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trenchments, attacked the allies in flank with such impetuosity that they could no longer resist his fury. The hostile shock of these armies, each of them enflamed by national enmity, and exasperated to the highest degree by the preceding events of the war, was bloody and destructive beyond all that had been known' in Italy for many years. The whole body was in immediate action.3 The courage of the Spanish infantry changed more than once the fortune of the day. In the declining state of the allied army+ the Marquis of Pescara made an impetuous attack on the wing of the enemy with the whole of 5 the light cavalry, but was repulsed with great loss, and after a severe conflict the allies were compelled to give way, and to seek their safety by flight. All their artillery, standards, and equipage, fell into the hands of the enemy, and upwards of nine thousand of the allies lay dead on the field. But if the Italians and Spaniards had just reason for lamentation, the French had no cause for 10 rejoicing. The number of their slain is stated to have exceeded 11 even that of the allies, and to have amounted to no less than 12 ten thousand five hundred men. But the greatest disaster of the French army was the death of the general in chief, Gaston de Foix, who, burning with 13 an insatiable thirst of slaughter, engaged,



| Beyond all that had been known, au delà de tout ce que l'on avait vu-2 for, depuis—3 the whole body was in immediate action, la masse entière se trouva dès lors engagée- in the declining state of the allied army, au moment où les alliés commençaient à fléchir_5 the whole of, toute6 to give way, de lâcher pied by flight, dans la fuite lay dead on the field, restèrent couchés sur le champ de bataille— had just reason for lamentation, avaient de bonnes raisons pour se lamenter_10 had no cause for, n'eurent point sujet delis stated to have exceeded, à ce que l'on rapporte, surpassa même-12 to have amounted to no less than, et ne s'éleva pas à moins de 13 with, de. 1, s'engagea......—2 a shot from an, un coup d3 untimely fate, mort prématurée—4 damped, refroidit—5 in the moment, à l'heure_6 his memory has seldom been adverted to...without the highest...and applause, son nom a rarement été prononcé...sans qu'on décernât à sa mé les applaudissements les plus chaleureux.

at the head of one thousand men, in the pursuit of three thousand Spanish infantry, and received a shot from an? harquebus, which instantly terminated his days. The untimely fates of this young hero damped the ardour of his countrymen in the moments of victory, and his memory has seldom been adverted to, even by the Italians themselves, without the highest admiration and applause.

ROSCOE, “Leo the Tenth."



The pretty fable by which the Duchess of Orleans * illustrated the character of her son, the Regent, might, with little change, be applied to Byron. All the fairies, save one, had been bidden to his cradle. All the gossips had been profuse of their gifts. One10 had bestowed nobility, another genius, a third beauty. The malignant elf who had been uninvited came last, and, unable toll reverse what her sisters had done for their favourite, had 12 mixed up a curse with every blessing. In the rank of Lord Byron, in his understanding, in his character, in his

7 Illustrated, montra dans tout son jour—8 with little change, à quelques changements près—9 be applied, s'appliquer—10 one, l'une11 unable to, ne pouvant-12 had, elle avait.

* The second wife of Philip, Duke of Orleans, brother of Louis XIV.

† The Regent governed France during the minority of Louis XV., 1715-1723.

He was

very person, there was a strange union of opposite extremes. He was born to all that men covet and admire. But in every one of those eminent advantages which he possessed over others was mingled something of misery and debasement.3 sprungt from a house, ancient indeed and noble, but degraded and impoverished by a series of crimes and follies which had attained a scandalous publicity. The kinsman whom he succeeded had died poor, and, but for merciful judges, would have died upon the gallows. The young peer had great intellectual powers; yet there was an unsound part6 in his mind. He had naturally a generous and feeling heart; but his temper was wayward and irritable. He had a head which statuaries loved to copy, and a foot the deformity of which the beggars in the streets mimicked.? Distinguished at once by the strength and by the weakness of his intellect; affectionate yet perverse; a poor lord® and a handsome cripple, he required, if ever man required, 10 the firmest and most judicious training. But, capriciously as nature had dealt with him," the parent to whom the office of forming his character was entrusted 12 capricious still. She passed from paroxysms of rage to paroxysms of tenderness. At one time she stifled





! In his very person, jusque dans sa personne— to, avecm3 something of misery and debasement, quelque chose de misérable et de bas

sprung, issu—5 and but for merciful judges, et s'il n'eût eu affaire à des juges indulgents—6 unsound part, élément défectueux–7 the deformity of which the beggars in the streets mimicked, à la difformité duquel les mendiants des rues insultaient—8 a poor lord, grand seigneur sans patrimoine—a handsome....... ......aux beaux traits o he required, if ever man required, il exigeait, autant qu'homme l'exigea jamais-11 capriciously as nature had dealt with him, toute capricieuse que la nature avait été à son égard—12 office......entrusted, tâche...... dévolue.

him with her caresses ; at another time she insulted his deformity. He came into the world ; and the world treated him as his mother had treated him, sometimes with fondness, sometimes with cruelty, never? with justice. It indulged him without dis

3 crimination, and punished him without discriinination. He was truly the spoiled child, not merely the spoiled child of his parent, but the spoiled child of nature, the spoiled child of fortune, the spoiled child of fame, the spoiled child of society. His first poems were received with a contempt which, feeble as4 they were, they did not absolutely deserve. which he published on his return from his travels was, on the other hand,5 extolled far above its merits. At twenty-four he found himself on the highest pinnacle of literary fame, with Scott, Wordsworth, Southey, and a crowd of other distinguished writers beneath his feet. There is scarcely an instance in history of so sudden a rise to so dizzy an eminence. 10

MACAULAY, Essays."

The poem


I asked him what he really thought of the talents of the Emperor Napoleon as a great general. He said, “I have always 12 considered the presence of

1 At one another time, tantôt...... tantôt – never ......, .....jamais—3 indulged, flatta—4 feeble as, tout faibles que—5 on the other hand, au contraire_6 far above, bien au delà de— on the highest pinnacle, à l'apogée—8 beneath his feet, au-dessous de lui— there is, etc.......history, il se rencontre à peine dans l'histoire un autre exemple10 so dizzy an eminence, une hauteur si étourdissante. 11 As a, comme—12 he said I have always, j'ai toujours, me dit-il.


Napoleon with an army as equal to an additional force of 40,000 men, from his superior talent, and from the enthusiasm which his name and presence inspired into3 the troops ; and this was the more disinterested on my part because4 in all my campaigns I had then never been 5 opposed to 6 him. When I was in Paris in 1814 I gave this very? opinion in the 8

I presence of several Prussian and Austrian generals who had fought against him, and you have no idea o 9 of the satisfaction and pleasure it gave them to think that, though defeated, they had had such odds against them.” 10

On 11 another occasion the Duke also said that he thought Napoleon 12 superior to Turenne,* Tallard,+ or any 13 of the old generals of former times; but Napoleon had this advantage over every other general, himself in particular, that his power was unlimited. He could order everything on the spot as he pleased ; 14 if he wanted reinforcements, they were sent; if to 15 change the plan of a campaign, it was changed ; if

.; to reward services, he could confer honours on the field of battle; whereas the Duke and other generals were obliged to write home to Ministers 16 and wait

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· From, à cause de — and from the, et de l'_3 into, à—4 the more ......because, d'autant plus......que—5 I had then never been, je ne m'étais jusqu'alors jamais trouvé—6 opposed to, face à face avec7 I gave this very, j'émis précisément cette --8 in the, en--, you have no idea, vous ne vous faites pas d'idée—10 they had had such odds against them, ils avaient eu affaire à si forte partie – 11 on, dans—12 he thought N., il considérait N. comme—13 any, à tout autre_14 as he pleased, comme bon lui semblait-

:-15 if to, s'il voulait—16 to write home to Ministers, d'écrire à leurs Ministres.

* Henri de la Tour d'Auvergne, Viscount de Turenne, one of the greatest captains of modern times, was born at Sedan, in 1611, and was killed by a cannon ball in 1675.

+ Camille d'Hostun, Duke de Tallard, a marshal of France, was born in 1652, and died in 1728.

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