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"Morning," in the eastern pediment of the church is very elaborately ornamented. A weathercock surmounts it, and the western tower is very small. The present spire of St. Martin's Church rises conspicuously over the houses to the left. The sky is pale blue, with light clouds, and the outline of the dark buildings cuts harshly against it. The buildings are drawn in a formal, architectural style, and wanting in what may be termed physiognomical peculiarities.
The distance at which the picture is hung in its present locality and the objects by which it is surrounded preclude the possibility of a fuller examination. No name of artist was associated with the picture, and no signature could, under the circumstances, be detected. Herbert Pugh, the painter referred to by MR. AUSTIN DOBSON "N. & Q.," 5th S. xii. 442), resided in Covent Garden Market, and as this view is seen from above, it may prove to be the work of his hand, taken from his own window.
The picture is on canvas, and about four feet by three. The "Morning Visit to Covent Garden," exhibited by Pugh at the Society of Artists in 1775, corresponds with a smaller picture looking towards the north-east corner of the Market, and showing, on the extreme left, the house, now the "Unicorn Tavern," at the corner of Henrietta Street. This picture is also in the collection of the Duke of Bedford in Eaton Square. In this picture the arrangement of the shadows shows it to be a very early morning scene. The costumes of the figures in the latter painting suggest a date about 1780, of which no history is known.
NO. II. MR. DOUCE ON PENNY HISTORIES.
MR. EBSWORTH's article on the subject of chapbooks in "N. & Q." (5th S. xii. 461), has recalled to my mind some fragments of an interesting conversation which I had in the year 1827 with my kind and learned old friend Mr. Douce on the subject of Penny Histories. It probably had its rise in my having had the good fortune to pick up rather an interesting collection of them while hunting over bookstalls for materials for my series of Early English Prose Romances, the publication of which commenced in that year.
My lucky find consists of two volumes, the second and third of what had originally been a series in three. The tracts are all described on their title-pages as Printed and sold in Aldermary Church Yard, London." In some of them the words "Bow Lane" precede "London."
ment of the British Museum might identify the handwriting, and so recognize who had been the original collector.
The volumes have been uniformly half-bound, but each has lost one cover. The second is lettered "Ancient Histories, Vol. 2, F-M," the first tract being Partridge and Flamsted's New and Well Experienced Fortune Book, and the last, The Famous History of the Seven Wise Mistresses of Rome, &c. The third volume, which is lettered "Ancient Histories, Vol. 3, M-W," commences with Doctor Merryman; or, Nothing but Mirth, and ends with The World Turned Upside Down; or, the Folly of Man Exemplified in Twelve Comical Relations, &c.
My learned friend pointed out to me, in a way which, after the lapse of half a century, I will not attempt to follow in detail, how many of these very Penny Histories were only degenerated, modernized, and abridged versions of the Romances of Chivalry which had been centuries ago the delight of our ancestors, and of which the earliest versions were preserved in old manuscripts of extreme rarity and of great value. Guy of Warwick was one to which he specially referred, and of this there is a copy in my second volume.
In illustration of this part of the subject, Mr. Douce mentioned a curious conversation with a great dealer in books of this class, resident, if I remember rightly, in Shoe Lane, who explained to him that, as printing became more expensive, the publishers of penny histories used to strike out some of the letter-press and supply the place of it by inserting additional woodcuts.
These woodcuts he characterized as being sometimes of considerable interest, for the illustration they afford of bygone manners and customs; as, for instance, on the title-page of the Strange and Wonderful Relation of the Old Woman that was Drowned at Ratcliff Highway a Fortnight Ago, &c., there is one of the earliest known representations of the old ducking stool. And with reference to this very woodcut, he related an amusing anecdote of Miss Banks, the sister of Sir Joseph, who took great interest in historical and antiquarian inquiries, as her collections on the Order of the Garter in the British Museum sufficiently prove.
Mr. Douce having told her of this engraving, she became very anxious to procure a copy of the story of The Old Woman of Ratcliff Highway, and on his telling her she could get it in Shoe Lane, she made up her mind to go there. Miss Banks, who was a plain, homely-dressing old lady, took an early opportunity of visiting Shoe Lane, and on arriving at the shop, seeing there was a great variety of these chap-books, asked for a dozen Each volume contains twenty-seven Penny His- of them. A large parcel was put before her to tories, alphabetically arranged, with a very neatly choose from, and she eventually selected twelve. written MS. index. I think it very likely some The bookseller, supposing from her appearance of the accomplished gentlemen in the MS. Depart-that she was in the trade, and had purchased them
to sell again, reminded her that she was entitled to thirteen to the dozen. Miss Banks took the extra book, and putting a shilling upon the counter to pay for them, was leaving the shop, when she was recalled and rather sharply rebuked for not knowing her business and waiting for the threepence change out of the shilling, to which, as being in the trade, she was entitled. Miss Banks quietly pocketed the affront and the coppers, and used to tell the story, to the amusement of her friends. WILLIAM J. THOMS.
THE MYSTERY OF ST. PANTALEON, OR
In the days of which I am about to write, the Prince-Bishop of Basle was a very great potentate, whom all men delighted to honour, especially within the bishopric. On June 17, 1653, Jean François de Schönau was to be consecrated by the Bishop-Suffragan, assisted by the Abbots of Lucelle and Beinweil. Like his immediate predecessor, Beatus Albertus de Ramstein, the new prelate was a former alumnus of the College of Porrentruy, so there was special reason for giving him a splendid reception. Nothing better could be suggested, according to the tastes of the day, than a sacred play or mystery. Moreover, the views of the future prince with regard to the stage were not doubtful, for he had already taken upon himself the expenses attending upon the construction of a theatre for the college. If there was not then in existence a "church and stage guild" it was because, in the bishopric of Basle, at least, there was so friendly a feeling between the two that no need was felt of such a means of intercourse. It is true that the piece to be put on the stage was a sacred one, but nevertheless, as will be seen, it was not devoid of worldly, even pagan, accessories, and plays of this kind were, as we are told, not unfrequently spread over two days, to the great delight of the thronging multitude of spectators.
Many readers of "N. & Q." will recall to memory the Church of St. Pantaleon, at Cologne. The reason for the choice of this saint's life as the subject of the play on the inauguration of the new theatre at Porrentruy will be obvious, when it is borne in mind that he is accounted as the first Bishop of Basle. The friend and contemporary of St. Ursula and the Eleven Thousand Virgins, a splendid opportunity for dramatic situations opened itself before actors and audience alike, neither being too critical on the point of historic accuracy. The action of the play was divided into three parts, representing severally the most stirring events in the martyr's life. The prologue introduces us to the fair Rhineland, with its smiling fields, its sombre forests, and famous Father Rhine rushing rapidly towards ocean. Among the clouds angels are hovering, not perhaps easily distinguish
able from "amorini," save for the name. them, in the high empyrean, are sitting the patrons of the bishopric. Beneath, on mother earth, Rauracia and Alsatia, representing the lands subject to the prince, are congratulating their new ruler on his election. Young persons of both sexes (the subjects of the prince-bishop seem to have been on this point of dramatic practice ahead of Shakespeare's countrymen) perform dances, while the name of the prince is brilliantly set forth in illuminated anagrams.
Part I., or the "Protasis," exhibits St. Pantaleon as 'adorned by excellence of doctrine and virtue." Scene 1. A town and a palace. Pantaleon is found, discussing with his friends the disasters presaged for Gaul and Germany by the struggle between Maximus and Gratian. Thunder and lightning darken the scene; a comet (itself a forerunner of evil in olden days) appears in the sky, and appearances as of combatants are seen among the clouds.
Scene 2. The sea, islands, with forests and open country at each wing. Two sirens, one black, the other white, "sitting alone, singing alone," and making merry over the light-heartedness and inconstancy of this world, which is presently swallowed up by flames, while Providence, kinder to the imperial eagle than to the records of the house of Choiseul, saves the symbol of majesty by plunging it beneath the sea.
Scene 3. Forests, gardens, and houses, the sea in the distance. Pantaleon perceives, amid celes-tial harmonies, the approach of boats, containing Ursula and her eleven thousand companions.
Scene 4. Town and palace again. The Emperor Gratian arrives in Basle. Pantaleon, with the Senate of the city, comes out to greet him. A splendid tournament is held in honour of the event.
Scene 5. Cupid and the Loves, drawing the car of Victory, are so bewitched by a Fury from the infernal regions that they fall upon Victory and slay her, while the Fury snatches her laurelcrowned sword. The Loves, suddenly_repenting of their deed, bewail the death of Victory in funereal strains.
Scene 6. As before. Pantaleon is seen praying for Gratian. In the clouds appears to him Divine Justice, accompanied by torch-bearing genii, and unfolds before him the terrible woes that overshadow the imperial house. Pantaleon submits to the decrees of Divine Justice.
A Chorus now presents the delectable spectacle of the divine and moral virtues, in gratitude to their most virtuous master, St. Pantaleon, dancing a ballet agreeable to his name.
C. H. E. CARMICHAEL
New University Club, S.W.
(To be continued.)
A PUZZLE SOLVED.
It is well known that no adequate solution of the word puzzle has ever been offered. I now proceed to solve it. It occurs as a verb in Hamlet, III. i. 80, and in other passages; but it was originally a substantive. From its familiar use as a verb it seems to have been regarded as a frequentative form of the verb to pose, with the addition of the usual suffix -le; such, indeed, is Skinner's explanation, hitherto accepted only because no better one has yet appeared. The connexion with pose is right, as indeed our instincts assure us; but the suffix, though long regarded as verbal, is not really so, as will appear. Before proceeding, it is necessary to say a word as to the word pose itself. This is usually regarded as an abbreviation of appose, and this is true; but we must also go back a step further, and acknowledge appose to be a corruption of oppose. To appose or pose was to propose questions; examples are plentiful, especially in Richardson's Dictionary, Appose." But no such sense is commonly found in the French apposer or the Latin apponere. The true Latin word is opponere, which was a regular term in the schools; see Ducange. The old method of examination was by argument, and the examiner was really an umpire, who decided questions put by an opponent to the examinee, so that the old word for to examine was also opponere. Now it so happened that neat answers were called apposite answers; and between the opponent on one side, and the apponent (or neat answerer) on the other, a complete confusion easily arose, at any rate in English, as testified by numerous instances. We thus have, as the right order of things, first to oppose in the schools; secondly, to oppose or appose by asking questions; and finally to pose, by putting a hard question to a candidate.
We have numerous words formed from verbs by a suffix -al, as in the case of deni-al, refus-al, and the like. Similarly, a hard question was an opposal, and this is the word which has now become puzzle. The whole of this would be but guesswork if it were not that I have been so fortunate as to find the necessary examples which support and elucidate the solution. We are really indebted for it to Dyce's Skelton, which (I say it advisedly) is one of the best edited books in our literature, and a great credit to the honoured name of Alexander Dyce. The references will be found in that book, at vol. i. p. 367 and vol. ii. p. 304, and here they are :
"And to pouert she put this opposayle." Lydgate, Fall of Princes, ed. Wayland, sig. Biii. leaf lxvi. "Made vnto her this vncouth apposaile, Why wepe yo so?" Id., sig. Bv. leaf cxxviii. Madame, your apposelle is wele inferrid (i.e. your question is well put). Skelton, Garland of Laurel, 1. 141.
In this last instance the "various reading" is opposelle (Dyce). In all these cases the sense is a question hard of solution, or, in modern language, a puzzle. WALTER W. SKEAT.
NOTES ON CHICHESTER.
The attention of local historians has not been
given as yet sufficiently to the stores of information laid up and still unused among the wills of the Middle Ages. I therefore, in the way of illustration, give some notes which throw light on the fabric and ornament of Chichester Cathedral.
"Volo quòd ij. pelves preciossime fabricate offerantur pro me ad magnum altare eccl. Cic." (Chichewell, Canon, 1368, Reg. Islip, fo. 153 b). "Do tabulam meam de auro Ecc. Cic. ponendam coram capellano celebranti ad magnam missam" W. Eston, canon, desires to be buried "in capella (Maydenhithe, 1407, Reg. Arundel, fo. 242). S. Annæ" (1455, Wills Stockton, 4), and Ivo Darell, canon, "in capella S. Nicholai situata in parte boreali in ecc. Cic." (Wills Dogett, 4). This is the only notice of this chapel.
There are many curious MS. notes in Browne Willis's copy of Le Neve's Fasti, now in the Bodleian. A quaint itinerary of 1634 mentions the so-called Arundel effigies. "There lieth a prince in armour, who lived in the woods in Edward III.'s time, some report he was Lord Berkeley of Bosham. By the wall now nearer to the choir and cross aisle lieth the statue of an anchoress, near unto which is a pretty little room for such an one." Browne Willis, in 1723, gives another version of this local tradition :—
is a tomb of a lady, the effigy of freestone. She is said "In the north aisle, under the wall near the transept, to have founded an almshouse about three hundred years gone or more, and below lie an Earl of Arundel and his lady on two altar tombs, their effigies in freestone, with lion on his breast."
Gough, in his MS. Tour (xi. 15, Bodl. Lib.), mentions the appearance of the feretory in his day: "Under each of these two westernmost arches is an altar tomb railed off, making an inclosure behind the altar." Now there is a void space, with the tombs standing bare. Here Adam Facete, canon, desired to be buried in 1513, "ante feretrum S. Ricardi ex parte australi," bestowing a suit "de blodio serico, Anglice, sarsenet" (Wills Fettiplace, 17), where we learn two synonyms, Latin and English. In another will the donor gives "j. annulus aureus in quo includitur, j. lapis albus de ierusalem in quo figurantur facies hominum, et ij. alii annuli aurei cum lapidibus, ij. firmacula auri, j. rotundum in cujus medio est cygnus albus, sub cujus ala est lapis saphirus cum v. perulis in circuitu, et aliud de antiqua forma cum xvj. parvis perulis de rubeo albo et viridi coloribus, ad serviendum sacerdoti celebranti in festis magnis altam missam in summo altari ob
reverentiam S. Ricardi" (Reg. Chichele, fo. 275). How these morses were worn with a chasuble is not explained. The "Pardon door," mentioned in a Compotus of 1414, may be illustrated from a will relating to Pilton in 1509, "in the south part nigh the wall under the Pardon and Indulgences there."
The old muniments would reveal many interesting anecdotes of the state of the time. What would not the ecclesiologist give to find the missing book which Bishop Rede in 1402 ordered to be compiled, "Consuetudines Ecclesiæ circa divinum officium," from the relation of the ancients of the church (Reg., fo. xxxi). Does it exist? I printed the statutes from the original copy in University College Library, Oxford.
How curiously sounds the account of the commune bread in the sixteenth century! The dean had 1,092 loaves yearly, and each residentiary 1,047, deducting twenty-nine for Venite loaves to the vicars for every holiday, and sixteen to Sherborne's clerks; four vicars choral had each 757 yearly. Altogether there were 12,496 loaves. Forty-two loaves were given to the poor every Sunday (Book B. 9, 15).
Gough, in his Tour already quoted, mentions that the chasuble of Bishop Stratford's effigy was then of blue and gold. In 1456 W. Rowe, canon, desires to be buried below the rood "ante magnam crucem in navi ecclesie" (Wills Stockton, 5). Neal, a citizen, mentions in the directions for his burial a recluse priest in the cathedral who was to receive 6s. for saying a mass of requiem (Reg. Chichele, fo. 316 b).
Your space is valuable at this time, so I draw my notes to a close, but with the earnest hope that they may stimulate others to make researches at Somerset House and in the muniment chambers of our cathedrals. What a boon an analysis of episcopal registers would be, even the list of their contents being of value! Who will edit the Laudabiles Consuetudines" of Hereford, with illustrations from these sources ?
MACKENZIE E. C. WALCOTT. [Who better than our learned correspondent?]
The correspondence which has from time to time been going on in "N. & Q." on the above subject gives, as I venture to think, only one phase of the history of provincial fairs. Like all historical institutions, the provincial fair has (1) a history of its own, and (2) a history which belongs to the general history of institutions. I do not suggest that a hard and fast line can be drawn between these two divisions, but simply that the latter appears to me to be properly the end, and the former the means, to an historical inquiry of some importance. I desire, with the editor's permission,
to draw attention to this earlier phase of provincial fairs.
And first, as to their locality. Mr. Kemble's chapter on "The Mark," in his first volume of the Saxons in England, gives us the first clue. "Each mark-community, isolated and independent, is surrounded by certain territory, separating it from other marks (i. 48-9). Carried a step further, we come upon the Hindoo evidence on the subject.
"At several points," Sir Henry Maine says (Vill. Com., p. 192)-"points, probably, where the domains of two or three villages convergedthere appear to have been spaces of what we should now call neutral ground." This neutral ground was the market territory.
"These were the only places," continues Sir Henry Maine, "at which the members of the different primitive groups met for any purpose except warfare." They met for inter-tribal affairs, for the exchange of goods, and for feasts and rejoicings. As, however, independent communities became merged, either by conquest or by external political influences, the common meeting-place often became fixed in the centre of the new community, instead of outside all the old communities. In this way grew up (1) the provincial fair of modern times, meeting on common lands outside towns or villages; and (2) the regular marketplaces, generally in the centre of towns or villages. Thus both the market and the fair are historically of one origin.
Secondly, as to the object of the fair or market. That it was a place for barter does not need any special comment Sir Henry Maine has struck the key-note of a great historical question by drawing attention to the association of markets and neutrality (Vill. Com., 192-3); also Sir John Lubbock (Origin of Civilization, p. 205). For by this association arises also their connexion with laws and law-making. They must have been the great centres of primitive legislation. In later times they retained a survival of their old functions. Among the Romans the people assembled at fairs to hear the laws propounded, and when a law had been proposed on three market or fair days it was proclaimed a law before the people (Archæologia, i. p. 192, quoting Macrobius, i., Saturn. c. 16). In Ireland, in addition to the promulgation of new laws and the proclamation of peace, the old laws were rehearsed at the senech, or fair (Sullivan's edition of O'Curry's Lectures, p. 256). In England the laws of every session of Parliament were proclaimed at fairs by the king's writ to the sheriff, which may be seen at the end of the Acts of 31 Edward III.
These notes, already too long, perhaps, are intended merely to direct attention to, not to exhaust, a most interesting subject connected with the early history of mankind; and other corre
spondents-perhaps Mr. Cornelius Walford-may be able to add further notes, and trace out the early history of the Piepowder Court, which Dr. Hyde Clarke reminds me is most likely a relic of a primitive village court of justice. G. LAURENCE GOMME.
THE FIRST DRAFT OF COWPER'S POEM OF "THE ROSE."-I have in my possession the first draft of William Cowper's well-known poem of The Rose, in the poet's autograph. It is interesting, as it shows how much he altered and improved his poems :
"The rose that I sing had been bathed in a show'r, Profusely and hastily shed,
The plentiful moisture incumber'd the flow'r,
The cup was all fill'd, and the leaves were all wet,
To weep for the home it had left with regret
Unfit as it was for the use of the Fair
With foliage so dripping and drown'd,
I shook it and swung it with too little care-
And such, I exclaim'd is the pitiless part,
Regardless of wringing and breaking a heart
This Rose might have held, had I shaken it less,
And the tear that is wiped by a little address,
A. SIAMESE FABLE.-With the New Year are born or resuscitated many tales inculcating charity, forgiveness, self-sacrifice. Let us take a Buddhistic one from Siam* by way of a change :
A man, chased by a tiger in a forest one night, escaped by climbing a tree, on which lived a monkey and its family. The monkey received the man kindly, and refused to listen to the tiger, which advised it to fling him down while he slept. When the man awoke the tiger retired, and the monkey went to sleep. Presently the tiger returned, and recommended the man to fling the monkey down. The man pondered awhile, then gave the monkey a push, and it fell into the tiger's claws. Awakened by the shock and the pain, the monkey laughed aloud. "Wherefore laughest thou, when I am clawing thy body?" asked the astonished tiger. "Because thou thinkest thy claws are near my heart, and thou art wrong," replied the monkey. Where, then, is thy heart?" "At the end of my tail." The tiger let go its hold, but before it could seize its victim's tail the monkey ran up the tree and was saved. * One of several fables extracted by Dr. A. Bastian
from the Siamese Nonthuk Pakkaranam. Prof. Benfey has compared it with Panchatantra, ii. 208.
It knew who had pushed it over, but it uttered no angry word. When the day dawned the tiger disappeared, and the monkey went out to gather fruit for its guest. During its absence the man killed its mate and all its little ones, intending to take them home for his wife to cook; when the monkey came back with a throng of its kinsfolk, it found its home made desolate. Still it uttered no angry word-only offered to guide the man out of the forest. They set forth together, the man following the monkey. After a time the man struck the monkey over the head so hard that the blood gushed forth. 'Why hast thou done this?" asked the monkey. Because I wanted flesh for my wife to cook," replied the man. "But if thou hadst killed me," said the monkey, "who would have guided thee out of the forest? Now follow me at a distance; my blood-drops will show thee the way. And when thou art clear from the trees, then thou canst kill me without risk." The man did as he was counselled. When they came near the forest verge the monkey stopped for the man to come up and kill it. The man killed the monkey. But just as he was leaving the forest he tripped and fell, first into a hole, then headlong right into hell. But no sooner was the monkey dead than it was carried straight up into heaven. There, in a golden palace, it was joined by all its dear ones whom the man had killed. "But where is the man?" asked the monkey with anxious sympathy. "He is in hell," was the reply. "Your Highness must not think of him any more." W. R. S. RALSTON.
MAIDEN," IN BRITISH PLACE NAMES.Referring to my few words of reply upon Castrum Puellarum as a mediæval name for Edinburgh (5th S. xii. 214), a correspondent of "N. & Q." has very obligingly sent me a newspaper cutting showing that the hill called Maiden Castle, on the south bank of the Wear, about a quarter of a mile south-east of Durham, is a place of considerable natural strength, rising precipitously in the midst of a lovely landscape. "The north-east side is flanked by a precipice almost perpendicular, 100 feet deep, whilst its other sides descend in a gentle incline." It has "views of the opposite woods, Old Durham, and the country round about, like a panorama." The top "presents a level area of about 160 paces by 45."
This information is strictly ad rem, and fully meets my incidental expression of ignorance as to the surroundings of the spot. Unfortunately the paragraph so kindly sent is entirely void of further evidence drawn from history, or from remains of military defences, or any artificial features of the locality, tending to show whether it was ever occupied as a British, as distinguished from a Roman or other camp.
I am myself prevented by want of opportunity