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NORTHAMPTONSHIRE.— Northampton; Peterborough, an episcopal city.

HUNTINGDONSHIRE.—Huntingdon, St. Ìves.

CAMBRIDGESHIRE.-Cambridge, seat of one of the English universities; Ely, an episcopal city; Newmarket, horse-races. GLOUCESTERSHIRE.-Gloucester, an episcopal city; Bristol,an episcopal city, one of the great commercial towns of England; Cheltenham, mineral waters; Stroud, Tewksbury. OXFORDSHIRE.-Oxford, an episcopal city, seat of one of the English universities; Banbury, Witney, Woodstock. BUCKINGHAMSHIRE.-Buckingham, Aylesbury, Marlow. BEDFORDSHIRE.-Bedford, Luton, Dunstable. HERTFORDSHIRE.-Hertford, Ware, St. Albans. MIDDLESEX.-London, an episcopal city, and the metropolis of the British Empire; including the cities of London and Westminster, and the boroughs of Southwark, Lambeth, and Marylebone, with other contiguous districts. This county contains numerous suburban villages, of superior importance to many country towns.


KENT.-Maidstone; Greenwich, royal observatory, and royal naval asylum; Deptford, Chatham, Woolwich, and Sheerness, royal dockyards and arsenals; CANTERBURY, the archiepiscopal metropolis of England; Dover, a seaport; Tonbridge Wells, mineral waters; Rochester, an episcopal city; Margate and Ramsgate, sea-bathing.

SURREY.-Guilford, Croydon, and several villages suburban

to London.

SUSSEX.-Chichester, an episcopal city; Lewes, another county town; Brighton, Worthing, and Hastings, sea-bathing.

BERKSHIRE.-Reading; Newbury; Windsor, seat of the chief royal residence.

HAMPSHIRE.-Winchester, an episcopal city; Portsmouth, principal station of the Royal Navy; Southampton, a place of fashionable resort.

WILTSHIRE.-Salisbury, an episcopal city; Devizes, Bradford, Trowbridge, and Warminster, woollen manufacture; Wilton, (from which the county takes its name,) carpet manufac


DORSETSHIRE.-Dorchester, Weymouth, Poole, Bridport,


SOMERSETSHIRE.-Taunton; Bath, an episcopal city, celebrated for its hot springs; Wells, an episcopal city; Yeovil; Frome.

DEVONSHIRE.-Exeter, an episcopal city; Plymouth; Devonport, the second station for the Royal Navy.

CORNWALL.-Launceston; Falmouth, the principal post-office packet station for the Mediterranean, West Indies, and America; Penzance, remarkable for mildness and salubrity: the stannary towns, where the blocks of tin are legally stamped, are Launceston, Lostwithiel, Truro, Helston, and Penzance.


ANGLESEA.-Beaumaris, Holyhead, Amlwch.

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CAERNARVONSHIRE. - Caernarvon; Bangor, an episcopal city; Conway.

DENBIGHSHIRE.-Denbigh, Wrexham.

FLINTSHIRE.-Flint; St. Asaph, an episcopal see; Holywell, which derives its name from the remarkable fountain called St. Winifred's Well.


MONTGOMERYSHIRE.-Montgomery, Welshpool.



CARDIGANSHIRE.-Cardigan; Lampeter, the seat of St.

David's College; Aberystwith.


· Pembroke, Haverfordwest, Milford

Haven; St. David's, an episcopal village.

CAERMARTHENSHIRE.-Caermarthen, Llanelly. At the village of Abergwilly, near Caermarthen, is the palace of the Bishop of St. David's.

GLAMORGANSHIRE.-Cardiff, a seaport; Merthyr Tydvil, the seat of extensive iron-works; Swansea, of copper-works, and a prosperous seaport. Llandaff, although now an inconsiderable village, is an episcopal see.

BRECKNOCKSHIRE.-Brecon, containing a fine arsenal.

162. Circuits.-The above counties, with the exception of Middlesex, which is the seat of the supreme courts, are distributed into seven circuits; each of which is visited periodically by two of the supreme judges for the determining of civil and criminal causes at the assizes. The Home Circuit includes Essex, Hertfordshire, Kent, Surrey, and Sussex. The Norfolk Circuit-Buckinghamshire, Bedfordshire, Huntingdonshire,

Cambridgeshire, Norfolk, and Suffolk. The Oxford CircuitOxfordshire, Berkshire, Gloucestershire, Worcestershire, Monmouthshire, Herefordshire, Salop, and Staffordshire. The Midland Circuit-Lincolnshire, Rutlandshire, Northamptonshire, Leicestershire, Derbyshire, Nottinghamshire, and Warwickshire. The Western Circuit-Hants, Wilts, Dorsetshire, Somersetshire, Devonshire, and Cornwall. The Northern CircuitYorkshire, Durham, Northumberland, Cumberland, Westmoreland, and Lancashire. The Chester and Wales Circuit—

Cheshire, and North and South Wales.

163. Civil Divisions of Scotland.-Scotland is divided into 33 shires or sheriffdoms:


ORKNEY AND SHETLAND.-Kirkwall, where the ancient cathedral of the bishopric of Orkney still remains entire; Stromness; Lerwick.

CAITHNESS.-Wick, Thurso.

SUTHERLAND.-Dornock, now a mere village, formerly the see of the Bishops of Caithness. Ross.-Tain, Dingwall. CROMARTY.-Cromarty.

INVERNESS.—Inverness, the reputed capital of the High



ELGIN.-Elgin, once the see of the Bishop of Moray, contains the ruins of a noble cathedral. The present Bishop is entitled Bishop of Moray, Ross, and Argyle.


ABERDEEN.-Aberdeen, the third city in Scotland. The Bishop of Aberdeen is Primus of the Church in Scotland. KINCARDINE.-Stonehaven.


FORFAR.-Forfar; Dundee; Montrose; Arbroath; Brechin, an ancient episcopal city, and still a bishop's see.

PERTH.-Perth; Dunkeld, having the ruins of a cathedral; Dumblane, formerly a bishop's see. The united sees of Dunkeld, Dumblane, and Fife, are now an episcopal diocese.

FIFE.--Cupar; Dunfermline; St. Andrew's, a very ancient and venerable city, which, for centuries, was the see of a bishop, and afterwards of an archbishop.


CLACKMANNAN.-Alloa, Dollar. Clackmannan is a village


STIRLING. Stirling; Falkirk, celebrated for its "trysts,” or cattle-fairs.

DUMBARTON.--Dumbarton, one of the most ancient towns of Scotland; Kirkintilloch.

ARGYLE.-Inverary; Staffa, a small island on the west coast of Mull; Iona, an island wherein a monastery was founded by St. Columba, the apostle of the Highlands, in the seventh century, and subsequently the seat of the Bishop of the Isles.

BUTE,-composed of the islands of Bute, Arran, and Cumbraes. Its chief town is Rothsay.


HADDINGTON, or East Lothian.-Haddington, Dunbar. EDINBURGH, or Mid Lothian.-Edinburgh, the chief town of Scotland, but no longer metropolitan; the head-quarters of the General Assembly of the Kirk, but still a bishop's see; is situated in 55° 57′ N. lat., and 30° 10′ W. long.; 337 miles N. N. W. of London. Population, 164,000. Leith, Dalkeith, Portobello.

LINLITHGOW, or West Lothian.-Linlithgow, Bathgate. BERWICK.-Greenlaw; Dunse, the birthplace of John Duns


ROXBURGH.-Jedburgh, Kelso, Hawick.


LANARK.-Lanark; Glasgow, the great seat of Scottish manufactures, originally an episcopal city, still having, entire, the ancient cathedral of St. Mungo, and being also a bishop's


RENFREW.-Renfrew; Paisley, engaged in the silk and muslin manufacture; Greenock, a large seaport on the Clyde. AYR.-Ayr, Kilmarnock, Irvine.

DUMFRIES.-Dumfries, a superior town; Annan.

WIGTON.-Wigton; Whithern, once the see of the Bishop of Galloway; Port-Patrick.

164. Civil Divisions of Ireland.-Ireland is divided into four provinces; Ulster, Leinster, Munster, and Connaught,

which are subdivided into 32 counties. Dublin, the capital of Ireland, is situated in 53° 20′ N. lat., and 6° 17′ W. long.; 292 miles W. N. W. of London. Population, 238,000.


DONEGAL.-Lifford, Donegal, Balyshannon.

DERRY.-Derry, or Londonderry, on the broad and navigable river Foyle; Coleraine.

ANTRIM.-Belfast, the third town in Ireland; Lisburn; Ballymena; Carrickfergus.

TYRONE.-Omagh, Strabane, Dungannon.

DOWN.-Downpatrick, said to have been erected into a bishopric by St. Patrick; Newry; Donaghadee, whose harbour is the station of the mail-packets between Scotland and Ireland.

ARMAGH.-Armagh, the archiepiscopal metropolis of Ire




CAVAN.-Cavan; Cootehill, one of the largest linen markets in Ulster.


LONGFORD.-Longford, Edgeworthstown.

WEST MEATH.-Mullingar; Athlone, consisting of two towns on opposite banks of the Shannon.

MEATH.-Trim, Navan.

LOUTH.-Drogheda, having an extensive corn trade; Dundalk, having a large export trade in agricultural produce. DUBLIN.-Dublin, an archiepiscopal city, and the capital of Ireland; Kingstown.

KILDARE.-Athy; Naas; Maynooth, where is a Papal College supported by the British Government; Kildare, a small episcopal city.

KING'S COUNTY.-Tullamore; Birr; Banagher; Philipstown, so called after Philip II. of Spain, husband of Queen Mary. QUEEN'S COUNTY.-Maryborough, so called after Queen Mary; Mountmellick; Portarlington.

WICKLOW.-Wicklow, Arklow.

WEXFORD.-Wexford, New Ross, Enniscorthy.

KILKENNY.-Kilkenny, Callan.

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