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daty. Well, we acknowledge that the presence of such a scholar in the school-room does refresh the wearied teacher's eye, as he glances about the room, somewhat as we can imagine an oasis in a desert to refresh the eyes of the weary traveler. But the true teacher, who feels that he is training men and women for the active, progressive life of American citizenship, will not for a moment wish that all his scholars were thus sedate. He will see in this very activity and restlessness the hope of the State, if rightly directed by him; but, if wrongly directed, its ruin. Then will he arouse himself to his work of patient labor and patriotic love, with new enthusiasm beaming in his eye. His starched-up dignity will be dissolved in his love for his work and his desire to do his duty faithfully. He will mingle freely with his pupils, study their characters and dispositions, seeking to give to each a word in season. When he sees one becoming inattentive or indifferent to study, rightly judging that there is a cause for this state of his pupil's mind, instead of rebuking him sternly, he quietly endeavors to search out and remove this cause.

He endeavors to teach his pupils that he is their friend, one to whom they may safely confide their peculiar trials, and to whom they may at all times look for counsel and direction. He does not conceive it a sïn to permit a real hearty laugh on the part of his school, whenever a fit occasion occurs. Of course, anything boisterous or rude should not be permitted, but there will be little tendency to rudeness in the presence of such a teacher. L.

BE TRUTIFUL With CHILDREN.-Some people tell lies to children with a view of enjoying a laugh at their credulity. This is to make a mock at sin, and they are fouls who do it. The tendency in a child to believe whatever it is told, is of God for good. It is lovely. It seems a shadow of primeral innocence glancing by. We should reverence a child's simplicity. Touch it only with truth. Be not the first to quench that lovely truthfulness by falsehoods. Ed. News.

“ SPARE MOMENTS.”
A wand'rer in a desert land,
A cup of water held in hand,
And sprinkling some upon the sand ;

"Spare drops !' he cries.
His brow though fevered, parched his lips,
The precious liquid scarce he sips,
And moistens but with finger-tips

His burning eyes.
“I have enough," he cries, “ of this,
These few small drops I ne'er shall miss,"
He little thinks how much of bliss

Hides in those drops !
The cup has fallen from his grasp !
'The fragments now the madman clasps,
And murmurs with his dying gasp,

"Come back, spare drops !
That water, time-drops, minutes are ;
We lavish without thought or care,
This wealth on objects frail though fair;

Nor heed its worth,
To guide the soul, refine the mind,
The broken heart of woe to bind,
And virtue's higliest joy to find

In blessing earth.
We have nn minutes given us,
Save as a noble, holy trust,
Which we, the spirit-linked-with-dust,

Should e'er give back,
Fraught with those deeds that love besťowy ;
So when our life-work finished shows,
No waymarks may appear but those,
Our course to track,

A. A schoolmaster announced to his pupils that the examination would soon take place. “ If you are examined in geography," said he, "you will be asked of what shape the earth is, and if you should not remember, just look at me, and I will show you my snuff-box, to remind you it is round.” Unfortunately, the schoolmaster had two spuff-boxes a round one, which he carried on Sunday, and a square one, which he carried during the week. The fatal day having arrived, and the question being asked, "What is the shape of the earth ?" the first boy, appalled by the appearance of the examining eommittee, felt embarrassed, and glanced at the master, who at once pointed to his snuff-box. “ Sir,” boldly answered the boy, “it is round on Sunday, and square all the rest of the week.

“ BOARDING ROUND." In the last issue of the Journal, I find a Report of a Common School Celebration in this place, at which the following resolution was unanimously adopted, viz:

“ Resolved, That the present practice of requiring the Teachers to board around the district is one of the few remaining relics of barbarism, and that the parent who is not willing to pay his just proportion of a tax for boarding the teacher in one place, is penny wise and pound foolish.”

Now it occurs to me, the above resolution does injustice to a class of parents who are still in favor of their teachers “boarding round," and was perbaps originated by some one who had no experience upon the parental side of this question. I submit then that this practice is not a relic of barbarism, but a custom of well regulated and enlightened communities, and may still be defended as good policy.

It does appear to me that it is better for the school to have the teacher board in this way, as a general rule, that ho may become more thoroughly acquainted with his scholars. In every school there will be found a great diversity of disposition among scholars, and it is only by diligent study of human nature as it is variously manifested that the teacher 'becomes qualified to restrain, prompt, control, and direct the studies, passions, thoughts and actions of his pupils.

If this be the case, that the more thoroughly and inti. mately the teacher is acquainted with the scholar, the better he is qualified to promote the interest of the same, then I submit that the teacher should " board round," as in do. ing this he will avail himself of one of the efficient means of making the necessary acquaintance.

It is only in this way also that the teacher can fully ap preciate the influences surrounding the scholar at home; and his management at home may, and often will, influence

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the judicious teacher in the course to pursuo with him at school.

But an acquaintance with the scholar is not the only advantage gained by this so-called barbarous practice. An acquaintance with the parents and guardians of the scholars is also necessary to successful teaching, at least in common schools. All will admit that much of the teacher's success depends upon the hearty co-operation and support of parents.

How then shall this co-operation be secured and perfected but by an intimate understanding of the teacher's qualifications, merits and demerits, enabling the parent to exercise discretion and judgment in directing their support? It is not by a loud and clamorous proclamation of the ability and talents of every teacher, whether merited or not, that his success is secured, but by a timely, and kindly word, fitly and truthfully spoken when needed. I submit then that it is by“boarding around” that the teacher can form a more perfect acquaintance with parents, and will be more likely, if qualified for his business, to interest them in his school and secure their heårty and necessary co-operation. I infer, therefore, that the parent who is not willing to pay his just proportion of a tax for board. ing a teacher in one place, is not necessarily“ penny wise and pound foolish,” but may be'actuated to this course by a higher consideration, even the best good of the school.

With this slight allusion to the resolution, written more to elicit the opinion of some others well qualified to give the subject a fair investigation, allow me to suggest that teachers who are not willing as a general rule to board around, under ordinary circumstances of health and convenience, may be suspected of being anxious to secure to themselves some time which would otherwise be spent more to the advantage of the school, or are too much ad. dicted to idleness and apathy, in fact are either a penny selfish or a pound lazy.

H. C. O.

MATHEMATICAL DEPARTMENT:

ERNEST C. F. KRAUSS, A. M., EDITOR. In no science is a clear understanding of the first privciples so indispensable to the pupil, to enable him to master the difficulties which a further study of the science must offer, as in Mathematics. I have seen students, who studied Logarithms and Conic Sections with some suo cess, always troubled when they had to deal with Nega tive Quantities, and whoever las not at the beginning fully comprehended the character and treatment of such quantities, will carry this want like a chronic disease through all his mathematical studies. Let us examine and dissect them with anatomical scrutiny.

1. Any quantity, as 10 feet, 20 years, 50 dollars, is ab solute as long as it is not taken in reference to a particular starting point. It ceases however to be such and be. comes relative, when a particular starting point is referred to. Thus the qnantities, 20 feet above level ground, 20 years after the Declaration of Independence, 50 dollars expense, are relative, for they are taken in reference to the particular starting points, level ground, time of Declaration of Independence, cash amount before such expense is made.

2. A relative quantity is either positive or negative. Namely, after a certain starting point has been stated or agreed upon, the quantities arising from this in a certain direction or sense are, either by statement or by conventional agreement, called positive, and then the expression negative is applied to such as are to be taken in the dia metrically opposite direction or sense. Hence positive and negative quantities are to be called opposite quantities.

If, for instance, the perpendicular distances from a certain level upward are taken positive, those downward are called negative. If the horizontal distances West of a certain point are positive, those East of the same are nega tive; if distances North of a certain point are positive,

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