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trip between Caribou and Northern Maine Junction, Me., 197 miles, September 5, after it averaged but eight revenue riders a day. BAR traffic hit a peak of 817,000 passengers in 1914, gradually fell off to 21,000 in 1959 despite more than a million dollars' worth of new equipment, free red cap service in Bangor, grill cars ER with hostesses, credit cards, and free breakfasts for Pullman travelers.

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Elsewhere on the passenger front: "Largest single check ever given by a tour operator to a U. S. railroad - that's the claim for the $400,000 payment recently made by Random Tours to Espee for four trains that will take 1200 persons on two transcontinental tours.

Northern Pacific passenger revenues of $937,566 for June 1961 were the highest for any month since October 1946 and ahead of June 1960 by 14.85 per cent. For the first half of the year, revenues are ahead of the same period in 1960 by 6.1 per cent.

Baltimore & Ohio has been making a six-month test, starting last September 1, of extremely low 15-day round-trip L coach budget fares on its RDC-equipped Daylight Speedliner between BaltimoreWashington and Pittsburgh. New roundtrip fare over the route is $11.63, equal to the present one-way rate and 25 per cent less than the present 30-day round-trip tariff.

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The statisticians sampled carloadings across the land to see which types of cars accounted for what percentage of the loads, and obtained these results in 1959: tank, 6.3 per cent; box 35.9; refrigerator, 4.2; stock, 0.9; gondola, 11.6; hopper, 31.1; flat, 3.2; and special, 6.8.

It's not difficult, either, to read some of the whys and wherefores into such statistics. Average loadings are naturally higher for the hoppers and gons, for example, since they carry the heavy bulk stuff.

Two new items for railfans

NIGHT TRAIN... an absorbing pictorial of
night life on the high iron


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NIGHT TRAIN brings the most extensive collection of nighttime railroad photographs ever gathered under one cover. NIGHT TRAIN takes you to the roundhouse and the interlocker, aboard a streamliner and to an interurban stop. It pictures the trainmen, the ticket counter, the floodlit hump yard, the rear of a fast-moving freight whose caboose markers pierce the black of night.

Those famous TRAINS photographers, Shaughnessy, Steinheimer, Middleton and Hale have captured not only the locomotive-steam, diesel and mainline electric, but also the interurban, gas-electric and trolley. They shine a new graphic light on the railroad in action. A how-todo-it section is presented, plus a description of each scene illustrated.

NIGHT TRAIN is a generous 81⁄2 x 11 size book of the highest quality and contains over 140 illustrations. The regular edition has a handsome hard case binding, the deluxe edition is cloth bound. So, take the NIGHT TRAIN to an after-dark adventure along the iron trail. REGULAR EDITION $5.75 - DELUXE EDITION $7.00



Relive the days of STEAM and INTERURBAN railroading with your 1962 date
calendar. Each double page spread (71⁄2 x 11) of this spiral bound calendar features
the week and one of 60 unforgettable action scenes. The weekly calendar is handy
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Christmas gift.

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Books and Calendars postpaid on receipt of purchase price - no COD's please
California Residents - Add your 4% State Sales Tax


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(275-feet on 2 reels), pp-21c 810-241, THE DAYS OF STEAM ON THE L. & N. (300-feet on 2 reels), pp-216 810-238, FIVE MIDWESTERN RAILROADS IN THE DAYS OF STEAM (150-feet). pp-18c........ 810-244, ILLINOIS CENTRAL STEAM SCRAPBOOK (200-feet), pp.18c

810-260, SMOKE AND STEAM ON THE C. & E. I. (150-feet), pp-18c 810-255, STEAM TRAINS OUT OF DEARBORN

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810-288, TEN-WHEELER TO DUPLEX (300-feet on 2 reels), pp-21c Pennsy steam locomotives......$11.98

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(16 slides), pp-6c 350-218, CANADIAN PACIFIC STEAM LOCOMOTIVES (13 slides), pp.6c


OF THE UNION PACIFIC (20 slides), pp-6c. 350-74, CIRCUS TRAIN LAST DAYS OF THE BIG TOP 350-26, CIVIL WAR RAILROADS (13 slides), pp-6c — in simulated natural color 350-217, FROM DENVER TO GLENWOOD SPRINGS

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(30 slides), pp-96


THE D. & R.

G. W. (26 slides), pp-9c 350-283, NATIONAL MUSEUM OF TRANSPORT

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. $4.29 (30 slides), pp.9c $4.98 350-187, NEW ENGLAND RAILROADS (20 slides), pp-6c. $2.98 350-188, THE NEW HAVEN (16 slides), pp-6c 350-27, NORFOLK & WESTERN (32 slides), pp-9c 350-254, RAILROADS AROUND NEW YORK CITY (40 slides). pp. 9 350-17, RAILROADS, U.S.A. (47 slides), pp-12c 350-53. RIO GRANDE NARROW GAUGE (20 slides), pp-6c 350-147, ST. LOUIS TERMINAL (20 slides), pp-6c. 350-253, SIERRA RAILROAD (13 slides), pp.6c 350-257, SOUTHERN PACIFIC NARROW GAUGE

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CENTRAL (13 slides), pp.6c.... 350-173, STEAM LOCOMOTIVES ON THE NORFOLK

& WESTERN (13 slides), pp-6c 350-167, TEHACHAPI (20 slides), pp-6c 350-10, VIRGINIAN RAILROAD STEAM LOCOMOTIVES (23 slides), pp.9c

TROLLEY AND TRACTION SLIDES 350-260, EARL CLARK'S WORLD ELECTRIC LINESEUROPE (30 slides), pp-9c $4.98 350-179, INTERURBANS OF THE ILLINOIS TERMINAL ILLINOIS (18 slides), pp-6c $2.98 350-117, IOWA ELECTRIC RAILWAYS (20 slides), pp.6.$2.98 350-184, THE NORTH SHORE LINE (20 slides) pp-bc..$2.98 350-216, PENNSYLVANIA TROLLEY LINES

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For twice the enjoyment from your slide or movie projector (16mm. movie prints are available, too.) write today for Blackhawk's big free newspaper-size catalogissued monthly!

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coal, ore, coke, sand, gravel. The longhaul honors go to the refrigerator cars say, on the California-New York crosscountry hops. And since cooling charges must be added to the cost of the transportation service being provided, the reefers take revenue honors, too. And just look at the impact of piggyback on the flat-car category!

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HIGHER SPEEDS: When the winter timetables went into operation on the Western Region of British Railways on September 11, all services from and to London (Paddington) during the day on weekdays, with one route exception, started running on an interval basis. This means that trains to a particular destination leave at the same times throughout the day. For example, all trains to the West of England leave London every 2 hours at 30 minutes past the hour from 8:30 a.m. to 6:30 p.m. This more rational arrangement enables better use to be made of locomotives, cars, and manpower, and should also aid punctuality.

On the Eastern Region a number of accelerations appear in the winter timetable, one of which gives the region the fastest schedule on the entire system. The train is The West Riding which, between Hitchin and Retford, covers the 1061⁄2 miles in 89 minutes - an average of nearly 72 mph. Some other "named" expresses also get accelerated between 43 and 47 minutes while another express runs from Darlington to London (232 miles) at an average of almost 67 mph. Two other trains also provide a 60 mph average over the 268 miles separating London and Newcastle.

Reason for this more attractive stack of timings lies in the delivery of English Electric 3300 h.p. diesel-electric Deltics. These compact (69 ft. 6 in. long) 99-ton C-C double cab units have a maximum tractive effort of 50,000 lbs. and a top speed of 100 mph. A London-Leeds demonstration run in July which had to weave a difficult path over thickly trafficked lines gave plenty of proof of the Deltic's ability to make up time. On many occasions the special hit the early 90's and averaged mile after mile in the upper 80's.

Not to be outdone by this resurgence of speed, the London Midland Region has scheduled its de luxe air-conditioned dieselpowered Midland Pullman at almost 69 mph over the 99-mile run from London to Leicester. This is part of a new service

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between London

for the diesel Pullman and Nottingham. This schedule was planned some time ago but ran into union trouble over the working of the catering crew of the Pullman.

ORDERED EXPANSION: When governments dictate what form of transport should be used to carry passengers and freight, the growth rate, when the railroad is the favored carrier, can be substantial. This has been the case in Czechoslovakia. From 1945 to 1960 freight traffic on the State Railways (CSD) has risen by 235 per cent, while passenger traffic has increased by 88 per cent in the same period. During the same 15 years the CSD has received 1169 steam locomotives, 886 diesel and 178 electric locomotives, 68,000 freight cars, and 3279 passenger cars. During the five years from 1960 to 1965 the system expects to boost its diesel power by 1000 units, while a further 288 electrics should be added to the existing fleet.

The Czech locomotive and rolling stock industry has also been exporting its products to Eastern bloc countries - including large numbers of C-C electrics to Russia and a series of 1650 h.p. diesel-electrics to China.

GARRATTS IN SPAIN: In spite of this being the steamless '60's, not everyone is exclusively buying diesels and electrics. In Spain, where steam comes in all ages and sizes from elderly narrow gauge to modern broad gauge, delivery was still being taken of new units this year. What is more, the new equipment consisted of husky 2-8-2+2-8-2 oil-fired Garratts, built locally by Babcock & Wilcox. They are required for heavy freight haulage between Valencia and Tarragona and Valencia and Zaragoza. Last year the Spanish National Railways (RENFE) took delivery of some similar units plus eight big Mikes as well. TRAINS readers (and Editor Morgan as well) may also be intrigued to know that 4-6-2+2-6-4 Garratts head passenger trains in Spain- also between Tarragona and Valencia.

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This news should be sufficient to improve traffic on the United States-Madrid air route.

AUTO-CARRIERS: To cope with the everincreasing popularity of British Railways "autos-by-rail" services, the Eastern Region has taken delivery of the first of 14 double-deck auto-carriers. These new vehicles will be used on the London-Perth service which, since its introduction in 1955, has conveyed over 50,000 autos plus their drivers and passengers.

The double-deck car had to be of ingenious design to fit BR's restrictive loading gauge limits. It is 64 ft. 1 in. long, 12 ft. 10 in. high, and 8 ft. 84 in. wide, and weighs empty 32 tons. The body and roof consist of reinforced self-colored fiber glass panels bolted together. This method of construction saves weight and painting. Roller-bearing trucks enable the cars to run at express train speeds. Both the BR standard vacuum brake and Westinghouse air brakes are fitted so the cars can operate on the Continent, via the Channel train ferries, if required.

The inside of each car has two hydraulically operated lifts; an electric motor driven pump is used. Capacity of the car is seven autos. A number of double-deckers

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can be loaded at the same time by arranging a drop-down platform which connects each auto-carrier, making a continuous flush deck from one to another.

RESEARCH PROJECT: British Railways is spending 3.5 million dollars on engineering laboratories at Derby - part of a large project to expand and reorganize the BR research department. The new plant will be equipped with modern apparatus for testing passenger and freight car underframes, bridge sections, reinforced concrete units, and other heavy railway equipment. Engineering, vehicle and track, metallurgy, and physics divisions will be combined and housed in the new buildings at Derby which will also become the headquarters of the Director of Research. The chemical laboratories are located in London and a new building housing them was opened last year. This latest development should be completed in 1963.



THOSE JAPANESE INTERURBANS: Trolley sparks are flying and air horns are echoing a distinct melody heralding the fact that Japan is reaching the peak of its interurban era. Three types of operations are very much in evidence:

1. Through service with streamlined equipment. This includes parlor, buffet, and observation facilities in, among others, the Romance Car of the Tobu Railway between Tokyo and Nikko [page 14, July TRAINS], the Vista Car of the Kinki Nippon Railway out of Osaka, and the brandnew Panorama Car, modeled after Italy's ETR250-class units, of the Nagoya Railroad Company. These luxurious electrics bring to mind the streamliners of the Illinois Terminal and the present Electroliner of the North Shore Line.

2. Commuter-type service with M.U. cars. A common occurrence around Japan's larger cities, these interurbans are reminiscent of the recently dead CA&E and the still-flourishing South Shore Line. In the Tokyo area such a network may be seen which includes the Tokyu Electric Express Railway, the Seibu Electric Railway, and many others. Service is frequent and expresses are scheduled as well as semi-expresses and locals. All cars, by the way, are of the platform-loading variety.

3. Street and private-right-of-way type local interurban service. These recall the old Hagerstown & Frederick trolleys in Maryland and some of the yet-popular Red Arrow Lines in western Philadelphia.

Such operations are to be found between Kamakura and Enoshima with seaside p/r/w on a peninsula south of Yokohama, and out of the city of Kofu, 85 miles west of Tokyo [page 12, May TRAINS]. Interurbans in categories 1 and 2, with little or no street running, are virtually booming. New equipment and extended services are everywhere evident. Category 3 is almost standing still, and in some cases, is losing out. This includes the picturesque traction orange interurbans in Kofu where the one electric railway line is owned by a massive bus company. Operations may cease at year's end in favor of a bus route. The reason that this is the exception rather than the rule: nationwide increases in passenger and freight traffic point to continuing interurban prosperity.

AUSTRALIA'S RDC "DAYLIGHT": Last spring the New South Wales Government Railways introduced into its timetable an airconditioned South Coast Daylight. The train consists of four RDC cars built under license with Budd at the Commonwealth Engineering Company in Sydney. Capable of 75 mph speeds, the stainlesssteel express is the only train of its type in New South Wales. Feature: a buffet service on "take-away tables placed be tween the seats." The 77 ft. cars are the longest on the system, have sealed double windows complete with glare-proof glass and noise-reducing fiber-glass insulation. With the introduction of this new equip ment the NSWGR now operates 23 airconditioned expresses-33 trips daily over its vast system.


ELSEWHERE: In the Philippines the Ma nila Railroad wants to order a few more diesels. This may endanger the remaining steam power now held in reserve for the yearly sugar rush. . . . The city of Calcutta in India has purchased 60 of those nearly new trolley cars from Sydney, Australia [page 52, July TRAINS]. Indonesia is ordering more new steam locomotives!



GOOD-BY TO STEAM: The list of U.S. common carriers operating entirely with steam power has shrunk to about 20 names and is still shrinking. Most of the holdouts are in the South - but it is in the South that the latest surrenders to time have occurred. The coal-hauling Alabama Central Railroad ceased in toto this spring with the expiration of a six-month extension on the tubes of its 2-8-0 No. 29. Elsewhere in Alabama, the 4-mile Sumter & Choctaw Railway acted quickly to dieselize when its last serviceable steamer, 2-8-2 No. 102, came down with really serious boiler trouble-a fracture. S&C, which serves an


American Can Company lumber mill at Bellamy, borrowed a Southern Railway unit at first but is expected to buy its own diesel. Now comes this warning to photographers: Mississippi's Bonhomie & Hattiesburg Southern Railroad, which has been a firm and fondly regarded defender of the faith, is expected to go diesel.

HELLO TO STEAM?: With an assist from human nature, the steam locomotive appears about to travel the full circle. Now that there is so little steam remaining in daily revenue service on the common carriers, the list of various kinds of steampowered "museum lines" from Florida to Washington continues to grow, if anything, more rapidly than ever. Common carrier short lines, as they went diesel, provided motive power for some of the museum lines. But now two dieselized short lines in the populous East are actually looking for steam locomotives. Two other U. S. short lines one with active steam, the other with a steamer in storage - are reported to be casting about for coaches. The common object: passenger excursions!

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MODEST MERGERS: While the rail giants talk of mergers involving thousands of miles of track, each year an average of two to three short lines are quietly swallowed up by larger carriers. Sometimes the short line's good points attract a buyer; sometimes its owners simply want to get rid of it; sometimes the small road is subsidiary to the large one and loses independent status for the sake of corporate simplification.

Three short lines have been merged thus far in 1961. The sale of Potomac Edison Company's freight railroad at Frederick, Md., to the Pennsy early this year reflects a trend among electric utilities, which have been selling off their rail properties often as a result of anti-trust decisions. Most freight-hauling remnants from the interurban era have thus changed hands, although a number of utilities still hold short lines which carry coal for power plants.

Not in that category, although coal haulers, are two other merger properties. Merger of a subsidiary of long standing is reflected in Great Northern's recent bid for Pacific Coast Railroad, a 32-mile Washington line. Illinois Central, which acquired control of the well-endowed Peabody Short Line Railroad last year, went back to the I.C.C. recently for permission to absorb the 18-mile Illinois coal road.

PATHOS: Most short lines seem to be profitable and in their own small way better off than some of their big brothers. Although short lines have been disappearing, there are still more than 400 in the U. S., and some will surely be around as long as there are railroads. But bow your head a moment for Kansas City, Kaw Valley Railroad, 14-mile Kansas electric [April 1961 TRAINS]; for Columbia & Millstadt Railroad, 7-mile quarry line in Illinois; and for Atlantic & Western Railway, 24-mile North Carolina road which was wont to haul sand behind a diesel and has a tumble-down engine shed with two rusty Consolidations inside. Kaw Valley and Columbia & Millstadt have permission to abandon, and Atlantic & Western has applied for it. I


Detailed 10" x 14" Black and White reproductions of original water-color paintings.

$1 ea.; 3 for $2.50 or 4 for $3.25 ppd. (4) Burlington Hudson, Class S-4B, No. 4002 (3) B&O Class P-7, No. 5311, Pres. Fillmore (2) Magma Arizona RR. 2-8-0, No. 5 (1) C&NW (Illus. in Aug. ad) E-2a, No. 2908 Satisfied or money refunded. Mailed, in a tube. C. V. ZIMMER

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