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sidered a desideratum, in order not only to give notice that the dog is on game, but also the particular kind which he is “questing," and which many good spaniels enable their masters to distinguish by a variation in their notes. Formerly this was thought so important, that if a spaniel happened to be mute, he was hunted with a bell round his neck, as is sometimes done with the setter when used in covert. In the present day, a very fashionable breed (the Clumber), is invariably mute; but as these dogs are chiefly used in aid of the battue, there is not the same necessity for them to give notice of their approach, as in the case of spaniels used either in wild-pheasant shooting, or for cocks, hares, or rabbits. It will therefore appear, that, for every kind of covert shooting but the battue, we require a strong useful spaniel, capable of bearing exposure to the weather, and neither too large for the runs, nor too small to bear work. Added to these qualities, we want an exquisite nose, and a musical but not noisy tongue, which is all the more valuable if it will distinguish by its note the various kinds of game. These dogs must also be readily kept under command, and must not be inclined to hunt far away from the shooter, or so fast as to prevent his following them. For various purposes a vast number of breeds have been established, more or less resembling each other, and a good many of them being now extinct, in consequence of the diminished demand for their services since the introduction of battues and their attendant preserves, by which, as a matter of course, wild covert shooting is rendered much more scarce. All the spaniels have a marked down carriage of their tails, which they work rapidly when on game, but should never raise above the level of their backs. All these various breeds may, however, be arranged under two leading divisions : one known as “the Springer,” and including the Sussex, Clumber, and Norfolk Spaniels, besides several others confined to their respective localities; and the other called “the Cocker,” from his being chiefly used for woodcocks, though also good for general purposes. The King Charles and Blenheim originally belonged to the second division, but they are now kept and bred for toy purposes only.
The springer has a most tender and discriminating nose, is very tractable, and therefore easily kept in command. As has been already remarked, some are mute (as the Clumber), while others throw their tongues, as, for instance, the Sussex and the Nurfolk. All the springers are heavy and slow as compared with the cockers, and most of them soon tire, three or four hours' work being about a good average day's work. Hence, they are scarcely adapted for beating large and wild woodlands, and for this reason they are seldom used for cock-shooting, excepting in small coverts frequented by this bird, and highly valued by the sportsman.
The Clumber spaniel, which for a long time was confined to the Newcastle family, but has lately become very fashionable, is a remarkably long, low, and somewhat heavy dog. In weight he is from 30 to 40 lbs. Height 18 to 20 inches. The head is heavy, wide, and full, the muzzle broad and square, generally of a flesh colour. Nostrils open, and chops full and somewhat pendent. Ears long, and clothed with wavy hair, not too thick. Body very
long and strong, the back ribs being very deep, and the chest being very round and barrel-like, the ribs at the same time being so widely separated from each other as to make the interval between them and the hips small in proportion to the great length. Tail
bushy, but not at all woolly, the hair being waved only, not curled. It is generally cropped. Shoulders rather heavy and wide apart, arms short but strong, elbows not very well let down, fore arms strong, with plenty of bone, good knees, and strong useful round feet, but not very well up in the knuckles. The legs should be well feathered, and the feet hairy. The hind legs are rather straight, and should, like the fore legs, be short, so that the dog altogether has rather a weasely appearance, but the body being considerably stouter in proportion than that animals. The coat is very thick, but should be silky and wavy, not curled, except in the featherings, which are long and well marked. Colour, yellow and white, or, as is most highly prized, lennon and white. This dog is almost invariably mute.
The Sussex spaniel differs from the Clumber in shape and colour, as well as in his “questing,” his note being full and belllike, though sharp. In height and weight there is not much difference, nor is the general character of the head very distinguishable from that of the Clumber ; but in length he is not nearly so remarkable as that dog, though still long and low, the body being very round and full, indicating great power. The coat also is pretty nearly the same in quality, being soft and silky, though thick and free from distinct curls; and this dog is also beautifully feathered. The head is not quite so heavy about the muzzle, but very square above the eyes, and with an expression of exceeding gravity and intelligence. The ears are full in length, lobe-shaped, but not very thickly covered with hair. Muzzle broad, with the under jaw receding more than in the Clumber, and the point of the nose of a liver-colour. The whole body is also of a decided liver-colour, but with rather a golden shade, not so puce as that of the Welsh or Devonshire cockers, or the Irish water spaniel. Legs and feet very strong, and well feathered. Tail generally cropped, and well clothed with wavy hair. The bitches are usually smaller than the dogs. All of this breed throw their tongues, and when kept to cocks or pheasants, they readily indicate their scent by a sharper note than usual.
* Bred by the late A. E. Fuller, Esq., of Rose Hill, Brightling, Sussex, and descended from the celebrated stock of Mr. Moneypenny, of Rolvendon.
The Norfolk spaniel resembles a thick-made English setter in shape and general proportions, but is of smaller size, seldom exceeding 17 or 18 inches in height. The colour is black and white, or liver and white, accompanied by ticks of either on the white. This is a very useful breed, and it is now generally spread throughout England, where, however, it is not kept very pure, being crossed with the Clumber and Sussex, and also with the innumerable other breeds which are met with in other counties.