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396. General Description.-This country, which stretches along the Atlantic Ocean, is fifteen times as large as the kingdom of France. Nearly twothirds of the country consist of highlands and mountains: a very small proportion is under cultivation. Large and navigable rivers-the Amazon with its tributaries, the Parana, and others,-connecting the harbours with the interior of the country; high mountain ranges, vast marshy forests, and extensive plains are the striking features in the Brazilian landscape. A great portion of this vast region, which comprehends about two-fifths of South America, is extremely rich and fertile. Diamonds are the most celebrated natural production. Sugar, coffee, and cotton are the most valuable of the numerous vegetable productions. The manufactures are unimportant, but the commerce is extensive. Brazil, formerly a Portuguese colony, is now a constitutional hereditary monarchy. Rio Janeiro is the capital: Bahia is a fine city.



397. Divisions.-Guiana is the name of that wide region which lies between Orinoco and the river Amazon. More, however, than one-half of Guiana

is now included within the northern limits of Brazil; about a fourth, within the limits of Venezuela: the remainder is divided into three portions, named British, Dutch, and French Guiana.

398. British Guiana.-British Guiana is the most westerly of the three, and comprises the country watered by the rivers Essequibo, Demarara, and Berbice. The staple vegetable productions are sugar, coffee, and cotton. Georgetown is the capital.

399. Dutch Guiana.-Dutch Guiana extends along the coast from the river Corentyn, which separates it from Berbice in British Guiana, to the river Maroni, which divides it from Cayenne in French Guiana. Its principal river is the Surinam. Its capital is Paramaribo.

400. French Guiana.-French Guiana is the most easterly of the three colonies, and extends along the coast from the river Maroni to the river Oyapok, the boundary of the Brazilian territory. Cayenne is the capital.



401. General Description.-Patagonia is an extensive region, forming the southern extremity of the continent. It is little known to Europeans. The indigenous inhabitants are a tall and robust race: they possess no towns, but lead a wandering and unsettled life.





402. General Description.-Malaysia includes the numerous islands inhabited chiefly by people of the Malay race, immediately adjoining the southeastern coasts of Asia, and formerly called the Indian Archipelago. It is wholly situate within the tropics; and possesses the common characteristics of tropical countries, heat, moisture, and luxuriant vegetation. The islands are mountainous, and many are volcanic. They contain few plains, and no arid deserts. Where not cultivated, they are generally covered with stupendous forests. Unlike all other groups of islands, they are visited by periodical winds. Malaysia may be divided into six groups of islands: Sumatra and the smaller islands adjacent; the long chain of islands, including Java, extending east and west from the Strait of Sunda to New Guinea; the Banda and Molucca Islands; Celebes and the smaller adjacent islands; Borneo and the adjacent islands; and the Philippine Islands. The forms of government and religion are very various; ranging from anarchy to despotism, and from Fetishism to Islamism. While the negro races of the interior hardly rise above the level of the ourang and the chimpantzi, those on the coast are skilful mariners

and possess a considerable amount of rude civilization. The principal trading places are Batavia, Samarang, and Sourabaya, in Java; Rhio; Amboyna; Conpang, in Timor; Macassar, in Celebes; Manila, in Luzon; Borneo and Acheen, in Sumatra.



403. Divisions.-Australasia includes Australia or New Holland; Van Diemen's Land; New Zealand; Papua or New Guinea; New Britain, New Ireland, Solomon Islands, New Caledonia, New Hebrides, Queen Charlotte's Islands; Solomon's Archipelago; New Hanover; and Admiralty Isles; besides many smaller islands scattered over the intervening seas. We proceed to notice the principal of these more in detail.

404. AUSTRALIA.—Australia is a large and compact island, having an area of 3 millions of square English miles. The interior is almost wholly unknown. The Gulph of Carpentaria is a large expanse of sea on the north coast. Numerous islands line all the coasts. About one-third of Australia lies in the torrid zone; the remainder in the south temperate zone: the climate corresponds, but is extremely variable, yet generally salubrious. The vegetable and animal productions are very peculiar. The largest quadruped is the kangaroo. Horses, cattle, sheep, and swine, which have been introduced by European colonists, thrive abundantly. Insects

of every variety are innumerable. There are but few reptiles. Fish are plentiful. The Aborigines are among the most degraded of mankind. Most of the white inhabitants are of British origin. The chief British colonies are those of New South Wales, South Australia, Western Australia, and North Australia.

405. New South Wales occupies the south-eastern corner of the island. It is naturally divided into the region lying along the southern and eastern coasts, and a vast extent of inland plains, intersected by hills and rivers. The largest river is the Murray, which fertilizes a great extent of rich country. The lakes are small, but numerous. The grand staple products of this country are wool and whale-oil. This colony is a penal station for convicts. There are several towns, of which Sydney is the chief.

406. South Australia is a British province, whose colonists are, at present, chiefly engaged in pastoral and maritime pursuits. The south-eastern portion only has been explored. Adelaide is the capital; but Port Lincoln, a magnificent harbour, is vastly more eligible.

407. Western Australia lies in the south-western corner of the continent. Its most distinguishing features are three parallel ranges of primitive mountains. The country is generally better adapted for pasturage than agriculture. The principal colonial towns are Perth and Freemantle, on the Swan River; and Albany, on King George's Sound.

408. North Australia forms the northern part of the continent, extending westward from the Gulph of Carpentaria. The only settlement yet established

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