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tary; west, by Turkey in Asia; south, by the Persian Gulph; and east, by Affghanistan.

270. General Description.-The name Persia is generally applied by European geographers to the wide region which extends from the basin of the Euphrates and Tigris, eastward to the Indus; and from the Indian Ocean, northward to the borders of Turkestan and the Caspian Sea. This region is now politically divided into the Kingdom of Iran, or Persia Proper; Affghanistan, or the Kingdom of Cabul; and Beloochistan. We shall here describe Iran. Low sandy plains lie along the shores of the Persian Gulph. Along the shores of the Caspian there is a similar narrow tract; but profuse in vegetation, though insalubrious. Between these two narrow lowland belts lies an extensive desert tableland, traversed by ranges of mountains. The deserts of Persia are saline, and entirely destitute of trees. The rivers are few and unimportant. The islands are Kishma and Karak, in the Persian Gulph; and Ormus, at its entrance.

271. Produce, Manufactures, and Commerce.-The great mass of the fixed inhabitants are engaged in agriculture and manufactures; the nomadic tribes are herdsmen and shepherds. Wheat and rice are the chief agricultural produce. The Iranee or Persians have a natural talent for the mechanical arts: they excel in the manufacture of sabres, shawls, carpets, and brocades. The principal commercial towns are Tabriz, Ispahan, Shiraz, and others. The principal port on the Persian Gulph is Bushire; those on the Caspian are Enzillee and Balfrosh.

272. Government and Religion.-The government of Persia is despotic. The Shah is regarded as the vicegerent of the prophet; and, as such, is entitled to implicit obedience. His two principal ministers are the Grand Vizier and the Lord High Treasurer. The Persians are Mohammedans of the sect called Schiites.

273. Political Divisions and Chief Towns.-Persia is divided into eleven provinces:-IRAK-ADJEMI, the ancient Media, whose chief towns are Teheran, the residence of the Shah, and Ispahan, formerly the capital of Persia; MAZANDERAN, Sari and Balfrosh; GHILAN, Reshd; ADZERBIJAN, Tabriz and Khor; KOORDISTAN, Kermanshah; KUZISTAN, Dezphoul and Shuster; FARS, Bushire and Shiraz; KERMAN, Kerman; KHORASSAN, Meshed and Yezd; LARISTAN, Lars; KOHISTAN, Bunpoor.



274. Situation and Boundaries.-Affghanistan is situated between 25° and 37° N. lat., and between 58° and 72° E. long. Its length, from north to south, is 800 miles; its breadth, from east to west, 750 miles; its area, 400,000 square miles. Population, 6 millions. It is bounded on the north by Independent Tartary; west, by Persia; south, by the Indian Ocean; and east by Hindoostan.

275. General Description.-Affghanistan consists of high valleys and table-lands, separated by lofty mountains. The mountain chains render the climate for the most part temperate. In some places, however, the heat of summer is very great, particularly towards the sandy deserts of the south: the valleys are rich and luxuriant. The chief mountains are the Soliman Mountains, in the east; and the HindooKoosh and Gaur Mountains, in the north. The rivers are the Indus, flowing into the Arabian Sea; and the Helmund, falling into Lake Zurrah.

276. Produce, Manufactures, and Commerce.-Much of the soil is rich and productive; but agriculture is extremely rude. Manufactures in cotton, wool, and silk are domestic only; and the disturbed state of the country has put a stop to the large and valuable caravans which formerly carried the rich productions of India and Cashmere to Cabul and Herât.

277. Government and Chief Towns.-The Affghans are divided into numerous tribes, each governed by a Khan, upon the patriarchal model. The two principal tribes are the Dooranees and Ghiljees. The chief towns are Cabul, Candahar, Ghuznee, and Jelalabad.



278. General Description.-This country lies between Affghanistan on the north and the Indian Ocean on the south, and comprises an area of about 150,000 square miles. The greater part of the country is mountainous, and a large portion of it is entirely desert. The climate is generally healthy. Fruits and grain are abundant, but the soil is little cultivated. The people are divided into two distinct nations: the Beloochees, in the west; and the Brahoes, in the east. Kelat is the capital of the Beloochees: the Brahoes have no town of importance.



279. Situation and Boundaries.-India is situated between 7° and 35° N. lat., and 67° and 97° E. long. Its natural boundaries are well defined: on

the north, the gigantic range of the Himalayas; on the south-east and south-west, the Indian Ocean; on the north-west, the range of mountains beyond the Indus; on the east, the Bay of Bengal and the Eastern Peninsula. Its length, from Cape Comorin to the Himalaya Mountains, is 1800 miles; its breadth, from the borders of Beloochistan to the east of Bengal, 1500 miles. Area, 1,250,000 square English miles. Population, 141,000,000.

280. General Description.-Hindoostan is sometimes called the Western Peninsula, or India within the Ganges; while the Eastern Peninsula is called India beyond the Ganges. The Himalayas extend along the whole of the northern and north-eastern frontier of India. To the south of these mountainous and hilly regions extend the great plains of Hindoostan; which are watered by the Indus, the Ganges, the Brahmapootra, and their numerous affluents. These plains fall with a very gradual slope to the shores of the ocean, on the eastern and western sides of peninsular India. The southern part of India forms a large triangular peninsula projecting into the Indian Ocean. A range of lofty mountains called the Ghauts run along the western coast of this peninsula. One of the most remarkable regions of India is the Great Desert, comprising about an eighth part of its whole surface. The chief gulphs of India are those of Cutch and Cambay on the west, and the Bay of Bengal on the east. The following are the principal rivers: the Indus, with its numerous affluents, including the Lundye or Cabul River, the Chenab or Punjund, and the Suttlej; flowing into the Arabian Sea. The Ganges, with

the Hoogly, the Jumnah, and many other large tributary rivers; flowing into the Bay of Bengal. The Brahmapootra, Godavery, Kistna, and Cauvery also fall into the Bay of Bengal. The Nerbudda and Tuptee fall into the Gulph of Cambay. The Runn of Cutch is a very singular morass, containing about 6500 square miles. The principal islands of India are the Nicobar and Andaman Islands, in the Bay of Bengal; Ceylon (whose capital is Colombo), south of the Carnatic; the Laccadives and Maldives, west of the Malabar Coast. The climate of the low countries of India is tropical, and the year is divided into the dry and rainy seasons. But the summits of the mountains are clothed with perpetual snow; while the climate of the intermediate regions is temperate and delightful. The monsoons are the most remarkable peculiarity of the Indian climate.

281. Productions.-The more important vegetable productions of India are cotton, indigo, and sugar, with various grains and spices. The chief rice country is Bengal. In the eastern and southern provinces the fruits are chiefly tropical. Timber of all kinds is abundant. The banyan-tree is the most remarkable vegetable production of India. Elephants and camels are among the most useful animals. The minerals are diamonds, the sapphire, the ruby, and the topaz; and there is a rich pearl fishery on the western shore. The principal manufactures are fine muslins and calicoes (so named from Calicut, where they were first made), fine ivory, and works in metal. Indigo, silks, Cashmere shawls, aromatics, and drugs are among the chief exports.

282. Inhabitants.-Throughout the wide extent of India there is greater diversity of character and language, manners, customs, and occupations, among the natives, than is to be found in the whole of Europe. The country contains at least thirty distinct nations. The Brahminical Hindoos appear to have been at one time divided into four castes; but this division can hardly be said to exist at present. Those

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