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not often found in these days of would-be emendators. It is therefore with much diffidence that I submit an alternative reading in explanation of the "purgative drug" Cyme. Of all cathartics known to apothecaries of old, scammony was one of the most popular. "John French, Dr. in Physick," in a treatise published in 1664, thus extols a tincture of which scammony, dissolved in spirit of wine, is the base :
"This tincture is so pleasant, so gentle, so noble, a purgative, that there is scarce the like in the world, for it purgeth without any offence, is taken without any nauseating, and purgeth all manner of humours, especially choler, and melancholy, and is very cordial.".
regarding the observance of their funeral obsequies, and among these one of the most curious is the following account-taken from a contemporary periodical-of the funeral of an English gentleman, in 1733, an ardent admirer of Horace, "the genial pagan," as Mr. Theodore Martin fondly terms him, "whose warm heart and urbane nature are instinctively felt by his readers, and draw them to him as a friend":
"Whittlesea, May 7, 1733.-Last night was buried here Mr. John Underwood, of Nassington. He was brought to the grave at five, and as soon as the burial service was over an arch was turned over the coffin, in which was placed over his breast a small piece of white marble with this inscription:
Now the French scammony is prepared from the juice of Cynanchum Monspeliacum, a plant of 'Non omnis moriar. J. Underwood, 1733.' the natural order Asclepiadaceae, and is not so "When the grave was filled up, and the turf laid down, mild in its action as the much-vaunted preparation the six gentlemen who followed him to the grave sang described above, being a violent purgative, almost the last stanza of the 20th Ode of the Second Book of Horace. Everything was done according to his desire : drastic enough to scoure these English hence." no bell was tolled; no one was invited but the six gentleGranted the various transmutations, such as DR. men; and no relation followed his corpse. The coffin NICHOLSON thinks reasonable, in the progress from was painted green, according to his direction; and he Canina Brassica to Cyme, there may be something was laid in it with his clothes on. Under his head was to be said for a corrupted abbreviation of Cynan-ton; in his right hand a small Greek Testament, with placed a Sanadon's Horace; at his feet Bentley's Milchum, particularly if it can be shown that this this inscription in gold letters:form of scammony was used in Elizabethan times. W. WHISTON.
“Εἰ μὴ ἐν τῷ Σταυρῷ. J. U.
In his left hand a little edition of Horace, with this in-
'Musis Amicus. J. U.'
And Bentley's Horace was placed under his back.
"After the ceremony was over, they went back to his
sang the 31st Ode of the First Book of Horace, drank a
think no more of John Underwood." "
THE PLAY UPON "C YOU AND HEWS IN THE SONNETS, AND ITS RELATION TO THE HERBERTS.It is surely permissible to believe that Shakespeare may have intended some punning allusion house, where his sister had provided a very handsome to "Hugh" or "Hughes" in the well-known pas-supper. The cloth being taken away, the gentlemen sages of the Sonnets, without also accepting the perfectly gratuitous assumption that some forgotten Hughes was the subject of the mysterious dedication. I do not remember to have seen it pointed out that the favourite W. H. (William Herbert) was, by right of his grandmother, Lord FitzHugh. Although usually merged in the higher dignity, the title frequently occurs in contemporary notices, as in Gervase Markham's Book of Honour, Lond., 1625, where he is styled "Lord Herbert of Cardiffe, FitzHugh, Marmion, and Saint Quintaine." It might be urged, with some show of plausibility, that the kind of semi-incognito which the use of this name would imply was not unlikely to have characterized the intercourse disclosed in these poems. But the name in both forms was so common in Wales that we might fairly expect to find it amongst the Pembroke clientèle. Any way, there was Hugh Sanford, one of the best-known literary Hughs of the day, who was Herbert's tutor, and domiciled for the greatest portion of his life at Wilton. The adoption, therefore, of a name derived from a second title seems not unlikely. C. ELLIOT BROWNE.
FUNERAL ECCENTRICITIES. Allied to "curious epitaphs" are the whimsical directions which eccentric individuals have given
Probably the genial Mr. Underwood is quite "unknown to fame," and thus escaped honourable mention by Mr. Theodore Martin among the celebrated moderns who were admirers of Horace (sce the charming introduction to his volume on Horace, in Messrs. Blackwood's "Ancient Classics for English Readers"); but the same reason does not apply to Sir William Jones, whom he also omits to notice in this connexion. It is related of that illustrious Orientalist that "he always carried a copy of Horace in his pocket; and even ordered by his will that it should-be buried with him in his coffin, which order was punctually obeyed."
I take the following account of another "chearful" funeral from an old commonplace book :
"Ludovick Cortusius, an eminent lawyer, who died at Padua on the 15th of July, 1618, when upon his deathbed forbade his relations to shed tears at his funeral, and even put his heir under a heavy penalty if he neg lected to perform his orders. On the other hand, he
ordered musicians, singers, pipers, fiddlers, of all kinds, to supply the place of mourners, and directed that fifty of them should walk before his corpse with the clergymen, playing upon their several instruments. For this service he ordered each of them half a ducat. He likewise appointed twelve maids in green habits to carry his corpse to the church of St. Sophia, where he was buried, and that they too, as they went along, should sing aloud; having each of them, as a recompense, a handsome sum of money allotted for a marriage portion. All the clergy of Padua marched before in long procession, together with all the monks of the convent, except those wearing black habits, whom he expressly excluded by his will, lest the blackness of their hoods should throw a gloom upon the cheerfulness of the procession." Perhaps other correspondents of "N. & Q." will furnish equally curious instances of "cheerful
W. A. CLOUSTON.
THE LEGEND OF ZARQA.
Some months ago* I made a reference to the story of the Arabian heroine Zarqa (Glaucopis), and it has since occurred to me that there are some points in connexion with the legend which may render it interesting to English readers. I have, therefore, abridged the following narrative from two inedited MSS. in my possession, the Tíján fiMulak of Ibn Hishâm, and the commentaries to the Kasidet el-Himyariyyah of Neshwân ibn Sa'îd. The original authority for the story as detailed in these histories is 'Obaid ibn Shariyyah, who was born before the death of the Prophet. In very early times the two tribes of Tasm and Jadis were united under the chieftainship of King 'Amlâq, or 'Imliq, who owed feudal allegiance himself to the great King of Himyar, Hassân, the son of As'ad Tobba' El-Kâmil. Amlâq, who was a member of the Tasm tribe, was accustomed to exercise the droit de seigneur on all the newly wedded virgins of Jadîs. At length the turn arrived of a high-born damsel of the tribe named 'Ofairah, daughter of 'Affâr and sister of El-Aswad. As soon as the sacrifice was completed, she rushed forth from the king's presence, and, with garments rent and hair dishevelled, adjured her tribesmen to take vengeance. The tribe, moved by her eloquent appeal, determined to submit to 'Amlâq's tryanny no longer, but as they were not powerful enough to effect the destruction of Tasm by open means, they were compelled to compass it by stratagem, and left El-Aswad, the brother of 'Ofairah, to take the necessary steps to secure the end they had in view. ElAswad thereupon presented himself before 'Amlâq, and begged the chief to honour with his presence and that of his tribe a great feast which he was about to give in the valley of El-Yemâmeh. The king demurred at first, but presently consented. ElAswad hastened back to his tribe, and gave orders that every man should conceal his sword in the
* See "N. & Q," 5th S. xi. 498.
sand of the wady, and, when the men of Tasm were fully employed in eating, should draw the weapons from their hiding-places and slaughter their foes. The plot was completely successful, and only one. man of the doomed tribe, Riyâh, the son of Marrah, managed to escape. He fled to his overlord, Hassan, the son of As'ad Tobba', and besought him to take vengeance for the treachery of Jadis. The king grew wroth on hearing the tale, and at once consented to lead his army, which was in readiness for an expedition to el-'Irâq, against the tribe. Riyâh then told him that amongst the women of Jadîs there was one named Zarqa, whose sight was so powerful that she could see at a distance of three days journey, and he advised the king to take precautions to conceal the march of his army, lest the enemy should take to flight. Hassân thereupon ordered that every soldier should take the branch of a tree and should conceal his person with it. But, as they marched on, the sharp eyes of Zarqa detected a man who had stepped aside from with a loud voice. Her tribe said, "What seest the rest, in order to mend his shoe, and she cried thou?" and she answered, "I see a tree, and behind it a human being"; and they laughed and said, "What else seest thou?" and she answered, I see the tree advancing upon us, and it is Himyar." And they kept on deriding her, and telling her she was bewildered in her wits, until the troops attacked them, and they were all slain. Then Hassân ordered Zarqa to be brought before him, and on her arrival he questioned her as to the secret of her sight. She replied that it was due to the ore of antimony, which she reduced to powder and applied to her eyes as a collyrium every night. The king ordered her eyes to be examined, and there were found beneath the pupils ducts or arteries, which had become black through the excessive use of kohl.
I do not know if the legend of Birnam Wood and Dunsinane has ever been traced to its origin, but it is clear that the foregoing story furnishes a link in the chain of descent which is at least as old as the time of the prophet Mohammed.
Sehore, Central India.
W. F. PRIDEAUX.
"Some men had leuer for to mete with a froude or a frogge in the waye than to meet with a knyght or a squyre, or with ony man of relygyon or of holy churche for than they saye and byleue that they shall haue golde." -Dives et Pauper, 1 Comm., ch. xlvi.
"Some bileue that yf the kyte or the puttoke fly ouer the waye afore them that they sholde fare well that daye."-Ibid.
"Some wyll haue no men of holy chirche and namely men of relygyon with them on huntynge for theyr beleue is also that they sholde spede the worse bycause of theyr companye."-Ibid.
"Huntynge with horne and with houndes and with
"Comonly Wonders falle more ayenst wo than ayenst welthe as cometes and sterres brennyng castelles in the ayre, eclypses of the sonne and mone ayenst kynde men in the ayre armed or fyghtynge the raynebowe tourned up so downe......that wonderfull sterre and comete whiche appered upon this lande the yere of our Lorde MCCCCII from the feste of the Epyphanye tylle two wekes after Eester that was in the myddell of Aprelle."-Ch. xxix. "To hele mannes woundes whyle they be fresh and clene blacke wulle and oyle ben full medycynable without any charm."-Ch. xxxix.
"Moche people hadde leuer to dreme of the fende than of God or of His moder Marye for as they saye when they dreme of the fende they fare well in the day followynge but whan they dreme of God or of Our Lady they fare euyll afterwarde."—Ch. xlv.
"All that take hede of dysmale dayes or use nyce observaunces in the newe mone or in the newe yere as settynge of mete or of drynke by nyght on the benche for to fede Allholde or gobelyn, Ledynge of the ploughe aboute the fyre as for good begynnyng of the yere; dyvynacyons by chyterynge of byrdes or by fleynge of foules or to dyuyne a mannes liffe or dethe by nombres and by the spere of Pictagoras or by songuary or sompnarye the booke of dremes or by the booke that is called the appostles lottes or use ony charges in gaderynge of herbes or in hangynge of scrowes about man or woman or chylde or beeste for ony sekenesse with ony scrypture or fygures and caractes."-Ch. xxxiiij.
MACKENZIE E. C. WALCOTT.
to keep mourning garments after the term for
"Queen's weather" has become almost a synonym for halcyon days, and the people are probably beginning to cherish a new superstition. So I judge from reading in the letter of the London correspondent of a country newspaper that when his charwoman does have a holiday she likes to take because then the elements are most likely to be it on a day when the Queen is going somewhere, favourable to an outing." ST. SWITHIN.
"THE HEARSE AT FUNERALS."-The following extract from the Illustrated London News of Feb. 7, 1880, may be worth preserving in the columns of " N. & Q."
"We are indebted to a correspondent for a reference to Wedgwood's Etymological Dictionary, which solves the perplexity expressed by us in our issue of last week, in the article on this will [id est, the will of Sir Nicholas Alwyn, 1505], as to the word 'herse' in connexion with the business of a wax-chandler. We are told that the origin is the French herce,' a harrow, an implement which in that country is made in a triangular form, not square, as with us. Hence the name 'herce,' or 'herche,' was given to a triangular framework of iron, used for holding a number of candles at funerals and church ceremonies. The quantity of candles being the great bore them came to be used for the whole funeral obsedistinction of the funeral, the name of the frame which quies, or for the cenotaph at whose head the candles were
FOLK-LORE: BLACK-EDGED NOTE PAPER (6th S. i. 55, 94).—I should have mentioned (ante, p. 55) that this was told me by an Irish lady. I do not know of any similar belief in Scotland. The feel-placed, and finally for the funeral carriage." ing here has rather been that everything should be kept ready for a death. To make her shroud and that of her husband was the first work of a young Scotch bride in the beginning of this century. "I can well remember," says Mr. Napier, "the time when in my father's house these things were spread out to air before the fire. This was done periodically, and these were days when mirth was banished from the household and everything was done in a solemn mood. The day was kept as a Sabbath" (West of Scotland Folk-lore, p. 55).
WILLIAM GEORGE BLACK.
1, Alfred Terrace, Glasgow. Though Mr. Henderson does not strengthen the impression by anything he says in Folk-lore in the Northern Counties, I seem to remember having been told by a Yorkshire woman that it is unlucky
Mayor of London in the fifteenth year of Henry Sir Nicholas Alwyn appears to have been Lord VII. He is chiefly memorable on account of his will, which is replete with instructions as to the nature of his funeral, and the particular sums of money which are to be spent on the several items. That portion of the will which relates to the "herse," runs as follows:-"I will that John Asshe, Wexchaundeler, shall make an honest herse for me, and to fynde thereto, at his cost, all the wex and werkmanship thereto belonging for the same charge, 10 marks." This point seems to be worth notice, for though the etymology of "hearse” may be known to a number of your readers, there are possibly many persons to whom this notice may be interesting. Although I have hinted that Sir Nicholas was chiefly memorable on account of his
will, I must not omit to mention that he was a worthy citizen, and filled the posts of alderman and sheriff with distinction. Lord Lytton introduces him, in The Last of the Barons, both as the lover of Sybil and the sturdy fighting man who Ikilled with his shaft ". no less a person than the Duke of Exeter." RICHARD EDGCUMBE.
Stone Hall, Plymouth.
JADE.-Prof. Max Müller, in his letter on " Jade Tools," published in The Times of Jan. 15, says: "In Chinese we find from the most ancient to the most recent times the recognized name for jade-viz., yu or chia. It is mentioned as an article of tribute in Prof. Legge's translation of the Shu-king (Sacred Books of the East, vol. iii. p. 72), and it is curious to find in that, as we are told, most ancient among ancient books, articles such as "gold, iron, silver, steel, copper, and flint stones to make arrow-heads, all mentioned together as belong. ing to the same period, and all equally acceptable as tribute to the imperial court."
The following quotations from Mr. Giles's translation of the Liao-chai-chih-i (finished in 1679), of P'u Sung-ling, will illustrate the value set upon jade in the Celestial Empire :
"When the dinner was taken away, a course of rare fruits was put on the table, the names of all of which it would be impossible to mention. They were arranged in dishes of crystal and jade, the brilliancy of which lighted up the surrounding furniture."-Strange Stories from a Chinese Studio (1880), vol. i. p. 249.
"Now Prince Wu had a favourite concubine, who was a skilful player on the guitar; and the nuts of the instrument she used were of warm jade, so that when played upon there was a general feeling of warmth throughout the room."-Ibid., p. 347.
"The astrologer made some very complimentary remarks to Tseng, at which he fanned himself and smiled, saying, 'Have I any chance of ever wearing the dragon robes, and the jade girdle?" [that is, of rising to the highest offices of state]."-Ibid., p. 387.
"In a few minutes she came back, and said the Queen requested him to walk in; and in he went, through a number of doors, trembling all the time with fear, until he reached a hall, the screen before which was ornamented with green jade and silver."-Ibid., vol. ii. p. 50. "Suddenly a girl's head appeared through the opening with very pretty features and nicely dressed hair; and the next moment an arm, as white as polished jade." -Ibid., p. 135.
gives his Hebrew Dictionarie (Lond., 1602, 8vo.), and Treatise of New Metallic Inventions (Lond., 1612, 4to.), and the Historical Society of Science (one of Mr. Halliwell's creations), promised as No. 14 of its publications an account of his mechanical instrument "the Merva," with other papers relating to him. I have
"While crossing the hills, he became very thirsty, and went into a village to ask for a drink of water: but water there was worth its weight in jade, and no one would give him any."-Ibid., p. 291.
"The etymologist of æsops fables, containing the construing of his Latine | fables into English: also The Etymologist of Phædrus | fables, containing the constru- ing of Phædrus (a new found yet | auncient Author) into English verbatim. | Both very necessarie helps for young schollers. | Compiled by Simon Stvrtevant. I [Emblem, a hand pointing upward to a star, with motto, "Devs imperat astris."] London, | Printed by Richard Field for Robert Dexter, dwelling at the Signe of the brazen Serpent in | Paules Church-yard. 1602. | cvm privilegio.'
"When the wine was nearly finished, he went to a box and took from it some wine-cups, and a large and beautiful jade tankard, into the latter of which he poured a single cup of wine, and lo! it was filled to the brim. They then proceeded to help themselves from the tankard; but however much they took out, the contents never seemed to diminish."-Ibid., pp. 313-14.
WILLIAM GEORGE BLACK.
1, Alfred Terrace, Glasgow.
Very small 8vo. pp. 8 (unpaged) and 162. There is an interesting address "To the industrious and discreet Schoolemaister," running title "To the reader," which might well be reprinted in some library of schoolmasters. JOHN E. B. MAYOR. Cambridge.
SIMON STURTEVANT, of Chr. Coll., Cambridge, M.A., 1593 (B.A. not recorded), seems to have been a teacher of varied acquirements. Watt
DEGENERATION OF TYPE.-Lately reading a prospectus of "Macmillan's Copy-books" (I think it was), I noticed it stated as a recommendation that the copy slips are movable, so that the pupil can shift them each line, and so go on copying the original instead of his own copy of it, whereas, in ordinary copy books, he copies his own lines one after the other, making his defects worse each time, so that the bottom line is furthest from the original type. Now this is exactly what Mr. Evans has shown to have happened in the case of the ancient British coinage, in the latest examples of which the Greek prototype can scarcely be recognized at all. We see the same in those sham Hebrew coins which are made for sale.
Bp. Hatfield's Hall, Durham.
J. T. F.
letters. He describes a royal hunt at Fontaine-stock-jobbers at Jonathan's; sharpers at Hippobleau, in 1739, as follows:lito's; and virtuosos at the "Grecian."
66 Amongst the diversions at Fontainebleau, I was at one that is ushered in with a great deal of magnificence, viz., a hunting match, which the King very seldom misses a day. The rendezvous is at a fixed hour, in a large forest; where it is surprising to see what a number of fine English hunting horses come bounding in. As soon as his Majesty, &c., arrive, the stag is unharboured; the King, who is the best of horsemen, is always foremost in the chase. There is something very noble and delightful in the sight of two or three hundred horsemen streaming after him along the plain: no body is permitted to ride before him; and if it happens to be a wet day, he takes delight in riding slow, and in having every body soaked about him. His dogs are almost as sacred as his own person for great precaution is taken, that no one ride amongst them; and they are all marked with the sign of the Cross; an incitement, they imagine, to swiftness, as well as a defence from the head of a stag, or the tusk of a boar." RALPH N. JAMES.
W. I. R. V. "THE VICAR AND MOSES."-Although I do not know that many readers will care to learn who wrote this humorous but not too reverent ballad, I will transcribe a MS. note from an old copy of the words and music, of about the year 1770, which tells us that it was "By The Rev. Phanuel Bacon, whose Father was Vicar of St. Lawrence, Reading." P. B.
FAMILY OF DICKENS.-As I formerly lived for some years in the parish of Bobbington, Staffordshire, I naturally take an interest in anything that relates to it; and I have also known the parish of Churchill, Worcestershire, from my boyhood. The following passage, on which I have just lighted, in Mr. John Noake's account, of the parish of Churchill, has, therefore, great interest for me;
PARALLEL PASSAGES. (1.) Spenser, Colin it might also interest the readers of "N. & Q."
Clouts come Home Againe:
"Her name in every tree I will endosse,
That as the trees do grow her name may grow."
Ovid, Heroides, v. 21-24 :
"Incise servant a te mea nomina fagi,
Et legor Enone, falce notata, tua:
Et quantum trunci, tantum mea nomina crescunt:
Dante, Inferno, canto i. :—
"E come quei, che con lena affannata
Si volge all' acqua perigliosa, e guata."
if there is any authority for his statement concerning our great novelist :
"The Dickens family of Bobbington were lords of this manor from 1432 to 1657, and it is said that from this family Mr. Dickens, the author, is descended."-Rambler in Worcestershire, iii. 251 (Longmans, 1854). Mr. John Forster is silent as to the ancestry of Charles Dickens. CUTHBERT BEDE.
MOUNTING OF AUTOGRAPH LETTERS.-A small space is almost invariably left at the left-hand edge of each page of a letter for the purpose of fixing the sheet of paper firmly under the hand of the writer. Of late I have made use of this space, by doubling the sheet at the commencement of my autograph letters, and using it for the purpose of gumming or pasting the letter on a page of my album. None of the manuscript is thus lost sight of, and each half of the letter is safely turned over on a firm and flat surface. M. D. K.
THE SULKY.-This was a two-wheeled vehicle, drawn by one horse, much used by country medical practitioners some forty years ago. It deserves to be added to the list of conveyances given some time back in "N. & Q.," for the seat was only broad enough for one person, and the driver was thus spared the occasional trial to his tired horse of giving a friendly lift to any chance pedestrian on the road. M. D. K.
LONDON LIFE IN 1720.-An interesting MS., apparently compiled by a member of the Southwell family as a guide to the most eminent persons and to whatever was worthy of observation in the metropolis at this period, names the different diversions of the town, and the places where persons of most classes met. Under the heading "Miscellanies," agents are stated to be found at "Old Man's Coffee-house"; beaux-esprits at the "Rainbow"; the clergy at Child's; chess players at Slaughter's; gamesters at White's; physicians at BRASS IN ST. PATRICK'S CATHEDRAL, Dublin. Tom's; poets at Button's; land officers at "Young-I should be very much obliged if any of your Man's," in the Tilt Yard; sea officers at Will's; correspondents could lend me a good rubbing of
We must request correspondents desiring information on family matters of only private interest, to affix their names and addresses to their queries, in order that the answers may be addressed to them direct.