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sured that all mankind are one: one in origin, one in nature, one in destiny. Sin, it is true, has disordered this primal unity, degrading some of our race, as the Australian and the Bushman-Hottentot, to the apparent physical level of the orang and the chimpantzi; and stamping even the Grecian face, that illustrious type of humanity, with the over-bold profile and scornful expression which betray the earthly mark of heathenism.

106. But the Church is endowed with regenerative and re-incorporating powers. She acknowledges every human being as a "neighbour," and is prepared, under God, to reconstitute him a "brother." Reading, in the pure light of heaven, with the clear eye of faith-and as she reads her heart of love grows warm-the promises made to Adam's fallen race in and through Him who is both Son of God and Son of man, she labours on in her "vocation and ministry," until she shall embrace, in her capacious bosom, all whom the Father hath given to His Son; until there shall be "neither Greek nor Jew, circumcision nor uncircumcision, Barbarian, Scythian, bond nor free; but CHRIST shall be all and in all."

107. Families of Mankind.-In considering these, we shall begin with the inhabitants of Asia. The Caucasian family includes the mountaineers of the valleys of the Caucasus, the Georgians, the Mingrelians, the Armenians. Of these, the Armenians are by far the most energetic. The languages spoken by this family are very numerous. The second Asiatic family is the Arabian; which embraces all the aboriginal inhabitants of Palestine, Asia Minor, Syria, and Arabia, from the east coast of the Medi


terranean and Red Sea up to the west coast of the Persian Gulph. This family is inferior only to the European in intellectual vigour and civilization. The Persian family was early civilized, but has not been progressive. The large Turkish or Scythian family consists of the Scythians and Parthians of antiquity, and of the true Tartars and Turcomans, with the eastern and western Turks of the moderns, the Us becks, Tadjuks, and Kirgis. In the south-eastern angle of what is commonly considered to be Persia, and now known by the name of Beloochistan, we find three distinct families, the Belochees, the Brahoos, and the Dehwars. North of these, and beyond the north-east angle of Persia, we find the Affghans, a rude warlike family. Further east, amidst high mountains and narrow valleys, are numerous tribes, but little known, constituting what may be called the Dard family. Still travelling eastward, we arrive at that various aggregate of men known as the Hindoo family, consisting of not less than eighteen different races. The Hindoo-Chinese family includes thirty-two nations, with distinct languages; the chief of which are the Birmese, Aracanese, Peguans, Siamese, Cambojans, and Anans (comprising the Cochin-Chinese and Tonquinese). The Chinese family includes a very large portion of mankind; an unimaginative and stereotyped people, but practical and industrious. The Japanese family are remarkably independent. The Corean family, though physically superior both to the Chinese and Japanese, possess less mental energy and capacity. The country extending hence to the Frozen Ocean (occupying twothirds of the surface of Asia,) is inhabited by nume

rous families, (having a general resemblance, yet in many respects very different,) which are loosely classed together as Mongolian. The true Monguls have been an impetuous military people-a race of devastating conquerors.

108. The principal European families are the Iberian, including the Portuguese, Basques, and Spaniards; the Italian, which has produced such men as Cæsar and Cicero, as Dante, Raphael, Columbus, and Napoleon; the Greek, whose fame, in its eminent sons, is the echo of the world; the Turkish, an oriental and invading race; the Celts, inhabiting France, Belgium, a part of Switzerland, and a part of the British Isles; the German family, (the most enterprising of the whole human race,) embracing the Swedes, the Norwegians, the Danes, the Dutch, the Germans, (the Bohemians excepted,) and the great bulk of the Scotch and the English; the Sclavonic, including the Russians, Poles, Lithuanians, and others; the Finnish, comprising the Finns and the Laplanders; the Hungarians, who are not easily classed; while in the north-east we find a portion of the Mongolian family.

109. The African families are but little known. Not less than two hundred languages are spoken among them. The chief great varieties are the Hottentot, the Kaffer, the Abyssinian (a superior race), the Egyptian (represented by the Copts), the Numidian, the Nubian, and the Negro.

110. The natives of America are a very peculiar race of men. Notwithstanding the prodigious diversity of their languages, the Red Men, though ranging over an immense extent of country, exhibit

very few and trifling differences. They are, in many respects, an interesting people, but seem to be incapable of permanent civilization. The Jesuits in Paraguay wrought many beneficial changes among them; but these never struck root into the native character of the American Indians, who seem destined to recede and disappear before the invasions of the European families.





111. Situation and Limits.-Europe forms the north-west portion of the old continent; having Asia on its east, and partly on its south border; Africa, separated from it by the Mediterranean, on the south; the Atlantic Ocean, separating it from America, on the west; and the Arctic Ocean on the north. It is separated from Asia by the Oural Mountains, Oural River, Caspian Sea, Caucasus Mountains, Black Sea, Sea of Marmora, and Archipelago.

112. The continent of Europe, exclusive of its

islands, lies between 36° and 71° N. lat., and 9° W. and 66° E. long. Its greatest length, from the Oural Mountains, near Orsk in Russia, to Cape St. Vincent in Portugal, is nearly 3400 miles; its greatest breadth, from North Cape to Cape Matapan, in Greece, is 2450 miles.

113. Seas.-The Atlantic Ocean forms the North Sea or German Ocean, the Irish Sea, the English Channel, and the Bay of Biscay; all on the west coast. Two branches of the ocean penetrate the continent, and form two large inland seas, the Baltic and the Mediterranean. The Arctic Ocean forms the White Sea, and some smaller gulphs on the north coast, as the Gulph of Kara. The Black Sea lies between European Turkey, Russia, and Asia Minor.

114. Gulphs and Bays.-The North Sea forms several remarkable arms, as the Zuyder-Zee, the Skager-Rack, and the Cattegat. The southern outlet of the Irish Sea is called St. George's or the Irish Channel. The principal gulphs of the Baltic are those of Bothnia, Finland, Riga, and Dantzic. Many portions of the Mediterranean receive local names; of which the chief are the Gulphs of Valentia, Lyons, and Genoa, the Ionian Sea (including the Gulph of Tarento,) between Southern Italy, Sicily, and Greece, the Adriatic Sea, an inlet of which is called the Gulph of Venice, the Archipelago, anciently the Ægean Sea, and the Sea of Marmora. The chief gulph of the Black Sea is the Sea of Azof. The Caspian Sea is, properly, only the largest lake in the world. The White Sea forms the Gulphs or Bays of Onega and Archangel.

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