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351. Rivers.-America abounds with rivers, some of which are the largest in the world. The principal of these are the St. Lawrence, in British America; the Missisippi, in the west of the United States, receiving the Missouri on the right, and the Ohio and Tennessee on the left; the Rio del Norte, in Mexico; the Columbia, in the Western Territory; and the Mackenzie, Coppermine, and Great Fish Rivers, in the Indian countries.

352. Lakes.-Among the more important lakes are the Great Slave Lake and Lake Winnipeg, in the Indian countries; Lakes Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie, and Ontario, between British America and the United States; and Lake Nicaragua, in Guatimala.

353. General Description.-There is a striking resemblance between North and South America. Both are broad in the north, and gradually contract as they advance towards the south, till they end, the one in a narrow isthmus, the other in a narrow promontory. Each has a lofty chain of mountains near its western coast, abounding in volcanoes, with a low ridge on the opposite side, destitute of any trace of volcanic agency; and each has one central plain, which declines to the north and south, and is watered by two gigantic streams. In their climate, however, and in their vegetable and animal productions, the two regions are very dissimilar.

354. North America may be divided into six regions:-1. The narrow region which separates the Gulph of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea from the Pacific Ocean, traversed throughout its whole length by ranges of mountains, which leave a narrow tract

of lowland along the seacoasts, while in certain portions of the interior they form elevated tablelands. 2. The maritime region, between the Pacific Ocean on the west, and the ridge of mountains which extends from Cape St. Lucas, in California, northwards to Alashka. 3. The elevated region, which forms a sort of table-land between the maritime region on the west, and the Rocky Mountains on the east. 4. The great central valley of the Missouri and the Missisippi, extending from the Rocky Mountains on the west, to the Alleghany or Appalachian Mountains on the east; and from the Gulph of Mexico northwards to 45° or 50° N. lat. 5. The eastern declivities of the Alleghany Mountains, and the maritime region extending thence to the shores of the Atlantic. 6. The great northern plain beyond 50° N. lat.; a bleak and desolate waste, abounding in lakes.

355. Countries.-North America includes Russian North America, British North America, the United States, Texas, Mexico, California, Yucatan, the United States of Central America, and the West Indies.



356. General Description.-This territory comprehends the north-western portion of the continent, covering an area of about 390,000 square miles. It is in the immediate possession of the Russian American Company. New Archangel is the capital.

The chief

The Russian dominion, however, over the vast solitudes of this region is merely nominal. occupation of the tribes is hunting fur-yielding animals.



357. This region comprises the Territories of the Hudson's Bay Company, Canada, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Honduras, and Newfoundland.


358. These include Labrador and East Maine, on the east side of Hudson's Bay; and New North Wales and New South Wales, on its west side; with the interior countries farther west, as far as the Arctic and Pacific Oceans and the Russian frontier. The Oregon Territory extends westward from the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific Ocean. By convention with Spain in 1817, its southern boundary was fixed at the parallel of 42° N. lat.; but the northern boundary is unsettled, and is a subject of dispute between Great Britain and the United States. Nearly the whole region is drained by the river Columbia. Fort Vancouver is the Company's principal depôt. The chief trade of these territories is in fur.


359. Situation.-Canada lies between 42° and 51° N. lat., and 61° and 81° W. long.; being about

1400 miles long, from east to west, and from 200 to 400 miles broad. Once divided into the provinces of Upper and Lower Canada, it is now one country for legislative purposes.

360. General Description.-Canada is intersected by mountainous ridges, which extend from the coast far into the interior; between these lie extensive valleys, which are generally fertile. From 45° N. lat., which is the boundary line between Canada and the United States, to the river Chaudiere, near Quebec, there is a tract of excellent and fertile land; which will probably become the most flourishing portion of the province. That portion of the country which lies between Lake Erie and Lake St. Clair is perhaps the most delightful part of Canada. The St. Lawrence, with its affluents, of which the Ottawa is the most important, is the chief river of Canada, and one of the largest rivers in the world. It traverses Lakes Superior, Huron, Erie, Ontario, and St. Clair. In its passage from Erie to Ontario, it forms the magnificent cataracts of Niagara.

361. Climate and Natural Productions.-The opposite extremes of heat and cold are felt in all their excess. The snowstorms and hurricanes are violent. The snow, when hardened by the frost, is easily and agreeably traversed by means of sledges, called carioles. The thaw, in April, is followed by an almost instantaneous summer. The greater portion of Canada is still covered with forests. Tobacco, hemp, and flax, the different kinds of grain and pulse, are successfully cultivated; and likewise all the common fruits and vegetables. There are numerous wild animals. Fish is found in the rivers and lakes

in great variety and abundance.

362. Commerce.-The chief exports of Canada are timber and furs: the former of these being chiefly promoted by artificial restrictions on the importation into Great Britain of the superior timber of the Baltic. The foreign trade of Canada

is carried on through the ports of Quebec, Montreal, St. John's, Coteau-du-lac, and Stanfield.

363. Government.-Canada was subject to France until 1759; when Quebec was taken by General Wolfe. It is now a colony of Great Britain, under the government of a governorgeneral appointed by the Crown, and assisted by a Council. The legislative assembly meets at Kingston in Upper Canada. The French Canadians preponderate in Lower Canada.

364. Divisions and Chief Towns.-Canada is divided into two provinces: Upper or Western Canada, and Lower or Eastern Canada. The chief towns of the former are Toronto and Kingston; of the latter, Quebec, Montreal, and Three Rivers.


365. General Description. This province is a compact territory of 27,700 square miles, lying between Canada and Nova Scotia. It is profusely watered by rivers. Timber and fish are the staple Frederickton is the capital.

articles of export.


366. General Description.-Nova Scotia is a peninsula, connected by a narrow isthmus with New Brunswick. Halifax and Sydney are the principal towns. Cape Breton is an island. Prince Edward's Island, whose capital is Charlotte-town, must be mentioned under this head. Honduras is situate on the eastern coast of Central America. The soil is capable of yielding most European as well as tropical products. Mahogany and logwood are its staple exports. Balize is the only town. Honduras is governed by a superintendent nominated by the Crown.

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