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School Lands in Alabama.-Drawbacks on Merchandise and Refined Sugar.

(Dec. 24 to 30, 1828.

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The question then recurring on engrossing the bill for

MONDAY, Dec. 29, 1828. a third reading, Mr. BARTON said, he should so far depart from his debate.

There was no business transacted this day giving rise to usual practice as, on this occasion, to ask for the yeas and nays; which were ordered by the Senate, and stood

TUESDAY, Dec. 30, 1828. yeas 21, nays 15. So the bill was ordered to a third reading.


A bill “ to extend the time within which merchandise

may be exported with the benefit of drawback," was conThe bill for allowing a salary to the Marshal of the sidered as in Committee of the Whole-the question being District of Connecticut” was next taken up.

on striking out the second section, as recommended by the Mr. BERRIEN said, the policy of Congress had here- Committee on Finance. tofore been, to compensate the Marshals by allowing them Mr SMITH, of Maryland, said, he would give the Sencertain fees. It had been found, however, that the amount ate information of the course pursued in Great Britain on received by them proved to be a very inadequate compen- this subject. The practice in that country was, that, on a sation for their services, and then a specific provision had representation to the Lords Commissioners of the Treasury been made for salaries. The salary granted, however, was of the necessity therefor, they had the power, and used not sufficient. For instance, the Clerk of the District of their discretion, in extending the time in which merchandise Connecticut informs, that the aggregate compensation of might be exported for the benefit of drawback. The the Marshal of that District, in 1827, was $437 90. To section proposed to be stricken out gives this power to enable him to discharge his duties, he had three deputies, the Secretary of the Treasury. The Committee on Fiwho divided the compensation with him. The Committee nance were of opinion that this was giving a Legislative on the Judiciary thought this to be a very inadequate power to an Executive officer, which was improper, and compensation, and, therefore, had reported the bill with therefore had recommended that it be stricken out. out amendment.

The amendment was agreed to. The bill was then ordered to be engrossed for a third

Mr. SILSBEE said, that, as the amendment took away reading.

some of the advantages proposed by the bill, he would
move for an extension of time in which merchandise might

be exported for this benefit. Two years were allowed by
WEDNESDAY, Dec. 24, 1828

the bill. Great Britain, France, &c. allowed a longer time;

he thought our merchants ought to be put on as good a SCHOOL LANDS IN ALABAMA.

footing ; and he would therefore move to amend the bill by The bill “ authorizing the relinquishment of the 16th striking out the word two in the seventh line of the first section granted for the use of schools in the State of section, and inserting three. Alabama, and the entering of other lands in lieu thereof,"

This amendment was also agreed to. was read the third time; and the question being on its The bill, as amended, was then reported to the Senate, passage

the amendments concurred in, and ordered to be engrossMr. CHANDLER said, he did not rise for the purpose ed for a third reading. of opposing the passage of the bill: for he was aware DRAWBACK ON REFINED SUGAR. that it was too late. There was one thing, however, which A bill granting an extension of drawback on refined he did not think of when it was under consideration in sugar, &c. was then taken up in Committee, and occasionCommittee of the Whole—which was, that the right to ed considerable debate ; which occupied the Senate till the ask for a change of lands was not restricted to any num time of adjournment. A brief sketch is all that is attemptber of individuals; and, therefore, if only two persons ed to be given. had settled upon lands which did not suit them, they could Mr. SMITH, of Maryland, explained the bill. The ask a change to others. If he had thought of it in season, present law allowed four cents drawback on sugar refined he should have moved for an amendment to this effect. within the United States. The object of the present bill

Mr. BRANCH said, he was pleased that the gentle was to allow five cents. It required two pounds of sugar, man from Maine had called the attention of the Senate 10 in its crude state, to make one pound of refined. The the subject. He wished that some amendment of the duty on brown sugar was three cents per pound ; consekind could be adopted, as every new State would be com- quently, a drawback of six cents would be required in ing forward with the same claim. He thought the better favor of the refiner. The treacle obtained from the sugar course would be to send this bill back to the Committee, was, however, valued at one cent per pound, in favor of. and let them report a general bill on the subject, embrac- the refiner, and therefore five cents, the drawback fixed ing other States similarly situated. He knew, however, upon in the bill, would be a fair allowance, and would inthat it was out of order, and too late to make any amend- demnify him for the amount of duties actually paid to ment.

Government. Should the bill pass, the American refiner Mr. KING said, that in presenting this bill, he had act of sugar would be enabled to enter into competition with ed in strict conformity with the instructions of the Legis- the foreign manufacturer in foreign markets. There lature of Alabama. If he had been left to himself, he could be no possible disadvantage arise from passing the should have asked for much more ; he should not have been bill ; it would not enhance the price of sugar to the conwilling to confine himself to lands which would not fetch sumers of the country, and would greatly tend to benefit the ininimum price when offered at private sale. As to the merchant in helping him to make up an assorted cargo the remarks of the Senator from North Carolina about a for the South American, Chinese, and other markets. The general bill, he was well assured that the gentleman would only question was, what was the proper drawback to be not vote for such a bill, any more than he would for the allowed ? The Secretary of the Treasury had fixed it at five one now before the Senate. He [Mr. K.) could not, con cents. During the French Revolution, when all the markets sistently with his duty to his constituents, consent, at pre- of the world were open to us, he was himself engaged in the sent, to any alteration in the bill. It was very unusual to business of refining and exporting sugar; then it was done obstruct the passage of a bill, after the sense of the Senate to advantage : for we were the only nation that enjoyed a had been so thoroughly tested as it was yesterday, free trade ; now, times had changed, and some inducements

The bill was then passed, and sent to the other House. must be held out, or competition on our part would cease
Adjourned to Monday.

altogether. Sugar raised in this country had never been,

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Dec. 30, 1828.]

Drawback on Refined Sugar.


and could not be, refined ; and the reason was, it was not but was simply a drawback on articles made of foreign strong enough. Batavia Sugar was used for this purpose, materials. That, unlike spirits, there could be no fraud and that of Cuba, which was superior, because much on the revenue ; that it would have a beneficial effect on stronger. The Havana Sugar, particularly, was of a the commerce of the country ; and he likened the proviproper quality for refining. A portion only of the sugar sions of the bill to those for the encouragement of the fishimported was used by the refiners, and this portion was eries, in which much foreign salt was consumed. generally confined to the white and clayed qualities. We Mr. SILSBEE supported the bill. When before the carried on a great trade with the Havana ; they received Committee at the last session, he had endeavored to infrom us nearly all the articles consumed by them, with the form himself upon the subject, and from all the information exception of dry goods, and in return sent us sugar. In he could obtain, five cents would rather fall short of its refined state it was an article of commerce. On the a proper allowance of drawback. He conceived the whole, the extension of the drawback system would be question to be, whether we would give encouragement to beneficial to the agriculturist, the manufacturer, and the the refiners of this country, or to foreigners. He differed navigator, and he hoped the bill would pass

from the gentleman from Missouri, as to the injurious effect Mr. BENTON observed, that, whatever reasons might upon American sugar, stated by him. He enlarged upon have existed for the drawback system in 1790, they no the benefits and advantages of the trade of this country longer prevailed. Instead of increasing it, this system should with the Havana ; stated that it had been the custom at be diminished, or repealed aliogether. At the time refer- the Eastward to send refined sugar to Leghorn, and other red to, no sugar was raised in the United States ; frauds parts of the Mediterranean; that more would have been on the revenue were not so likely to take place ; there were sent, but that the article could be furnished cheaper from then no exports but of articles which had been brought into France. The cultivation of sugar in France, as he had the country; and there was then a nominal drawback on been informed, was on the increase, and yet, they allowed domestic spirits, made from molasses. What was the proof the importation of the article, with a drawback of the on this subject at the last session of Congress? Why, thai whole of the duties, for the purpose of refining and exporfrauds were produced by this system, on the revenue ; and tation. The question was, whether we should allow a that, instead of a drawback, we were paying four cents drawback to the whole amount of the duties or not? premium on foreign articles. In consequence, the nominal Mr. WOODBURY, in reply to Mr. Benton, said, that drawback was repealed entirely. The same should be the original policy of the drawback system was to endone in this case. As to American sugar not being fitted courage manufactures and the carrying trade. There was for refining, this was but the reiteration of an old story. no tax on sugar that did not go into the consumption of The same had been said of wool, hemp, and iron. The the country ; and, to encourage the carrying trade, the true reason was, however, that the refiner can procure the sugar refined should be as free from tax now as heretofore. foreign material cheaper than the domestic, and, therefore, It was not the policy of the country to tax what was not he preferred it. The duty on West India sugar was four consumed in the country ; and from every pound of sugar cenis; if this duty be taken off, as, by the bill, it will be, we exported, the tax should be drawn back. The duties shall discover the true difference between American and would be deducted from iron, duck, hemp, and other artiforeign sugar.

cles used in the manufacture of ships, if they were not conHe could see no reason why New Orleans sugar might sumed in the country ; but they are. Sugar, after it was not be made as dry and as fit for refining as the Havana. refined, was not consumed in the country, but sent out of He looked upon the proposed measure as in effect a tax it. There was no fraud on the revenue ; for the sugar upon the American people, for the benefit of foreigners could be, and was, traced out of it. The refining of this He had a regard for the South Americans, but he loved his article did not interfere with the manufacturers of sugar, own constituents beiter. He should be glad to see every but aided them. The gentleman from Missouri complainbranch of industry prosper, but he could not consent to the ed that it was an injury to agriculture ; but, so far from prostration of his constituents. The effect of the bi!l was its coming into competition with the manufacture of sugar, to give a premium of one per cent. on every pound of sugar evidence before Congress satisfactorily showed that it did refined, and exported, which was a greater profit than was not: for the quality of American sugar would not anobtained by the cultivators of the earth. Considerable swer-it was altogether unsuitable. This was a matter of quantities of refined sugar were exported, and the export | fact, and he the more readily appealed to it. But, suppose was on the increase. If the refiners could export at present, it was suitable, every hundred weight used in refining the additional bounty (for he could look upon it in no other would bring a hundred weight of foreign sugar into conlight) of one per cent. would cause immense shipments, sumption. Where then was the difference? Neither the and the country would be either unsupplied, or great and domestic sugar, nor the revenue was injured by a drawexorbitant profits exacted.

back on foreign sugar retined. The Treasury did not sufMr. B. apprehended that the time was rapidly approach- fer—the debentures did not exceed $2,000 per annum, ing when the supply of American sugar would be sufficient while the duties on sugar imported exceeded $2,000,000. for the consumption of the country. Three or four years Nothing, therefore, was lost to the Treasury unless the dewould produce this desirable event; for it was now a great bentures exceeded the importation. The operation of the source of profit, and all the lands fit for the cultivation of su bill would certainly be beneficial to agriculture, because, gar would be put in requisition. There would then be a cor in exchange for the sugar obtained, we sell our lumber, respondent demand for provisions. He was opposed to the flour, corn, &c., &c. We must have a market abroadbill as at war with the principle that we should cherish do- and one of the mysteries and beauties of the trade was, mestic manufactures and domestic materials. He should that the purchase and sale of the sugar often gave double ask for the yeas and nays on the question of engrossing, voyages. We do not send it to Italy, &c. as formerly, and would not have said a word on the subject, had any but to Brazil, China, &c. In England the whole duty had other gentleman risen in opposition. The bill would prove been withdrawn, because there was no consumption of the a burthen to the people, and he felt it to be his duty to op- sugar in the country; in France it was the same: and, in

consequence of these countries withholding all duty from Mr. SMITH called for the reading of the report of the the importation of sugar, we have no trade now in the Committee on the subject ; and it was read accordingly. article, but with our neighbors of this continent, and to them Mr. SANFORD spoke in favor of the bill, but in so

He thought the bill ought to pass, and low a tone of voice that his remarks cannot be given. would not trouble the Senate any farther. He was understood to say that the bill offered no bounty, Mr. BENTON inquired what was the value of refined

pose it.

we must resort


Drawback on Refined Sugar.

[Dec. 30, 1828.

sugar, and was answered fourteen cents

He then com was increasing, we should do nothing to help to increase mented on the report of the Committee, and stated that it still more, and denied that it was the part of a statesman those who petitioned for an increase of drawback com to pursue such a line of conduct. plained of their large families, and thai they must stop un Mr. JOHNSTON, of Lou., did not attribute so much less assisted by Congress. Yet it seems they are doing a importance to this bill, as some gentlemen who had spoken. profitable business, and it is proposed to allow them a pre- The principle of allowing a drawback on the exportation mium of one per cent., while no part of the attention of the of articles, equal to the duty on the importation, was a Committee was turned to the consumers of the country plain one, and essential to the navigation and commerce of The people of South America were to be furnished with a country; and the principle had been extended to articles the article at a cheaper rate, while those of the United which had undergone some modification by manufacture. States were to receive it at an enhanced price. Mr. B. And, if the effect is to diversify our labor and increase the again alluded to what would be the situation of the country navigation, there can be no objection, unless it operate infour or five years hence, when millions of acres of sugar juriously upon some other interest. At present the export land would be under cultivation. He read and commented of refined sugar does not interfere with any other branch of upon the annual commercial statements of the Treasury, industry. It is very limited, not exceeding $27,000, and and showed that, during the year 1827, one hundred and not likely to be very greatly increased, while a duty is sixty-eight thousand pounds of refined sugar had been ex necessary to protect refined sugar in the home market. ported, worth twenty-seven thousand dollars. Mr. B. Mr. J. said, he presumed the details of the bill had been said, the effect of the bill was not generally understood, attended to by the Committee, and that they had allowed and made some further remarks as to the great extent of what in their judgment was a fair equivalent in drawback drawback proposed to be allowed. The farming and for the duty on the sugar. He could not enter into a miagricultural interest (he said) would be the next to come nute calculation. If more was given than had been paid, here, and demand a drawback on flour and whiskey : the it is a bounty which it is not the intention of Congress to Southern States would require a drawback on their cot- allow. If less, it operates injuriously to the manufacturer. ton, rice, and tobacco; and, should they take up with this But, Mr. J. said, there was another view of this subject doctrine, (and they were strong enough to carry it into | which had been adverted to, and which it became him to effect if so disposed) what a hubbub would then be notice. It had been said by the advocates of the bill, that, raised, &c.

if the country produced the raw material, it would accord Mr. CHANDLER made a few remarks, to show the with the principles of protection of domestic industry, to inconsistency of opposing the bill because a drawback was make the refined sugar, both for home consumption and for proposed to be allowed on an article manufactured in this export, from that material. Mr. J. said it was true that, country from foreign materials.

at this moment, we did not make sugar equal to the conMr. SMITH alluded to the state of things in the year sumption, and therefore it was not now necessary to guard 1794. At that time an excise existed on whiskey, loaf the domestic article. But the period was approaching sugar, &c. and Congress thought proper to draw back when we should be fully supplied; and when it was found excise on these articles, and allowed three cents on the ex that the country could furnish the raw material, he preportation of every pound of loaf sugar. The duty on sumed the gentlemen, on their own principles, would probrown sugar was then one and a half cents. The conse tect the domestic article, by withholding the drawback on quence was, the exportation of loaf sugar increased to a foreign sugar refined. He believed that in tive years great extent. In 1818, a new law was passed on the sub- the production would equal the consumption ; and, if the ject, (of which Mr. S. read tbe second section, guarding export of refined sugar should then be an object of any against frauds on the revenue, &c.) and the trade to Cuba value, it would be proper to give the preference to our became so extensive, that more sugar was imported than own material. He therefore proposed to limit the act could be consumed in the country. What was to be done ? to five years. In this time the experiment will be fairly A drawback on foreign sugars was allowed, and soon the tried, and the capacity of the country to supply the decountry was cleared of its superfluity, and a market open- mand will be fully ascertained. By that time we shall ed for the sugars of Louisiana. Where was there any dif- see what is the operation of the act: whether the drawference in the sugar, in its raw and refined state, except back is too large ; whether under it the trade increased ; the difference that resulted from the industry employed? and whether it is of any importance either to the refiner or The fact was, steam was now used in refining sugar, and a grower of sugar. In that time, too, it would be ascertained state of perfection had been arrived at greatly beneficial, how far the domestic article could be employed in refining and enabling us to compete successfully with foreigners. sugar, and to what process it might be necessary to subThe gentleman from Missouri was afraid for his constituents. ject the article to prepare it for the purpose. We shall He need not be. He recollected that, last session, he then come prepared to act wisely on the subject, with a [Mr. B.] had exerted himself to procure, and did procure, view to all the interests of the country. He said, the duties to be laid on lead and shot. Where was the sym- State of Louisiana had not the slightest interest in the pathy of the gentleman, then, for the citizens of the Uni- passage of this bill at this time, and he doubted if this ted States ? He heard nothing of it. It was the same, too, foreign trade in refined sugar would ever be of much with regard to wool and iron. The gentleman complained value. But in five years the experiment would be of the one cent profit, as he calls it; but there was no pro- made. fit in the case: it was only giving back the one cent which Mr. J. then moved to amend the bill by adding a pro: you have taken from the pockets of the refiner, more than viso that it should expire at the end of five years. he ought to have paid. There was no injury to the con Mr. McLANE said, he should not have addressed the

Mr. S. then again alluded to the South American Senate, had it not been for the amendnient submitted by the markets, and stated that our merchants had discovered a gentleman from Louisiana. At the first blush, that amendmarket there, unknown to foreigners. If we were not ment carried the principle of protection farther than he careful, however, we should be driven from this market; could go, and was, in his opinion, bad in principle. The for foreigners would find it out. He alluded to the tariff principle on which all the measures of Congress were law of the last session ; our merchants felt its effects se based, gave protection to domestic, instead of foreign inverely, and we were bound to assist them by opening new dustry. The object of the bill was to extend to the rebranches of trade, where the surplus products and manu- fining of sugar, what was conceived to be a proper drawfactures of the country might be disposed of. He com- back; that was, the actual price paid for the foreign mabated the idea, that, because the trade in refined sugar terial, and no more. If exported, then it was entitled to


Dec. 31, 1828 )

Cumberland Road.-- Drawback on Refined Sugar.


this benefit. Why was this done? To benefit navigation

WEDNESDAY, DECEMBER 31, 1828. and commerce ; to promote the carrying trade, and to

CUMBERLAND ROAD. give an advantage to our merchants at least equal to that

The bill for the continuation of the Cumberland Road of foreigners. Not so, if the amendment prevailed. If it

was next taken up. did prevail, our sugar makers would be compelled to use the domestic material, and thus be burthened with three mittee on Roads and Canals, and had been reported by

Mr NOBLE said the bill had been referred to the Comcents additional duty, or give up their business. This was them without amendment. The subject had been long an objection to the use of domestic sugar--and an objection before Congress; and as the bill had passed at the last so great that the refiner never would use it. The refiner would always select the dry sugar, as being the best and session, by a large majority, and its provisions were well the proper material, and the effect of the amendment would known to the Senate, he did not conceive it necessary to be to place him in a situation worse than that in which he say another word on the subject. was now placed. He did not look upon the bill as pr«tec- and that was, “ Had there been any material alteration in

Mr BENTON said, he wished to make one inquiry ; tive, but as designed for the benefit of the carrying trade. the bill since the last session ?” The amendment was radically wrong. Mr. BENTON snid the amendment was perfectly par

Mr. NOBLE. None whatever.

Mr. BENTON. I voted for the bill at the last session, liamentary-were the effects of any proposed measure dubious, it was usual to fix a duration to its existence, that and will do so again.

Mr. CHANDLER requested the yeas and nays on its the Legislature may act again upon the subject in due time. The amendment lessened, but did not remove his being engrossed. They were ordered accordingly, and objections. As to the fitness of Louisiana sugar, he con

were, yeas 24-nays 13. sidered it as likely to answer the purposes of the refiner,

So the bill was ordered to be engrossed for a third as the sugar of the West India Islands, where the atmo

reading sphere was as humid as in Louisiana. Perhaps the true DRAWBACK ON REFINED SUGAR. reason was, that at present the sugar made in that State The bill extending the drawback on sugar refined withwas all consumed in so short a period that it had not time in the United States came up as the unfinished business to dry ; but this will not always be the case. If a bounty of yesterday—the question being on ordering the bill to a was to be given on sugar, give it to the domestic and not the third reading. foreign ; not that he thought more protection was needed, Mr DICKERSON rose in opposition to the bill. He but he would prefer that course. While cut off from the said he had had little time to examine its provisions but he competition of foreigners, by a duty of twelve cents on the had had enough to convince himself that five cents was too pound, the sugar refiner exorbitantly demands a drawback great an amount of drawback to be allowed. Mr. D then of five cents the pound additional. This was a bold at proceeded to canvass the report of a comunittee, made at tempt at monopoly, and would soon operate as a direct the last session of Congress, and entered into a minule bounty. He trusted the amendment would be adopted, calculation respecting the cost of the raw material used in and then that the bill would be rejected.

refining of sugar, and the amount of drawback proposed Mr. JOHNSTON then modified his amendment to read, to be allowed, and what he thought ought to be allowed · Prorided, That this act shall continue and be in force as sufficient. He was of opinion that Congress had legisfor five years."

lated upon the subject without the proper data to go upon, Mr. SMITH, of Md., opposed the amendment, and sta- being governed by estimates of the refiners, made twented that not one pound of sugar would be used if it was ty years ago.

An allowance of five cents drawback on adopted. They had better prohibit the importation of the pound of refined sugar would leave a large balance foreign sugar at once. Clayed and dry white sugar, he in favor of the refiner, and the Government would be the reiterated, were the proper materials for the refiner, and loser to that amount-an amount averaging from 15 to gentlemen might rely upon it he would never use the do- 47 per cent. The improvements made in the manufacmestic article-it was unsuitable. Mr. S. replied to Mr. ture were certainly worthy of notice ; because a greater BENTON as to the 12 cents duty on imported sugar, and amount of refined sugar could be made now, from the again rallied him on the provisions of the tariff law respect- same quantity of raw material, than formerly—perhaps one ing lead, &c.

pound of refined sugar from one and a half pounds of the The question was then taken on the amendment of Mr. raw material; and he thought a strict inquiry ought to be JOHNSTON, and rejected, ayes 16, noes 22 ; and the instituted into the subject, that it might be known what yeas and nays were ordered on the third reading of the bill. quantity of the raw material was actually used in the manu

Mr. DICKERSON said, that, for one, he had not can facture. The officers of the customs were certainly enFassed the subject, and was not prepared to vote on the titled to a compensation for their trouble in attending to bill He did, some years since, look into it, and he stated the duties required of them by the drawback system, to the best of his recollection, the quantity of brown sugar which duties were various and complicated ; and, in his used in the manufacture. He was then of opinion that opinion, four cents drawback was amply sufficient for the five cents was a fraction beyond the duty on the raw refiner, leaving a sum in the hands of the Government to material. That was the case formerly, but he knew mat- defray the expenses to which he had referred. He was lers had changed since—the duty on sugar was somewhat among those who were disposed to favor domestic manuhigher. After the sugar was refined, however, there was a factures ; but when they were encouraged to a proper residue left, called treacle, or sugar-house molasses, which extent, he was not willing to go farther. He never could was of the very best kind, and paid no duty. li therefore consent to the payment of a bounty to enable them to send required a nice calculation to know how much the refiner the proceeds of their industry abroad. As the allowance did pay for his raw material. Five cents, under his pre- of a drawback on sugar refined was a system long estabsent impressions, was too much to return to him as draw. lished, he was willing to make a fair allowance to the reback—it served as a bounty to use foreign materials. As finer ; but, if the system were now to be originated, he we had gone into the system, he was willing to give back doubted if Congress would establish the policy: for himall that the refiner paid ; but as al present informned, he self, he was free to say, he should be diametrically opposshould feel it his duty to vote against the bill, unless far-ed to it. There was certainly danger of fraud in the ther time was granted to obtain the necessary infor- system, and he instanced the article of snuff to show that mation.

the Government had heretofore been imposed upon. He (Here the debate closed for this day.)

believed he might say the same of spirits, though not to


Drawback on Refined Sugar.

[Dec. 31, 1828.


so great an extent. He believed there was less danger only were produced per annum, whereas 76,000,000 of fraud on the exportation of refined sugar than any other pounds were imported, valued at five millions of dollars. article on which a drawback was allowed—but yet there He was tired of the subject ; he had been drawn into the was fraud. He believed, too, that, so long as the system discussion of it against his will ; and thought the matter was continued, the consumption of the domestic material was too clear to admit of any farther argument. in the manufacture would never take place; it was, in Mr. BENTON rose in reply to Mr Smith, and asked his opinion, quite as good as the foreign : for he knew of how many sugar manufacturers there were in the counno law of nature that operated against it. Domestic hemp try ? (He was answered, about one hundred.) If four dolwould never be used in the manufacture of cordage, if lars, then, was the amount to be paid by Missouri, and there was a drawback on the foreign article when export- | that of the Union only 1,007 dollars, and if the number of ed ; he might say the same of nails If there was no sugar manufacturers was only one hundred, to receive ten dolproduced in the country, then it would be proper to en lars additional bounty each by the bill, he thought Concourage the importation of the foreign article, and give grees had been employed on a very insignificant subject. a drawback on its exportation, to the amount of the duty Was it possible that the two Houses of Congress had on importation.

been occupied for nearly two weeks, at an expense of sevMr. SMITH, of Maryland, gave great credit to the gen. eral thousand dollars, to give a thousand dollars to a huntleman from New Jersey for the attention he had paid to dred persons ? it true that the Senator from Maryland the subject ; he had certainly been at great pains to in- has been seriously at work in this momentous business? form himself, though the case was a very plain one. He Truly the mountain had been in labor, and brought forth had hoped more from the intelligence of his friend, how a mouse--a drowned mouse. Did the manufacturers of ever, than the assertion that a pound of refined sugar could sugar, who had a capital of thousands, require an act of be made from a pound and a half of the raw material Congress to allow them this paltry sum? But the manuWhat was the object of refining? Why, to take away facturers of this sugar had the exclusive supply of the all the impurities from the article to be refined ; and it market at this moment; every man, woman, and child in was beyond his comprehension how the thing could be the country were laid at their feet: and, not content with done, unless a good portion of the impurities were suffer- the ten dollars, they require a bounty to go forth to trade ed to remain. The fact was, however, that the allow- with foreign nations. They tell us, 100, that theirs is an ance of the gentleman to the pound of refined sugar was increasing and profitable business : if profitable, it must not enough-it could not be made of so small a quantity be increasing. And yet they apply for seven per cent. With regard to the expeuses of the drawback system, the additional profit, to be taken from the pockets of the peoofficer was entitled to such fees for his trouble as suffi- ple. What was the value of interest in the country ? ciently compensated him, without taking from the Govern- What the profits of the farmer and planter ? Few of them

He well recollected the fraud on snuff; but realize three per cent. He presumed the profits of the when it was discovered, the drawback was withheld. sugar refiner were now 6 per cent. ; give them what they There might be some fraud so far as related to spirits ; ask, and it would be 13. He was astonished at the manbut the laws were very strict; and he who committed ner in which this bill had gone through. But the statefraud, must commit perjury also. The gentleman from ment of the gentleman from Maryland to-day had placed New Jersey admitted there was less fraud, and less it on a different footing, and made it appear as an object chance of fraud, on the article of refined sugar; and in of legislation truly contemptible. What becomes of the this admission, he overthrew the whole of his argument. navigating interest ? Mr. S. then rebutted the arguments advanced by Mr. The object of the bill was really to give one cent more Dickerson relative to hemp, cordage, iron, &c and ob on refined sugar than formerly. Estimate the consumpserved that the tax on hemp was most abominable ; that tion of sugar in the United States, and add 1 per cent. and it tended greatly to the injury of navigation, destroying a you get at the effects of the bill upon the consumers of the very considerable trade formerly carried on with Cuba, &c. country. The refiners will not sell to the consumers of and then proceeded, with great vehemence, to defend this country unless they can get the one per cent. ; they will the bill. He stated what had formerly been the practice sooner take it out of the country, and receive their bounty of Congress; that it was to encourage navigation and com for so doing merce, and to prepare a hardy race of men to fight the Mr. CHANDLER said, that he was unaware of any inbattles of the country. The present policy of the coun- jury or fraud that could possibly result to the country from try tended to enfeeble it; and the great object of the the passage of the bill, unless the amount of drawback exstatesmen of the present day, seemed to be to compete ceeded the importation of the article. He would therefore with England in the manufacture of shovels, nails, &c. offer an amendment to the bill, to be added as a proviso at The gentieman had been a day and a night making his the end, as follows : calculations; he showed that the refiner had a profit of · Provided, That this act shall cease to be in force so 15} cents on the Muscovado sugar, and 47 on the clayed; soon as the exports of sugar shall be equal to the imports and this was the amount of his calculations. He would of the same article." not have taken the trouble to make them for the whole of the profit. He considered it trifling with the Senate.

Mr. TAZEWELL did not rise to discuss the bill, but And how had the gentleman been able to arrive at his the laws of the United States, on any other article but su

to make the inquiry, whether a drawback was allowed by conclusions? Why, by denying the statements of the refiners, though he knew no more of the subject than he gar, where it had changed its form? Another question [Mr. Smith) did. Mr. S. then proceeded to answer some

he would put, was, whether any drawback was ever alof the statements made yesterday ; stated that he had also lowed on refined sugar, until there was an excise duty laid examined the statistics of the country ; and said he was

upon it? The general principle of the Government, from fully of opinion, that, if the bill passed, where 34,000 back on articles exported in the same form and clothing

its foundation, had been, he believed, to allow a drawpounds of sugar were now exported, 100,000 pounds would be, in the same space of time. With regard to the

in which they were imported, but, if they had undergone constituents of the gentleman from Missouri

, their share any change in these respects, then no drawback was

allowed. of the additional expense, should the bill pass, would be about four dollars, to be divided among the whole State ; (Mr. SMITH noticed the article of cloths, which was for the whole average amount of the exportation would allowed to be exported, and Mr. SILSBEE that of handonly be 1,007 dollars. As to domestic sugar, 70,000 pounds kerchiefs.]

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