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THE NEW YORK PUBLIC LIBRARY

ASTOR, LENOX
TILDEN FOUNDATIONS

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operation was very successful, and had it not been for the early deluge would have made fortunes for their owners.

The result attending individual enterprise was similar to that of canalling, with the exception that in the former case heavy debts were not contracted, and the individual, if he had not a fortune in his pocket, felt that what he earned was his own. I had a good opportunity to learn the daily proceeds of each man's labor, my scale being at their service and almost universally used. I could name one hundred individuals, take them in order as they were operating along the river, and not more than ten of the number had, at the commencement of the rainy season, sufficient means to purchase provisions for the winter. They had labored hard; to-day, opening a lead; to-morrow, getting out an ounce; and the day after prospecting. They had been all summer just on the eve of making a rich discovery and a fortune, the prospect was always bright and cheering, the prize just, almost, within the grasp—to-morrow--never more distant than to-morrow. The lead is open to-day, to-morrow the reward, that to-morrow dawned to comparatively few. It is still about to dawn, and sought with the same enthusiasm. Could the miners have pocketed all they took from the earth, few, perhaps, would have had reason to complain, but the attending expenses were so great that it was almost impossible to live and keep anything in the purse. They would eat up at night what they had earned during the day, consequently the proceeds of labor passed immediately into the hands of those in trade.

Chapter Twentieth.

COMMOTION IN THE POLITICAL ELEMENTS-CALIFORNIA A STATE-SLAVERY PROHIBITED

POLITICAL CAMPAIGN, AND THE RAINY SEASON-SPEECH OF A WOULD-BE-GOVERNORENTHUSIASM AND BRANDY -- ELECTION DISTRICTS - BALLOT-BOXES AND UMBRELLASMINERS IN A TRANSITION STATE-PREPARATIONS FOR THE RAINY SEASON-PRIMITIVE HABITATIONS-TRADE IMPROVING-ADVENT OF THE RAINY SEASON-ITS TERRIFIC EFFECTS-RAPID RISE OF THE RIVER-MACHINES DESTROYED ARRIVALS-XY STORE AND BEDA BUSINESS SUIT-DISTRESSING GROANSTHE BOTTLE A CONSOLATION-SEVERAL STRANGE SPECIMENS OF HUMANITY COOKING BREAKFAST-THE SCURVY-A DEATH.

WE now, for the first time, had a commotion in the political elements, which resulted in erecting California into a State and placing her, the “bright particular star," in this glorious constellation. An election was ordered, and delegates selected to draft a Constitution for the State. They met at Monterey, and after a few days' deliberation passed upon the Constitution which is hereunto annexed, and which was eventually ratified by an almost unanimous vote of the people. The greatest unanimity prevailed at the Convention, the deliberations conducted with the utmost dignity, each seeming desirous to act for the best interests of the country. The clause prohibiting slavery, or involuntary servitude, passed by a unanimous vote, although many of the delegates were interested in slave property in the States. The nominations were made for State officers, and, although party lines were not strictly drawn, every preparation was made for a vigorous campaign.

The election was to take place on the 15th day of November, and by the time the nominees were ready to take the "stump," the rainy season was upon us. Just picture to your imagination a would-be-governor, in a slouched India rubber hat, a poncho, and high boots, standing near a tent on the side of the moun. tain holding forth to a highly patriotic audience of six, the rain pouring down in torrents. No:hing could dampen the ardor of

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