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238. Situation and Boundaries.-Turkey in Europe lies between 39° and 48° N. lat., and 16° and 30° E. long. Its greatest length, from E. to W., is about 700 miles; its greatest breadth, from N. to S., about 650 miles. Area, nearly 180,000 square English miles. Population, about 12,180,000. Turkey is bounded on the north by Austria and Russia; west, by Dalmatia and the Gulph of Venice; south, by Greece and the Archipelago; east, by the Dardanelles, Sea of Marmora, Straits of Constantinople, and the Black Sea.

239. General Description of the Country.-Between the Danube and the northern frontier of Greece, the general surface of Turkey consists of a series of mountain ranges, of which the Balkans are the chief, inclosing high valleys and undulating table-lands. A narrow strip of lowland skirts the seacoasts. North of the Danube, the country sinks into a plain, which stretches north-eastward to the frontiers of Russia and the Carpathians, and includes Wallachia and Moldavia. The principal seas, gulphs, and circumjacent waters of Turkey are the Black Sea, or Euxine Sea of the Latins; the Thracian Bosphorus, or Channel of Constantinople; the Sea of Marmora, anciently called Propontis; the Hellespont, or Channel of the Dardanelles; the Archipelago, or Ægean Sea; and the Gulph of Arta, or Ambracian Gulf; with a few inferior gulphs in the Ionian and Adriatic Seas.

The capes are unimportant: but the ancient promontory of Actium, at the entrance of the Gulph of Arta, is celebrated as overlooking the site of the important battle of Actium, between Cæsar Octavianus and Mark Antony, B. c. 29. The island of Candia, the ancient Crete, belongs to Turkey. The Archipelago is thickly studded with islands; the chief of which are Imbro, Samothraki, and Lemnos. The Danube receives several affluents from Turkey. The Maritza drains the plain of Adrianople. The Salambria, or ancient Peneus, drains the celebrated vale of Thessaly. The lakes of Turkey are unimportant. The climate is various; changing with the locality, and much affected by the direction of the winds. At Constantinople, a north wind brings the cold of Russia; while a southern wind restores the balmy atmosphere of Greece.

240. Produce, Manufactures, and Commerce.-In Croatia, Bosnia, and the adjoining provinces, the mountains are covered with forests of oak and elm. Wallachia abounds in fruit-trees: these disappear towards the south, and are replaced by the olive. The vine is general; but the richest grapes grow on the coasts of the Archipelago. In Thessaly, the garden of European Turkey, oil, wine, cotton, tobacco, figs, citrons, pomegranates, oranges, lemons, and other fruits, grow to perfection. The Thessalian horses are a superior breed. The cattle of Wallachia are large and strong. Sheep are numerous. Although Turkey is not a manufacturing country, some of its articles are superior; as the carpets of Anatolia, the silks and muslins of Constantinople, and the velvets, crapes, cambrics, and finer cottons of these and other towns and districts. The commerce between Turkey and England is very considerable. There are neither canals nor railroads in Turkey.

241. Government and Religion.-The government is an absolute monarchy, vested in a Padishah or Emperor; who is also Khalif, or Vicar of the prophet Mohammed. He also bears the title of Sultan; and is generally designated Grand

Signior by Europeans. The imperial court is often termed the Sublime Porte. The council of ministers is called the Divan. The Khalif delegates his religious administration to the Grand Mufti; an important personage, always chosen from the Ulema, which consists of the ministers of religion and the lawyers: the religion and law of the Moslem being both founded on the Koran, or pretended revelation made to the false prophet Mohammed or Mahomet.

242. Political Divisions and Chief Towns.-Turkey is divided, for administrative purposes, into four eyalets. It embraces nine provinces: Roumelia, including the ancient Macedonia and Thrace; Thessaly; Albania; Herzegowina; Bosnia and Turkish Croatia; Servia; Bulgaria; Wallachia; and Moldavia. The capital is Constantinople, called by the Turks Stamboul; situated at the southern entrance of the Thracian Bosphorus, in lat. 41° 1′ N., and long. 28° 55′ E. The other chief towns are Adrianople, in Roumelia; Bucharest, in Wallachia; Jassy, in Moldavia; Belgrade, in Servia; Janina, in Albania.



243. Situation and Boundaries.-Greece is situated between 36° 15′ and 39° 10′ N. lat., and 20° 40′ and 26° 3′ E. long. Its extent from N. to S. is 180 miles; and from E. to W., including all the islands, 300 miles. Area, about 20,000 square English miles. Population, 926,000. Greece is bounded on the north by Turkey; west and south, by the Mediterranean; east, by the Archipelago.

244. General Description of the Country.-The kingdom of Greece consists of Hellas Proper, the Morea, and the Islands. Hellas is a long tract of

hilly country; the mountains being so arranged as to enclose large basins, calculated to become the seats of small communities, such as were the States of ancient Greece. Eastern Greece is connected with the Morea by the Isthmus of Corinth. The Morea consists of the elevated central valley of Arcadia, and the five following maritime regions: Argolis, Laconia, Messenia, Elis, and Achaia. The principal islands are Negropont, Skyro, Ipsara, Egina, Salamis, and the Cyclades. The principal gulphs are those of Lepanto or Corinth, between the Morea and Hellas; of Egina, between Attica and Argolis; of Kolokythi and Koroni, on the south coast of the Morea. The largest river is the Aspropotamos, or ancient Achelous. The ancient Cephissus and Ilissus flow through the plain of Athens into the Gulph of Egina. The Eurstas falls into the Gulph of Kolokythi; and the Alpheus, after draining the south-western part of Arcadia, into the Gulph of Arcadia. These rivers are unimportant in size, and not navigable; but derive their interest from classical associations. The principal lake is that of Topolias, anciently Copais, in Western Boeotia. The mountains are a continuation of the Julian Alps: the principal chain is that of Pindus. Mounts Parnassus, Helicon, Olympus, and others, are classically famous. The numerous mountains of Greece-breaking up the country by their romantic heights and sheltering fertile plains; together with its great comparative extent of seacoast, with numerous headlands and bays,-render this land one of singular beauty: to which a very mild though variable climate, and a serene sky, impart additional charms.

245. Produce, Manufactures, and Commerce.-The crops of wheat and barley are very abundant. Attica yields olives and honey, as of old. The melons and gourds of Greece are excellent. This is eminently a pastoral country: the flocks of Arcadia are among the best. Manufactures are comparatively

unknown; but commerce thrives.

246. Government.-Greece formed a part of the Turkish empire until 1821. In 1832 it was formed into a kingdom, under Otho, a Bavarian prince. In 1834 Athens was declared the capital.

247. Political Divisions and Chief Towns.-Greece was divided in 1833 into ten nomarchies. The chief towns are Athens, Nauplia, Patras, Egripo, Hydra, and Spezzia.



248. The Ionian Isles form a sovereign State, under the government of a High Commission, appointed by the sovereign of Great Britain. It consists of seven principal islands, and several smaller ones adjacent, lying along the western and southern coasts of Greece. The principal islands (with their ancient names) are Corfu (Corcyra Phœacia), Kephalonia (Kephalonia), Zante (Zacynthus), Santa Maura (Leucadia), Kerigo (Cythera), Thiaki (Ithaca), and Paxo (Paxus). Corfu is the seat of government. Agriculture is very backward; the chief product is the olive: Zante is famed for currants; Kephalonia for grapes.

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