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on the sea defences; and the narratives / not profit by the opportunity, and busied are intermingled in a manner which themselves in repairing the damage makes it no easy task to connect or fol- caused to their batteries, td commence low the threads. We shall endeavor to soon afterwards a regular siege. extract the most important statement Kornilow was amongst the Russians regarding the English cannonade, and killed. Todleben had carried him a re. then return to the fleets. Speaking port of the fulfilment of his orders, but of the effects of the English fire on the he insisted on going himself to the third third bastion (the Great Redan), the bastion, despite of the remonstrances General adds:

and assurances addressed to him. “I “ The loss in men had been so considerable

am perfectly convinced," was his reply,

" that that the gunners of several pieces had been

every one of you will do his duty already replaced twice. Despite of the evi

as honor and circumstances may dedent superiority of the English, the artillery- mand, but on this solemn day to see our men, exalted by the example of their valor- heroes on the theatre of their exploits ous chiefs, would not yield to the enemy, is an imperative want of my soul.” and thus persevered in their energetic defence. And in spite of the prayers of those The necessary measures were taken on this who surrounded him, he went on horsebastion for continuing the fire, notwithstand back to the Malakhow, where he was ing all the damage that had been done. The wounded mortally by a bullet which embrasures which gave way were instantly

“Well, gentlecleared off; the officers, setting the example, shattered bis right leg. mounted the parapet and took part in the men, I depend on you to defend Sebaswork. The sailors emulated the zeal of the topol! Do not surrender it!” exclaimsappers. But all efforts were powerless to ed Kornilow with emphasis, addressing prevent the English artillery from completely himself to the officers who pressed overcoming ours. To complete the critical about him; and he almost immediately position of the third bastion, about half-past lost consciousness. “Tell all,” he exthree a shell blew up the powder-magazine claimed just before he died, “ that it is placed in its saillant. When the smoke dispersed, the survivors had before their eyes sweet to die when the conscience is the horrible picture of the effects of the pure. May God bless Russia and the explosion. All that part of the front of the Emperor ! Save Sebastopol and the bastion had been thrown into the ditch; the fleet!” These were his last words. guns and their platforms were upset; on the

In the general summary of the results sides lay half-burnt and distigured bodies; of this day's artillery contest by land, it and across the rolling and infernal crash is stated ibat the Allies attacked with of the artillery were heard from far the shouts of the exulting fue. The explosion 120 guns, including eighteen mortars caused the deaths of more than a hundred of large calibre, and that the Russians men, and amongst them was one of whom replied with 118 guns, including five no trace could ever be recovered, Captain mortars. The advantage of weight Lieutenant Leslie. From that moment all of metal and elevation of ground was possibility of replying to the English artillery with the Allies. They threw altogether was at an end. The defence on this point 9000 projectiles, the besieged 20,000, was completely paralyzed, and the expecta- The Russians lost in killed and wounded tion at the Karabelnaia was to see the enemy take a:lvantage of the result, and advance 1112; the French 20+; and the English immediately to the assault.”


The attack by sea confessedly failed, Of the twenty two guns with which althongh the superiority of weight of the bastion was armed, twenty were metal and number of guns was on the disabled ; and in all the bastion there side of the combined Heets. The sumremnuined but five gunners who, keeping mary stands thus: “All the squadrons firm to the two remaining guns, fired united engaged our five batteries with a the last shots. Ten guns of other bat- broadside of 1244 guns, to which we teries were also disabled by the English could only oppose 152, that is to say, an fire. But although the allied armies eighth of the number.” It is further hard heen from early dawn on foot and stated that the feets had the advantage ready for the assault, the heavy check of distance, some of the Russian batsustained by the French batteries acted teries being so placed that their guns 80 powerfully on them, that they did I could not be brought to bear on vessels

at short range. But, on the other hand, first ohjects of attack were the redoubts. their elevation was in their favor, and defended by the Turks, who gave way the plunging shot of the Star Fort after an olistinate resistance ; and the caused material damage to the ships. advance of the Russians to carry off the The Constantine battery suffered most: grins captured in them, led to the fa.

mous light cavalry charge under Lord “Placed on a jutting promontory, this battery was of tlie’horse-shoe shape, one half Cardigan, as well as to the affair with facing the open sea, the other half the road the heavy horse under Scarlett, and the stead. The higher platform of this battery repulse of the Russian cavalry by the was without shelter against a fire from the “thin red line,” which has become hisside or rear; and even on the northwest of torical. It is not the only matter of this work, a part of the ground remained al- popular belief that has become historical most undefenóled, being only commanded by without being founded on fact; and it two guns. We have seen that the English is no more than justice to Lord Clyde took advantage of these imperfections of our to add, that he bimself never suppressed armament, by posting their ships in front of the undefended space, and sweeping at close

the circumstance that when, instead of range the open battery by a fire in flank and forming square, he drew up the Ninetyrear, so that of twenty-seven guns on the third Highlanders to receive cavalry, he platform twenty-two were soon silenced, and was well aware that they had a rough the gunners, overwhelmed with projectiles kind of fortification in their front.* The and fragments of stone, were compelled to affair is thus described by Todleben : take refuge in the casemates. The front wall of the Constantine battery, however, although

“Six squadrons of the Grand Duke of riddled with balls, which damaged the sides Weimar's hussars, and three Fyotricas of the of ten embrasures, was not traversed by any Cossacks of the Don, made a charge against of the enemy's projectiles. The guns in the the Ninety-third Highlanders, whilst eight casemates remained intact; but of six fur- squadrons of the Duke of Leuchtenberg's naces for heating red-hot balls, only one es- hussars and the Cossacks of the Qural adcaped destruction. The explosions of three vanced on the right against Scarlett's brimunition-chests placed in the east of the bat- gade. The Highlanders having allowed our tery contributed in part to the disarrange- hussars to approach withiin musket shot, rement of the platform. Fifty-five men were ceived their attack by a discharge of grape put hors de combat at the Constantine bat

The Russians on their left drew back for a tery : five killed and fifty wounded."

moment, and then in one grand line dashed at The Russian coast batteries fired six- horses' feet; gathering speed at every stride,

the Highlanders. The ground flies beneath their teen thousand shots on this day. they dash on towards that thin red streak toppea

Reinforcements had kept pouring in with a line of sted (the italies are the author's). on both sides ; on the day when the The Turks tire a volley at eight hundred yards batteries opened, it is computed that the dred yards, down goes that line of steel in front,

A. the Russians came within six hunallied armies exceeded eighty-five thou- and out rings a rattling volley of Minie musketsand, wbilst thirty-one thousand had ry. The distance is too great; the Russians are been added to the Russian. Eager to not checked, but still sweep onwards through the profit by this augmentation of force and smoke with the whole force of horse and man, lay the foundation for the offensive ope- batteries above. With breathless suspense every

here and there knocked over by the shot of our rations which he meditated on a great one awaits the bursting of the wave upon the line scale, Menschikow determined to attack of Gaelic rock; but ere they came within one the beziegers on their rear on the side hundred and fifty yards, another deadly volley of the Tchorgoune, in the direction of and terror into the Russians. They wheel about,

flashes from the levelled rifles, and carries death Balaclava. What Todleben calls the

open files right and left, and fly back faster than unskilful dispositions of the English they came. Bravo, Highlanders ! well done!' commander in-chief, were an encourage shout the excited spectators; but events thicken. ment to such an enterprise ; Lord Rag- The Highlanders and their splendid front are lan having in effect established a vast think of this fact, that the Ninety-third never

soon forgotten; men scarcely have a moment to intrenched camp, out of all proportion altered their formation to receive that tide of to the number of his troops, destined at horsemen. 'No,' said Sir Colin Campbell, 'I the same time to carry on the siege of did not think it worth while to form them even Sebastopol, to cover the chain of heights four deep. The ordinary British line, two deep, between Inkermann and Balaclava; and Cavaliers."The War, etc., by W. H. Russell,

was quite sufficient to receive these Muscovito lastly, to defend Balaclava itself. The

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and several volleys of musketry ; our hussars fire of our artillery, was thrown into a compenetrated nevertheless as far as the enemy's plete rout. The field of battle was encumpark, placed in the middle of the camp, and bered with the bodies of men and horses. intrenched by ditches (fosses). In face of The defeat of the Cardigan brigade made such this unexpected obstacle, and already sensibly an impression on the enemy, that the brigade shaken by the cross-fire of the enemy, our of Scarlett, which had advanced in support, hussars, as well as the Cossacks, were suddeniy suspended its movement and turned obliged to retire. At the same moment the back." hussars of the Duke of Leuchtenberg and the

“If on that day,” adds Todleben, Cossacks of the Qural, encountered by the charge of the English dragoons and the grape

“ the corps of General Liprandi had of a battery of horse-artillery under Scarlett, been reënforced, Balaclava might have were also obliged to fall back. But when fallen into our hands.” As it was, the Scarlett endeavored to follow up his advan- capture of the redoubts, and the detaye, he fell under a cross - fire, and was struction of a large part of the English obliged to fall back in his turn."

cavalry, produced the most favorable When Lord Cardigan was leading his impression on the tired, harassed, and devoted band to what seemed to look- decimated garrison of Sebastopol. The ers - on an assured disaster, a French catastrophe of the Alma was forgotten; general exclaimed: " C'est beau, c'est an unlimited contidence in the superiorisuperbe ; mais ce n'est pas la guerre.” ty of the Russian troops grew up anew, Todleben, who adopts the staff officers and their morale rose to the highest deversion of the attendant and preliminary gree of energy. This newly-awakened circumstances of the order, confirms the spirit was directed to maintain a superiview taken by the Frenchman:

ority of fire in the artillery contest

which was continued without cessation “ Hurdly had our cavalry succeeded in on either side, and a dashing sally was forining, when the English cavalry came out from behind the height that had hitherto pre; ground. The state of things on the 4th

hazarded. But still the Allies gained vented us from seeing it. Immediately, and without allowing itself to be checked by the November, the eve of Inkermann, is well-directed fire of eight guns of the light thus described : battery No. 7, and General Jabokitsky's artillery, by that of the riflemen of the chas- ness, the operations of the defence, such as

“We have related, with the greatest exactseurs of Odessa, and a company of the fourth they occurred to this day; and it has been battalion of light infantry, Cardigan dashed

seen from the details into which we have enupon the battery of the Cossacks of the Don, tered, that it was impossible for the Russians who had taken up an advanced position, sabred the gunners, then charged our cavalry, tempted to carry the town by assault, despite

to expect a fortunate result, if the enemy atoverthrew it, and went further still beyond of the heroic efforts of its defenders. By the line of redoubts in pursuit of our cavalry, dint of the works which the Allies had pushwhich retired towards Tchorgoune. * But this brilliant charge brings no deci, No. 4,* their trenches had been advanced to

ed with so much energy against the Bastion sive advantage to the issue of the combat, and within sixty-five sajénes (about one hundred cost the English dear. Whilst their cavalry and fifty yards) of the saillant of this bastion, rushed against the battery, the Cossacks as- which underwent daily terrible damage from sailed their rear, and were nevertheless over the concentrated fire of the siege batteries ; thrown by a squadron of the Eighth Hussars and although the damage was immediately (English), which had been left in reserve. •But at the same time three squadrons of the com- abled guns were replaced on the instant

repaired under the enemy's fire, and the disbined regiment of lancers were posted up in although the gaps made by wounds or death such a manner as to take the enemy in flank, in the ranks of the garrison were speedily

" However, the English cavalry, carried filled up by new combatants, it must be acaway by the elation of its first success, was

knowledged that the forces of the defence in hotly pursuing our cavalry, but at the mo

the Bastion No. 4 were approaching their ment when it least expected to be attacked, the three squadrons of lancers threw themselves on its left flank. This manœuvre had France, England, and Turkey were

“Remark also that, at this very time, a decisive success. The English cavalry, bling new troops to be transported to the stopped in its pursuit

, was crushed. Unex: theatre of war. These, through the instrupectedly attacked in flank, and finding itself at the same time under the cross-fire of artil- mentality of the powerful steam fleet at the lery and musketry, it broke its ranks, turned disposition of the Allies, could be conveyed bridle, and, pursued by our lancers and the

* The Flagstaff Battery, or Bastion du Mát.

last agony:


to the Crimea before the Russian reēnforceering force at any point. Nor was the ments, which, at the advanced season, would surprise so complete as might have been have to arrive by almost impassable roads. anticipated, for by the time they had Such a state of things necessarily provoked emerged from the ravine in force, the action, and the moment seerned by so much English were on the alert and ready for the better chosen for an enterprise of this them. The broad impression left by kind, that in the second half of the month of this history is, that all the troops fought October the effective of our troops in the Cri- with the most desperate gallantry, but mea had been considerably augmented by that they were hurried into action as the recent arrival of the Fourth corps of in- they came up, and that there was small fantry.”

display of generalship on either side. After the arrival of these troops, the Evans's division, under Pennefather, * effective army under the orders of Men was the first which encountered Soimschikow at Sebastopol, and in the imme. onow: diate neighborhood, is computed at one hundred thousand, exclusive of the

“The troops of the right column, under crews of the fleet; the effective force of teries, briskly attacked Evans's division, and

General Soimonow, supported by their batthe allied armies-French, English, and drove in the English skirmishers. This atTurk, at rather less than eighty thou- tack had to surmount the greatest difficulties, sand. Although the English position as much from the nature of the ground as on on the heights was naturally strong, account of the losses which the excellent arms the number of troops occupying it was of the English inflicted on our troops. But relatively small, and this consequently

neither the difficulties of the ground, nor the was fixed upon as the most vulnerable fire of the enemy, could arrest the Tenth

division. The battalions of the Tomsk and point. General Soimonow, with eight- Kolivansk regiments, supported by the sec. een thousand pine hundred and twenty- ond and fourth battalions of the regiment of nine men and thirty-eight guns, was to Ekaterinebourg, having reached the English start at six in the morning for the ra- position, attacked Pennefather's brigade. Two vine of Carenage, and to be joined by battalions of the regiment of Tomsk, and two General Pavlow, with fifteen thousand of the regiment of Kolivansk, overthrew the eight hundred and six men and ninety- English, got possession of the small intrenchsix guns, passing over the bridge of In- ment No. 2, before the camp of the Second kermann. On their junction they were carriages. At the same time the regiments

division, spiked two guns in it, and broke the to be under the command of General de of Taroutino and Borodino, which formed Dannenberg. Prince Gortschakow, with part of General Pavlow's left column, also extwenty-two thousand four hundred and changed fire with the enemy. forty-tour men and eighty-eight guns,

“The two other battalions of the regiment was to support the attack, and endeavor of Taroutino were received by a sustained and to effect a diversion. The garrison was

well - aimed fire from Adams's skirmishers. to be on the alert, and ready to act ac- the ascent, these battalions, clinging to the

Regardless of this fire and of the stiffness of cording to circumstances. The declared rocks and bushes, scaled in a quarter of an object of the enterprise was to drive hour the right cliff

' of the ravine of Carrieres, back the right wing of the besiegers, although it was very slippery and broken by and take firm possession of the ground the rain. Arrived at the top of the plateau, occupied by them between the town and these battalions formed in columns of comthe shore.

panies, and, supported by the fire of the arBefore the troops started, Dannenberg right wing of Adams's brigade, while the two

tillery of Soimonow's column, attacked the took upon himself to give fresh orders, other battalions of the same regiment

, and varying those of Menschikow; and the regiment of Borodino, hastened to come Soimonow, after rainly endeavoring to and rejoin the two first battalions of Taroureconcile them, proceeded on a plan of tino. The violent shock given to Adams's his own, which carried him to a different brigade by the chasseurs of the Seventeenth side of the ravine from that originally division made this brigade give ground. Imintendeid

, and prevented the meilitated mediately afterwards the two battalions of junction with Pavlow. Parily for this Taroutino attacked the Battery No. 1. The reason, and partly from the confined na

* Sir de Lacy-Evans was absent from illness ture of the ground, the Russians never

at the commencement of the action, but immesucceeded in concentrating an overpow diately hurried to the field.


English allowed our chasseurs to approach “Their attack was so impetuous that the within a short distance, and received them by soldiers of Okhotsk, who occupied the bata salvo of artillery. But the terrible losses tery, could not maintain themselves in it. inflicted on our chasseurs by this deadly fire But at the same moment our reënforcements did not succeed in driving them back. Clos- also took part in the struggle. General Daning their ranks, they rushed on this battery nenberg moved up the regiment of Jakoutsk and got possession of it; but Adams imme. and Selenghinsk. The first of these supdiately advanced and drove back our chas- ported the soldiers of Okhotsk, who had been

It was then that the regiments of obliged to retire, and rushed resolutely on the Borodino and Taroutino, having a little re- enemy. A part of these troops entered the formed their ranks, threw themselves again battery, and definitively drove the English on the remains of Adams's brigade, already Guards, already disorganized, out of it; the weakened by the combat, and drove it back, other part of the same regiment, encountering principally on its right wing, which was con the brigade of Goldie, overthrew it by a centrated near the battery. Our battalions bayonet charge. It is thus that the regiment were already prepared to continue the attack, of Jakoutsk, after having pursued and consolbut they were suddenly arrested by the fresh idated the success of the attack of the regitroops of Bentinck's brigade, which managed ment of Okhotsk, was able to take firm to arrive upon the field of battle with six ground also on the right flank of the English guns. Whilst this was doing, the destiny of position, having in front the brigade of Buller battles had also decided the fate of the bat- and that of Goldie, of which it had given a talions of the Tenth division, which gave the good account in a single charge." brigades of Butler and Pennefather the possibility of uniting with the brigade of Adams,

The brigade of Torrens, led by Cathto crush the regiment of Borodino.”

cart, was placed in a very critical situa

tion, from which it extricated itself by a By eight o'clock the Russian advance desperate charge; and although two had been checked; a part of the attack siege guns, 18-pounders, opportunely ing force had been compelled to retire ordered up by Lord Raglan, played into the valley of Inkermann, and the with marked effect, the English, who band-to-hand infantry conflict had given had no more reserves to bring up, must place to a sharp cannonade; thirty-eight have given way from sheer exhaustion, Russian guns replying to thirty English. if their commander had not consented The English artillery plied the Russians to accept the proffered assistance of the with Shrapnell shells; but the greatest French-the Deus ex machina who (acloss sustained by them was from the rifle cording to this history) is invariably at balls. “Many foreign works," says Tod-hand at the turning point. The first releben, "attribute to us a great numer- enforcements sent by them were received ical superiority; but this was far from by so violent a fire that they broke and being what it was supposed.", The fell back precipitately. They were ralEnglish engaged in what he calls the lied, and returned to the charge. But first phase of the battle are computed the ardor of the Russians was now at its by him at 11,585; the Russians at 15,- height. They were carrying all before 141; a superiority which he conceives them. A few efforts more, and the victo have been more than compensated by tory was theirs. But their fatigue as the naturally strong position, the field-well as their ardor was at its acme: works, and the rifles of the English.

“ It was a decisive moment for both armies. The second phase began soon after eight by the advance of Pavlow's col- After having surmounted enormous difficulumn, headed by the regiment D'Ok- ties, and triumphed over the tenacity of the hotsk, which, after a desperate struggle, ments, exhausted their energy in a last effort;

the Russians, receiving no reēnforcesacceeded in capturing a half-finished and the English, extenuated with fatigue, and redoubt defended by the Coldstream. deprived of the greater part of their generals “ Nine guns were the prize of this bril- and officers, felč that it was impossible for liant exploit; three were immediately them to hold out any longer. The French conveyed into the ravine, and the others themselves

, arrived the latest on the field, spiked. Of the 600 Coldstream Guards anxiously expected the reēnforcements which who defended the battery, 200 had been which they could not continue to hold their

had been announced to them, and without put hors de combat.” Reënforced by ground. A little after ten these rëenforcethe rest of the Guards, the Coldstream ments, so impatiently expected by the French, adı quced to retake the redoubt:

joined them. On the steps of General BosNew SERIES-VOL. I., No. 1,


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