« AnteriorContinuar »
May 19, 1830.]
Removal of the Indians.
(H. OF R.
has referred to the treaty held with the tribes of that State of the conditions of the compact; titles have been extinin the year 1785. I should have been spared the trouble guished for other States (where there was no such obligaof continuing the examination of subsequent treaties of tiou) to Cherokee lands, equal, if not greater than that that State, bad not the treaty of 1794, bearing a striking claimed by Georgia. It is a maxim which the law enforces resemblance to the treaty of Holston, held with the Che- between individuals, that they must be just before they rokees, and which, he contends, affects the rights of Geor- can be generous. It is equally correct iù its application gia, escaped his vigilant research. By the provisions of to communities or Governments ; and bad the United the treaty of 1794, the United States recognised the vari- States acted in conformity to this principle, Georgia would ous tribes in that State to be iodependent communities, by have had no just grounds of complaint. treating with them as such ; acknowledged the lands with But a different course has been pursued, and the consein their certain boundaries to be the property of the Sene- quences are, that that State bas an Indian population of ca aud other tribes of Indians; that they had the right to five thousand souls, quartered upon five inillion two hudthe use and enjoyment of the same: and that they and their dred and sixty-vine thousand one hundred and sixty acres posterity had the right of disposing of it-not to the people of land within her limits, if we include in the estimate the of New York, or to that State only, but to the people of the disputed territory; nor is this all: not content with the United States. Thus, the law of that State, which forbade rights of occupancy, they have erected within her bosom thero selling to any one else, and the treaty held with an independeot Government, and claim the right of enthem by this Government, differ.
forcing upon her citizeus their bloody code. Under these Iu 1826, when a resolution was moved in this House, circumstances, the alternative was preseuted, either to acproposing an inquiry into the expediency of making an quiesce, and tacitly admit the lawfuluess of their pretenappropriation for holding a treaty with the Indians west sions to an independent Government, or, by an exertion of of the Genesee river, in that State, the argument was then ber sovereign authority, to prostrate all hopes to it. She advanced, that the Seneca tribe, and those west of the Ge. chose the latter course; and there is sufficient moral firm. Desee river, held under their original title, and stood in the dess in that State to execute ber lawful purposes, to dissame relation to the United States as other tribes. No regard unjust censure, the caut of hypocrisy, or the change bas taken place in their political condition since movement of a political party, however masked under the The laws of that State were then, and are now, operating imposing garb of philautbropy. But from this unpleasant upon them. When my colleague (Mr. Thompson) some situation it is desirable to be relieved; and is it not due to time since introduced to our consideration a resolution, her, that the United States should act with becoming libewith a view to ascertain the moral and political conditiou rality, not with tbe view only of their transmigration beof Indian tribes, we were then informed by the same gen yond the Mississippi, but to fulfil ber engagements with tleman, (Mr. STORRS] who advocated posite doctrives in Georgia, and meet the expectations which her citizens 1826, that all the Indians of that State should be exempt-reposed in the justice and integrity of this Government ? ed from the proposed inquiry, as they stood in a different There is no real or imaginary evil in voting for an approrelation to the United States to that of the Indians of other priation, however Inrge; no force is to be employed, uo States, as, by mutual understandiug, they had become the corrciou coutemplated. They will be left to their own voluntary depeudents of that State. Sir, in this I join issue judgment, and the adoption of their own course, unconwith the gentleman, and defy the production of any writ-trolled by the restraints or exactions of this Government. ten testimony which proves that the Seneca and other If, in the full exercise of this discretion, they should pretribes in that State ever corsented to the extension of the fer to ernigrate, sooner than to remain subject to the aujurisdiction of that State over them. Yet it was done by thority of the States, affording the means to them to do so her laws in 1822, and they have had no voice of pity raised is only a compliance, so far as the Cherokees are concern. in their behalf; no eye to see, or heart to feel for them. ed, with the obligations of the United States to Georgia. * Distance lends enchantment to the view" of those seek- Should they decline an exchange of situation, no difficulty ing objects on which feigned bumanity is to operate.
It will not be one of those fatal delusions Sir, it is unnecessary to further scan the course of po- where the error of misguided policy shall have comprolicy pursued by other States. Georgia would disdain to mitted the interest of the Government beyond the hope of exercise the authority if derived from precedents only. avoidance or escape. For, should the attempt be abortive, Let us proceed to inquire into the expediency of this Gto. the appropriation, to the extent it shall not bave accomvernment extending its aid in the exertion of all honorable plished its purpose, will remain unexpended. If successand necessary means to the effectuation of their removal ful, the United States will be reimbursed in the sale of and colonization. It is due to Georgia as a right, it is the lauds occupied by the Creeks, Choctaws, and that Decessary to preserve unimpaired the plighted faith of the portion of the lands occupied by the Cherokees in the United States, and will meliorate the coudition of the lo State of Alabama. 'Sir, if gentlemen are sincere in their dians themselves. The State of Georgia and the United regard for the future condition and welfare of the lodiaps ; States, sioce 1802. have occupied the attitude of creditor if feelings of disinterested benevolence are indulged for and debtor, without the benefit of an appeal to any tribu- them; let past experience be the guide to direct, and the nal or umpire to enforce the obligation, or to determine remnants of other tribes serve as beacons to admonish wbether or not the debtor has acted in good faith. This against the causes of their extermination : whether they perplexing and unpleasant situation, as might have been bave been of a moral, physical, or political character, it expected, has been the fruitful source of controversy be matters not. Should they remaid where they are, ag certween the State and the Federal Governments. It should tain as a like cause produces the same effect, they will inbe desirable to all to remove the cause, and, by so doing, evitably experience the same fate. It is admitted that put a termination to their well founded complaints. By they, in common with the human family, indulge their lo. ihe compact, the United States, so soon as it could be done cal attachments; and, unless inducements are offered, or “ peaceably, and on reasonable terms," were bound to there is a hope of bettering their condition, that they will extinguish, for the use of Georgia, the possessory right of reluctautly abandon their present habitation. But it cannot the Indians to all the lands within the limits of that State. be denied but that there are countervailing considerations Twen'y-seven years have elapsed since the fulfilment of to induce a removal. Their game is destroyed. They this promise was assumed. Two new aod flourisbing States, are unfavorably situated to advance one grade above the rising with Georgia io population and wealth, have been wandering suvage, to the life of herdsmen, which is the erected out of the territory she parted with, as the con natural progrese of society. A sudden transition from the sideration of this undertakiog; and, in appareut disregard' former to the husbandman, is too great to be voluptarily
H. of R.)
Duty on Salt.
(May 21, 22, 1830.
adopted. It will not be until every other expedient is ex. jodious. It was hoped by the southern gentlemen who hausted, and necessity forces it on them. It is incompati- voted it id, that the bill would be thus drugged by too ble with their inclinations and habits of indolence. The beavy a dose to go down. In that they were disappointed, country to which they are invited is favorable in this point and he was glad to see a disposition, which had been ex: of view. Their relations and friends who have gone be pressed on a late occasion, by one of those who was in the fore them, have experienced the advantages of this change. vote, to updo what had in this respect failed to answer Instead (as has been stated in debate) of their sending the object intended. Mr. I. felt more solicitude on this back their curses on us, they are soliciting their tribes to subject
, at the present time, from having recently examined follow their example. Pass the bill on your table, and with care the report from the Treasury Department in there is no doubt but that a part will go at once, and ulti-regard to the commerce and navigation of the country for mately the balance could not be restrained-go they will the year past
. He found in that document that our trade Sir, we have bad the most favorable representation given with Cuba, the island from whence our greatest importaof the increasing improvement and comforts of the south. tions come, had declined nearly a million of dollars during eru Indians, and that urged as an objection to their re- the past year from what it bad usually beer. The cause moval
. It may be the case with a few chiefs and balf of this decline was principally to be attributed, as he learnt breeds; but those best acquainted with the mass of their from a most intelligent resident in that island, to the fact population, deny that it is so with them. Whoever bas that, under our present heavy duty upon molasses, taken in witnessed the progress of civilization, cannot be insensible connexion with the expense of freights and casks, the of the great disparity which it produces in their situation. islanders could not make sales of the article to us to any Its alvancement is slow, and confined to a few. It ele extent; and they now actually spread over their land, and vates their standing, and acquires for them a controlling use as manure, immense quaotities of molasses, which they influence, which is directed to the ailvancement of their would gladly exchange for the lumber and breadstuffs of our owo interest, and that of their immediate connexions. country, if we would but let the trade go on. Are gentle The notions of separate property, which it begets
, engen- men aware [said Mr. 1.) that the trade with Cuba is one of der feelings of avarice, and their intellectual superiority the most valuable branches of our foreigu commerce! It enables them to gratify this propensity. The consequence stands on the list next to England and France in amount; is, that the property of the nation is concentrated in the and strike out the articles of cotton and tobacco which go hands of few, while nine-tepths of them are proportionably to these countries, and it will exceed our trade with both miserably poor, abject, servile, and degraded. I care not to nations. Nay, sir, as a market for our breadstuffs, it is which tribe your attention may be directed, to the Creeks more valuable to us than all Europe. It is, too, a trade in or the Cherokees; the rapacity of the chiefs bas reduced which every section of this country is deeply interested them to this state of poverty and degradation. Sir, I am it has no sectional bearing: It takes, in large quantities, admonished, that, unless I conclude my remarks, I shall got the rice of the South, the Jumber of North Carolina, the preserve my pledge to this House. † bave, as briefly as I grain and beef of the West which descend the Mississippi
, could, presented my views on the most prominent points and find there almost their only foreigo market-the flour introduced into this discussion. If the success of the bill of the middle States, the corn meal, lumber, and live stock has not been advanced by it, I have the consolation of of New England. Besides this, immense quantities of our knowing that I have discharged my duty.
manufactured articles find an outlet there; not those After negativing, during the evening, motions both for manufactures which were noxious to some parts of this the previous question and for adjournment, about a quar- country, but those which are produced in the workshops ter past ten o'clock a motion to adjourn prevailed; and, of our mechavics in every State of the Union--such as after a session of twelve hours,
bats, leather, carriages, shoes, harnesses, soap, candles, The House adjourned.
and cabinet furniture. A trade like this (said Mr. I.] is
one of the last that should be shackled. We impose hcavy THURSDAY, MAY 20, 1930.
duties on European goods, because we cannot barter away
our breadstuffs or agricultural products for them: but here DUTY ON SALT.
is a market which offers to take every thing that you will The bill reported yesterday, for reducing the duty on seod-it invites to it every interest that can be named. salt, being read a second time,
Why then cripple it by an ungenerous regulation of your Mr. KING, of New York, moved that the bill be com- own; and why 'visit your heaviest tax upon the bumblest mitted to the Committee of the Whole House.
article which goes into the consumption of the poorest Mr. McDUFFIE opposed this course, as merely going people of the country? to produce delay and a defeat of the bill, which, if there Mr. I said, he would say a few words as to the proposed was a majority favorable to the object, should be acted on reduction of the duty on salt, as he might not have another immediately to effect its passage this session.
opportunity to give bis reasons for the votes he had given, Mr. INGERSOLL moved that the Committee of the or sbould gire, on that question. The salt trade of this Whole be iustructed to amend the bill, by adding thereto country bad not been correctly represented. We have the following section :
heard much of the salt tax, as bearing severely and pecu: " From and after the 30th September, 1890, the duty on liarly on the poor: and so far as that was the case, be could molasses shall be five cents per gallon, and no more ; and go as far as any man in extending relief. But there never from and after that time, a drawback be allowed on all was a time, even when salt was duty free, that it could be spirits distilled in this country from foreign molasses, on the bad cheaper than it now can, eren on the seaboard; and exportation thereof to any foreign country, the same as was never so cheap in the interior, near the extensive salt allowed before the tariff of 19th of May, 1828.”
works which have grown up under the operation of the Mr. I. said, if there was one article on wbich the tariff existing duty. The bulk of our importation of salt, and of 1828 operated unjustly, it was that which he now sought on which most of the duty operates, is not the coarse to relieve. The injustice of the double duty imposed op West India Salt used to pack provisious, and which is conmolasses, in 1828, would be very generally acknowledged, sumed principally by the poorer citizens ; but the refined, and by pone more frankly than those by whose votes the or blown enlt, as it is called, which we import from Liverincrease was effected. No man vow would deny, indeed, pool, or other ports of Great Britain. The value of foreign it had already been distinctly admitted on this door, that salt imported duriog the last year, as appears by the treamolasses was loaded with a beavy duty, at the period to sury returns, amounted to seven hundred and fourteen which he alluded, for the purpose of rendering the tarifi | thousand six hundred and eighteen dollars, of which four
MAY 21, 22, 1830.]
District Affairs.- Molasses and Rum.-Culture of Silk.
[H. OF R.
hundred and sixty-seven thousand two bundred and other session, and asked for the yeas and days; which thirteen dollars was importel, pot from Turk’s Island, or being ordered, from any, West India port, but from England and Ireland. The motion was negatived: yeas, 59-naye, 117. This kind is imported principally in its refined and manu. The bill was then ordered to be engrossed for a third factured state, for the tables of the rich, and is as fair a reading. subject for revenue as any one that can be named. He should be opposed to reducing the duty on this refined ar
Friday, May 21, 1830. ticle ; but would cheerfully reduce the duty on the coarse
MOLASSES AND RUM. and strong West India or Turk's Island salt, because that was used by the poor, and goes largely into the agricul Mr. McDUFFIE, from the Committee of Ways and tural operations of the country. He would reduce this, Means, reported the following bill : and leave the other untouched, for the same reason that “ Be it enacted, &c. That from and after the 30th day of be would reduce the duty on molasses and leave sugar un- September, 1830, the duty on molasses shall be five cents touched; in other words, lie would lighten the tax from per gallon, and no more; and from and after that time, those who are least able to pay, and let the burden rest on there shall be allowed a drawback of four cents upon every those who use the most expensive, or what are generally gallon of spirits distilled in the United States, or the terrideerned the most luxurious articles. Should the amend-tories thereof, from foreiga molasses, on the exportation ment which he vow offured prevail, he pledged himself to thereof to any foreign port or place, other than the dominfollow it up by another, making a discrimination on salt, ions of any foreigo State immediately adjoining the United that lie thought would be acceptable to every part of the States, in the same manner, and on the same conditions, as House.
before the tariff of May the 19th, 1828." Mr. FUCKER, for the purpose of bringing on a discus The bill being read the first and second time, sion upon the bill by itself, moved the previous question; Mr. McDUFFIE moved that the bill be engrossed for a which motion being seconded by a majority, and the pre- third reading: vious question being sustained by a vote, by yeas and Days, A call of the House was moved, and ordered, but susof 98 to 88,
pended before the Clerk had got through the roll. The main question was they put, viz., Shall the bill Mr. WICKLIFFE moved to lay the bill on the table, be engrossed, and read a third time f” and was decided in and asked for the yeas and pays on the motion; which bethe affirmative by the following vote : yeas, 103—Days, 88, ing ordered,
The question was taken, and the motion decided in the DISTRICT AFFAIRS.
negative: yeas, 55—Days, 120 ; and This being the day set apart by the rules of the House The bill was ordered to be read a third time, by a large for the transactiou of business relating to the District of majority. Columbia, Mr. BELL moved to suspend the rule, for the purpose
CULTURE OF SILK. of resuming the consideratiou of the bill for the removal The House resumed the consideration of the resolution of the Indians.
reported by Mr. SPENCER, of New York, a week or two Mr. POWERS and Mr. TAYLOR opposed the motion, ago, for printing ten thousand copies of Mr. Rush's report on the ground of the necessity for acting now on the bill on the culture of silk. for the punishment of crimes within the District, as further Mr. SPENCER replied to the objections which had delay would prevent its passage at all this session. As to been urged, on a former occasion, to this proposition, the provisions respecting slaves, the latter gentleman, al- contending for the established value of the information though be was opposed in principle to the discrimination contained in the report—the great importance of diffuswhich bad been contended for by the southern gentlemen, ing it through the country, in as much as silk might be he did not believe, as regarded the practical effect, that successfully cultivated in every part of the Union-the it was of much importance, and was willing to take the great value to the country of that culture, and the importquestion without a word of debate, and would be coutent, ance of encouraging it by the distribution of instruction bowsoever the House might decide it; he thought the com- in the various processes of the art ; to show all which, be promise which had been agreed on, ought to satisfy its op- adduced various facts and arguments, and a number of repopepts; but the bill in some sbape was indispensable. spectable authorities. Mr. S. concluded by offering a mo
Mr. ALEXANDER asserted that the people of the Dis- dification of the resolution, by order of the Committee on trict would rather the bill should lie over till the next ses- Agriculture, proposing to print thousand copies of the sion, than have it passed in the shape it was; and, after a report. few remarks from Mr. Mercer and Jir. Bailey,
Mr. HAYNES, of Georgia, moved that the resolution and The question was taken, and the House refused to sus- the amendment be laid on the table; and the question being pend the rule.
put, the motion was negatived: yeas, 71-pays, 92. Mr. ALEXANDER then banded to the Chair a letter Mr. POLK then rose to speak on the subject, but the exfrom sundry citizens of Alexandria, containing their rea- piration of the hour cut off further debate. sons agaiust extending the provisions of the bill to slaves ; and Mr. A. followed some remarks on the subject with a
SATURDAY, MAY 22, 1830. motion to postpone the bill till the first Monday in Decem
CULTURE OF SILK. ber next, with a view of collecting, in the mean time, through the commissioners, the sense of the people on it. The House resumed the resolution modified yesterday by
Mr. TAYLOR and Mr. POWERS opposed the motion, Mr. SPENCER, to read as follows: and Mr. J. S. BARBOUR advocated it.
Resolved, That six thousand copies of the report of the The question being taken, the motion to postpone was Committee on Agriculture, made to this House on the 13th negatived, by yeas and pays: yeas, 77—Days, 100. of March last, with the communication accompanying the
Mr. ALEXANDER theu moved a proviso to the bill: same, on the culture and manufacture of silk, and the like " that the act should not be construed to extend to slaves ;” number of copies of essays on American silk, by Messrs. and on a division of the House, without debate, the provi- Peter S. Duponceau and Jobo D'Homergue, recently pub80 was agreed to: yeas, 81-Days, 77.
lished, be printed for the use of the House. Mr. PEARCE then moved tunt the bill be laid on the Mr. POLK opposed the resolution, on the ground that table, with a view vot to call it up this sersion, or any there was no more propriety in printing, and paying for,
H. OF R.)
Culture of Silk.-Removal of the Indians.
(MAY 24, 1830.
out of the contingent fund of the House, instructions in Mr. STORRS replied, and contended that no treaty in the art and mystery of cultivating silk, than in printing existence contained the provision which his amendment ? and distributing the American Farmer, Taylor's Arator, proposed, and that it was therefore necessary and expea work on Farriery, or any other treatise on any branch of dient. rural economy, &c.
Mr. WAYNE denied what the amendment assumed, Mr. CHILTON also opposed what he considered tax- namely, that the Cherokees were a nation independent of ing the community some two or three thousand dollars, to the Siate of Georgia. He expressed a deterniination to print books for the use of the members, and to distribute take an opportuniry of going to the foundation of this amongst their friends ; and argued generally against the question of Indian rights, and that whatever credit genpractice of voting money out of the treasury for the pur- tlemen might obtain for a fanciful eloquence, they should chase of books for private use. He had no doubt when not have the benefit of the argument. the people recovered their senses_recovered from that Mr. WILDE called for tbe reading of the eighth article convulsion, that apoplexy, in wbich they had been thrown of the treaty with the Cherokee Indians west of the Mis. by political demagogues, they would rectify this sort of sissippi
, of May 26, 1828, as a reply to the resolutiin of retrenchinent and reform. He concluded a number of re. Mr. STORRS. marks of the like trains, by moving to lay the resolution Mr. VINTON argued that as that treaty was made by the on the tnble, but withdrew it at the request of
Cherokees west of the Mississippi, it had no binding efMr. SPENCER, who argued to show that the works fect on the Cherokees remaining on the cast of the Missiswhich it was proposed to distribute, were not accessible sippi. He commented on that treaty as a direct and gross to the people generally; that they were on a subject of violation of all justice, and expressed the indignation he immense importance to the country, and one which ought bad always felt at such an attempt to violate the rights of to be encouraged by the House ; that the cost of the pub- third persons. lication was insignificant, compared with the value which Mr. BURGES contended that the treaty of 1828 was it would be to the whole Union, &c. When Mr. S. con practically a fraud, a deep nnd lasting disgrace to the last cluded,
administration, and that ibis bill contained, by implication, Mr.CONNER moved to lay the resolution on the table: a confirmation of that fraud, now attempted to be palmed on which motion the yeas and pays were ordered, at the upon this nation; to sustain which opinions, he adverted to call of Mr. BAYLOR; and, being taken,
the history of the treaty, and the circumstances growing The motion was negatived: yeas, 76-Days, 97.
out of it. Mr. CHILTON theo renewed his opposition to the re Mr. JENNINGS made a few remarks. solution, and spoke until the expiration of the hour.
Mr. LEWIS opposed the amendment, and argued to
show that the treaty which had bee! depounced, was just MONDAY, MAY 24, 1830.
and proper, and cited the treaty with the Indians eart of CULTURE OF SILK.
the Mississippi, lo show that the bill before the House was The House resumed the consideration of the resolution He read the Journal, to show that many gentlemen who
in conformity to the settled policy of the Government. reported by the Committee on Agriculture, to print six thousand copies of certain tracts on the culture of silk, &c. :pposed this bill, supported precisely the same provisions Mr. CHILTON, to get rid of further debate on the sub inferred from that, that the oppositiou to it was a party
in 1826, when recommended by a different President; ject, moved the previous question ; which being seconded, and the main question ordered,
opposition to the administration, and to the South ; that as Mr. MARTIN required a division of the question ; and
this bill was known to be the leading mensure of the preThe question being accordingly put on the first member sent President, it was an object of great solicitude with of the resolution, viz., " That'six thousand copies of the the opposition to defeat it; and therefore called on those report of the Committee on Agriculture, made to this who avowed themselves the supporters of the administra. House on the 12th of March, 1828, with the communication, to sustain this measure; that, if they did not, they tion accompanying the same, [Mr. Rush's report] on the would be faithless, and traitors to their party. Mr. L. then culture of silk," be printed, it was decided in the affirma: proceeded at some length to vindicate
the policy of the tive by yeas and nays: yens, 109-nays, 68.
bill, and in reply to Messrs. STORRS and EVERETT. When The second member of the resolution, viz., “And tbe
he concludeil, like pumber of copies of essays on American silk, by Pevusylvanin (Mr. Hemphill] was about to offer an
Mr. STORRS rose, and said, that, as a gentleman from Messrs. Peter S. Duponceau and Jobo D'Homergue, re; amendment to the bill, of a more extensive effect, and cently published, be printed for the use of the House," which would supersede the amendment now before the was then also agreed to by yeas and pays-100 to 80. So the whole of the resolution was agreed to.
House, he would withdraw it until the question could be
taken, or that wbich he (Mr. H.] was abuut to propose. REMOVAL OF THE INDIANS.
Mr. EVERETT, of Muesachusetts, replied briefly to The House the proceeded to the unfinished business Mr. Lewis's reference to himself, w which, among other of Wednesday last, being the bill providing for the re. remaks, he observed, that, if the provisions of the present moval of the Indians beyond the river Mississippi—the bill were precisely the same as those which be had supportquestion pending being on a motion for the previous ques- ed in 1826, it was singular that the gentlemen who now tion,
advocate this should have voted agaiust tbat, as was the On trying the sense of the House on seconding the mo- case with the members from Georgia itself; and he vindition for the previous question, only seventy-eight rose, cated himself from the imputation of being influenced in and the motion was therefore not seconded by a majority his course on this subject by party considerations. of tbe House.
Mr, THOMPSON said that be did not rise to enter into The question then recurred on the amendment.
A general discussion, at that time, of the subject then beMr. BELL opposed the amendments, and argued briefly fore the House-that although he had purposely abstained that the bill itself proposed an appropriation only tv carry from a participation in the discussion of any of the various into effect existing contracts and treaties with the lodian subjects which had engaged tire attention of the House tribes, according to their construction by the Government, during the present session, with a special view to secure to and introduced no new policy, as was contended by the himself the privilege of discussing this subject at some opposition to it. Therefore, the amendment was unneces- length, yet considerations of an important character had Bary.
disposed him to abstain from the discussion; por would be
MAY 24, 1830.]
Removal of the Indians.
(H. of R.
now trouble the House with any remarks upon the subject, Chief Magistrate of the Union, and the white population for be thought the cause of principle and humanity could may be driven into the Atlantic by a retrocession of the be better served by voting than by talking; but the gentle whole territory to the aboriginal inhabitants of this contiman from Massachusetts (Mr. EVERETT) bad, op two oc. dent. Any or all the States of this Union might be sold casions, alluded to the vote which the delegation from by him to a foreigo power. These [said Mr. T.) were Georgia gave on the call of the late Presideut of the United the views which influenced the delegation from Georgia States (Mr. Adams) for an appropriation to carry what is to give their vote against the treaty made by Mr. Adams commonly called the new treaty into effect. Mr. T. said with the Creek lodians, as well as against the appropriathat he felt that it was due to Georgia—to the gentlemen tion to carry it into effect. And the principles upon which who composed that delegation—to correct principles to the delegation from Georgia acted on that occasion, are, it the House, and to the American people, to state concisely seems to me, (said Mr. T.] such as ought to have induced the principles which influenced the Georgia delegation on every bovest and correct man, wbo had any knowledge of that occasion. In February, 1825, [said Mr. T.] commis- coustitutional principles and provisions, to vote in opposisioners appointed on the part of the United States for the tion to such a daring violation of constitutional principles, purpose, entered into compact with the Creek Indians, at such a monstrous stretch of executive power, as was comthe Iudian Springs, by wbich they relinquished their claim mitted by Mr. Adams on that occasion. to all territory within the limits of Georgia. This com Mr. VINTON then took the floor, and addressed the pact was transmitted to the seat of the General Govern- House two hours against tbe bill. When he concluded, ment, adıl, with objections to its validity, was presented to seven or eight members rose; but the President, who laid ibat instrument, with the objections Mr. DESHA, having obtained the floor, moved the preto it, before a cabinet couucil; and under the advice of the vious question. council the treaty, with the objections, was presented to Mr. THOMPSON. of Georgia, moved a call of the House. the Senate for ratification. That body, by a very large ma Mr. LAMAR, of Georgia, demanded the yeas and pays jority, gave their sanction to it. But before the ratification on this motion; which being taken, the call was ordered received executive sanction, the Presidential chair changed by a vote of 128 to 29. incumbents. Mr. Adams, who was a member of the couu The roll was then called, when it appeared there were cil who advised Mr. Mooroe to lay the subject before the seven members absent, two of whom soon after entered Sepate, succeeded to tbe Executive chair, and finally gave the Hall; and, after some time, the Executive sanction to tbat ratification. Thus (said Mr. BROWN moved a suspension of further proceedMr. T.] that treaty, having received fival constitutivual ings, which motion was decided by yeas and nays in the sanction, became a supreme law of the land, and of course affirmative. was by the constitution placed on the same diguified The motion for the previous question recurring, the ground with the constitution itself, for that instrument says House divided, and, tellers being appointed by the Chair, that “this coostitution, and laws of the United States they reported ninety-three for putting the previous queswbieb shall be made in pursuance thereof, and all treaties tion, and pipety.pipe against it. made, or which sbull be made, under tbe authority of the Mr. WAYNE said, this question should be discussed United States, shall be the supreme law of the land." with a deep sense of what is due to the reputation of our Now, sir, [said Mr. T.} the treaty of the Indian Springs country. Great moral principles are involved—the conhaving thus received constitutional sanctions, all the terri- struction of treaties is implicated the characters of States tory within the limits of Georgia, embraced by its provi- are at stake-the weak are supposed to be oppressed by sions, became a part of the sovereign State-for as Geor- the powerful—and a large portion of the most active benegia, by the issue of the American revolution, acquired the volence of our country is alert, to applaud or coodemn, right to exclusive sovereiguty within her limits, and as the to exult or to grieve, at the termination of our legislation. United States, by the compact with Georgia, iv 1802, It is true this benevolence is, in a degree, em bittered by bound themselves to extinguish the Indian title to all terri- party spirit ; and there are those bere who would pervert tory within Georgia, for the use of that State, the instant it to that mischievous end. Fapaticism has given to it a that those Indians thus relinquished their title, a full, per- coloring unfavorable to dispassionate judgment, and its fect, and complete title to the territory embraced by the purity is alloyed by selfishness. But it cannot be denied, provisions of ibat treaty witbin the limits of Georgia, vested for the memorials on your table show. it, that among those in that State, which could not be divested wiibout her who are opposed to the policy intended to be accomplishcobsent. Sir, (said Mr. T.] Mr. Adams, in bis opening ed by the bill
, there are many who are actuated by a spirit message addressed to Congress at the commencement of of disinterestedness, and a sincere sympathy for the Indian, the session wbich
immediatley ensued bis installation into excited by the misappreber:sion that he is about to be driven the Executive office, repudiated the treaty of the Indian from the forests of his fathers, and to be made the victim Springs, (1825,) by suggesting that it was founded in fraud, of tyrapoy. Sir, the opposition, however, to this bill
, but said he would make it the subject-matter of a separate neither in this House por out of it, bas been of a commendand special message. This promise was not redeemed ; able kind; and when its provisions shall be calmly examinbut Mr. Adams assumed the right to enter into treaty with ed, and its policy shall have been realized in the condena delegation from that part of the Creek tribe of lodians sation of an Indian population of sixty thousand souls in which was known as hostile to the United States during the region to which they are invited_living under the prothe late war, by which he re-ceded to that tribe a part of tection of this powerful nation- lifted up from the degrathe territory, a complete title to which bad, by the ratifi- dation of their savage babits into a state of society in all cation of the treaty of 1825, vested in Geogia, and this respects like our own, and running a parallel career of without the privity or consent of that Stute; thus virtu. comfort, independence, and political connexion with ourally ceding to an Indian tribe a part of a sovereign State. selves--the sagacity of the historian will be at no loss to Now, (said Mr. T.] if it was competent for Mr. Adams discover the causes of the opposition the plan bas bad to thus to re-cede to the Creek Indians a portion of territory encounter, and he will be forced to write, at least, a rewhich had thus become a part of a sovereign State, was it flection upon the short-sightedness and perverseness of not competent for him to re-cede to those lodians, as well that hostility which so perseveringly seeks to defeat a as to the Cherokees, all the territory obtained from them scheme so full of national disinterestedness and of moral by previous purchases ? And if so, what point of limita. grandeur, for the alleviation of human misery. But, sir, tion could bave stayed bis wasting band in a backward ihe present generation anticipates the condemnation of course of reckless policy? Concede this power to the posterity in our successful repulse of this opposition ; and