions for promoting the fine arts.

237. Political Divisions and Chief Towns.-1. KINGDOM OF LOMBARDY AND VENICE: Milan, Pavia, Mantua, and Cremona; Venice, Verona, Padua, and Brescia.–2. KINGDOM OF SARDINIA: Turin, Genoa, Cagliari, Nice, and Chamberry.3. KINGDOM OF NAPLES, OR KINGDOM OF THE TWO SIOILIES : Naples, Palermo, Messina, and Catania.-4. GRAND DUCHY OF TUSCANY: Florence, Leghorn, and Pisa.-5. DUCHY OF PARMA: Parma.-6. DUCHY OF MODENA: Modena.-7. DUCHY OF LUCCA: Lucca.-8. STATES OF THE ROMAN CHURCH: Rome, once the mistress of the world, now the metropolis of the papal domination; situate on the banks of the Tiber.9. REPUBLIC OF SAN MARINO: San Marino.

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