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shored up with props, he learns that the fatal convulsion was by reason and sound argument ; with them we can sustain no not the first, and that the doomed towns must have been before discussion, for there is no common ground on which we can shaken on their foundations, by the throes of the labouring meet." earth.
Leaving for the present the nature of the changes which have “To establish all this, it is of no decisive importance that taken place, and their order, as conjectured by geologists, let us scholars have gleaned, here and there, a fragment from ancient assume that, previous to the creation of man, the crust of the Roman classics, to show that such cities once existed ; and that earth had undergone a violent revolution or derangement, and they were probably overthrown by the eruption of the year then see if the second verse of the first chapter of Genesis can 79 of the Christian era, which gave occasion for the interesting be reconciled with such an assumption. The first verse is underletter of the younger Pliny, describing the death of his uncle, stood, as has been already mentioned, to signify a fact, without while observing the volcanic storm which proved fatal to him. reference to time or period—“In the beginning"-at some time In such cases, the coincidences of historical and other writings, or period—“God created the heavens and the earth." The and the gleanings of tradition, are indeed valuable, and gratifying, second verse, - And the earth was without form and void'and are of great utility in fixing not only the order but the “ takes up," says Dr. Pye Smith, “this globe which we inhabit time of the events : but the nature of the catastrophe which in the condition into which it had been reduced from (it appears buried the devoted cities, is perfectly intelligible from the ap- probable) a watery envelopment, putting an end to the last of pearances themselves, and needs no historical confirmation." the strata, lying immediately below the crust of the earth on
which we dwell. It may be objected, that the conjunction Apply this illustration to the question of the existence of the earth before the creation of man. The materials of the crust of
' and connects the following sentence with the precedingthe earth, and the manner in which these materials are disposed, this conjunction is used in the Hebrew language with a very
' and the earth was without form and void.' But I reply that indicate events which could not have happened since man was created. The external surface of our planet is full of crystals remarkable comprehension of meaning; even in tracing its and crystallised rocks ; it is replete with the entombed remains application through but two or three chapters at the beginning of animals and vegetables, from entire trees to lichens, fuci, and of the book of Genesis, I have found it rendered by such expresferns—from coal-beds to mere impressions of plants ; it is stored
sions as 'but, moreover, now,'-—and with the highest prowith animals, from the minutest shell-fish to gigantic reptiles ; priety. In point of fact, it introduces a new sentiment, which it is chequered with fragments, from fine sand to enormous
has connection with what went before, according to the nature blocks of stone; it exhibits, in the materials of its solid strata, fore, to prevent our supposition of the lapse of immeasurable
and relation of circumstances. There is nothing at all, thereevery degree of attrition, from the slightest abrasion of a sharp time between that beginning,' and the moment in which the edge or angle to the perfect rounding which produces globes and
sacred historian takes up this globe, and presents it to us in the spheroidal forms of exquisite finish ; it abounds with disloca. tions and fractures ; with injections and fillings up of fissures
condition described by the words—without form and void.' with foreign rocky matter ; with elevations and depressions of These words together occur only in two other passages of the strata, in every position, from horizontal to vertical ; it is covered Bible; and there they signify ruin and desolation. The former with the wreck and ruins of its upper surface; and finally, its
of the two occurs in many other passages, and is used to signify ancient fires, sometimes for variable periods dormant and
a vast desert, or a ruined city, and other subjects in which relenting, have never been extinguished, but still struggle for an
desolation and destruction are the leading ideas. So that we exit through its two hundred volcanic mouths. The present have here presented to us very plainly this globe in the condition crust is only the result of the conflicting energies of physical of ruin and desolation from an anterior state ; and then in the forces, governed by fixed laws ; its changes began from the following portions of the chapter we see the earth made fit for dawn of its creation, and will not cease unless its materials and the new purpose to which God was pleased to appropriate it, its physical laws should be annihilated.”
by a series of operations, partly the result of the attraction of Geologists, having thus carefully based their opinion on facts, gravitation and the chemical affinities, and partly the result of lay it down as an incontestible truth, that the structure of the
an immediate exertion of the divine power." crust of our planet affords decisive evidence of a long series
We have quoted the opinion of this eminent biblical scholar, of events, during which stupendous changes occurred, “It is universe and of the formation of the earth, as given in the first
in order to show that the description of the creation of the obvious," says Professor Silliman, “ that ages must have passed, two verses of the first chapter of Genesis, does not jar with while the various geological events which are recorded in the structure of the earth were happening, and particularly while the modern geological discovery. We shall in a future Number innumerable organic forms, after their creation, were in the course
consider the six days of creation, as connected with geological
views. of reproduction, life, death, deposition, consolidation, and preservation. We will not inquire whether Almighty power inserted animals and plants in mineral masses, and was thus exerted in Mex are not what they seem to the outward eye-mere machines, morworking a long series of useless miracles, without design or end, ing about in customary occupations; productive labourers of food and and therefore incredible. The man who can believe, for example, wearing apparel; slaves, from morn to night, at task-work set thein by that the Iguanodon, with his gigantic form, seventy feet in length, sleeps. All the souls now in this world are for ever awake ; and this life,
the wealth of nations. They are the children of God. The soul never ten in height, and fifteen in girth, was created in the midst of though in moral sadness it has often been rightly called so, is no dream. consolidated sandstone, and placed down one thousand or twelve In a dream we have no will of our own, no power over ourselves; ourselves hundred feet from the surface of the earth, in a rock composed of are not felt to be ourselves ; our familiar friends seem strangers from ruins and fragments, and containing vegetables, shells, fish, and
some far off country; the dead are alive, yet we wonder not; the laws of rolled pebbles ; such a man can believe anything, with or with tasy; intellect, imagination, the moral sense, affection, passion, are not
the physical world are suspended, or changed, or confused by our fan. out evidence. If there are any such persons, we must leave possessed by us in the same way we possess them out of that mystery. them to their own reflections, since they cannot be influenced Were life a dream, or like a dream, it would never lead to heaven.
expressed with the nicest regard to English grammar, and the
most scrupulous attention to the proprieties of composition. Out of all question one of the greatest blessings enjoyed in modern life, is the expedition, secrecy, and safety, with which we honour, sudden, quick in quarrel.'
Next, according to the bard, comes the soldier, "jealous of
His letters are brief as the are enabled to communicate our thoughts and our business to flash of a priming-he has not time for words ; blows occupy distant friends ; and if one were called upon to give a unique him too constantly. He can describe a great battle in three
decisive proof of the superiority of social life as it at present lines,* and has seldom time in active service, to write even Bexists over that of the ancients, it would be quite conclusive those. The following is almost the longest soldier's letter we to point to the post-office. What an exquisite chain of con
can find. Giving as it does some account of the disasters and nexion between distant friends does the post-office afford! What privations to be encountered in the scenes of war, it is well a sweetener is it of the bitterness of absence! What intense calculated to have the effect of damping that kind of ardour anxieties it takes from the mind of the parent-relieving the which seeks "the bubble reputation even in the cannon's mouth." lover of a thousand fears ; easing the man of business of innu. Guillot was a captain in the 25th half brigade of the French merable difficulties ! It is indeed one of the greatest blessings cavalry while in Egypt. The taking of Alexandria and Cairo conferred upon mankind by a high state of social refinement.
are despatched with a true soldier's brevity. The boasted public institutions of Sparta must have been incomplete without a general post-office.”
Head Quarters, Cairo, July 27, 1798. The average annual number of letters transmitted through the Dear Mother, London general post-office has been estimated at 48,945,624, by I take the earliest opportunity of acquainting you with the Lord Litchfield, in his evidence before the select committee on arrival of the French army, in which I have the honour to postage.
serve, at Alexandria in Egypt. I suffered a vast deal during the "Suppose," says the author of Travels in Town,' ". two months that our voyage lasted. For the whole time I was four or five thousand letters were taken out of the Post-office sea-sick without intermission, and brought up blood all day at random, and their contents placed before the public eye. long. When we set foot upon land, however, under the walls What variety in the subjects! What variety in the spirit and of Alexandria, I was cured of my sea-sickness, but my suffer.
temper! What variety in the style of writing! Oh, what an ings were by no means at an end. ? insight into mankind would be got from such revelations ! We lost 300 men in scaling the ramparts of the city. After
More might be learned in one day of human nature as it really a halt of four days, we set out in pursuit of the Arabs, who had exists, from such an exhibition of it, than could be learned in a retreated and encamped in the desert ; but the first night of our year from one's ordinary intercourse with society. In writing march was a very terrible one for me. I was with the advanced to private friends, people are more open and explicit than in guard : we came suddenly upon a corps of the enemy's cavalry ; ordinary conversation. Reserve is in a great measure laid and my horse, which you know was always a very hot one, was aside: what the heart thinketh the pen inditeth.”
the unfortunate cause of all my trouble. He sprang forward In fact the only just and unerring materials for the biographies like a lion, upon the horses and horsemen of the enemy; but of great men are their private letters. In these the nicer shades unluckily in rearing he fell quite backwards, and to avoid being
of their character are truly portrayed-their changes of crushed to death, I was obliged to fling myself on one side of to thought, habit, and opinion, broadly marked. The veil of con- bim. As it was night, I had not time to seize him again: he
straint and "outward shows" is torn aside, and the inmost got up, and set off like lightning after the enemy's cavalry, which feelings of the heart are rendered “open as day.”
was quitting the field. The progressive stages of existence may be well illustrated I had put on all my old clothes for the sake of preserving my to by the various styles of letters written during the different ages
new ones, which were packed up in my portmanteau ; so that I irs of man. In the first age, however, the only letters made use lost my horse completely bridled and saddled, my pistols, my
of are those of the alphabet; but the “ whining schoolboy, cloak, my portmanteau, everything that was in it, my clothes, with shining morning face," does not want for early oppor- twenty-four louis-d'or which I received at Marseilles to fit me tunities of displaying whatever epistolary talent he may pos- out; and, what is still worse, my portfolio which contained all sess. The announcement of a forthcoming vacation-with the my papers. Thus I found myself in an instant stripped of every down-strokes carefully patched up by the master-supplies the thing, and obliged to march barefoot for nineteen days on the first hint towards an epistolary catalogue of wants, with which burning sand and gravel of the desert ; for the very day after few young students fail to trouble their friends at least once this unhappy affair, I lost the soles of the old boots which I a fortnight. If successful in obtaining their wishes from happened to have on my legs: my coat and my old breeches head-quarters, their first “ friendly epistles'' are usually ad- were very soon torn to a thousand tatters :-not having a bit of dressed to some juvenile relation or playfellow, who is earnestly bread to eat, nor a drop of water to moisten my mouth, all the requested to "ask cousin to ask sister to ask mother,” for comfort I had was in cursing the trade of war more than a whatever is required. The best specimen of the sort we know hundred times a day. of , may be found among the “ Pugsley papers,” in Hood's Comic
At last, on the twenty-second of this month, we arrived at the Annual for 1832.
gates of Cairo, where all the enemy's army was intrenched, and The next degree in the scale of life—that attained when
waiting for us with great boldness; but with our usual impetu.
osity we marched to attack them in their intrenchments ; in Sighs like a furnace with a woeful ballad
about three quarters of an hour, they had three thousand killed Made to his mistress' eyebrow "
outright; the rest not being able to save themselves, plunged into is decidedly the most literary state of existence. Not only are the Nile, which is a river as large as the Rhone, consequently more letters written during this turbulent period than at any they were all drowned or shot under water. After such a victory, other; but too frequently it bears out the seldom-erring Shaka we entered, drums beating, into the city of Cairo, and consespeare, and perhaps distracts a hitherto well-regulated matter-of- quently became masters of all Egypt. fact mind with the fantasies of poetry. The lover generally I do not know, my dear mother, when I shall have the pleasure writes and (if he be fortunate) receives more letters in a week, of seeing you. I repent more and more of ever coming here ; than either the schoolboy or the man of business does in a but it is now too late. In a word, I resign myself to the Supreme month. He makes the most trifling circumstance the subject of will. In spite of the seas which separate us, your memory will an important discussion that fills a whole sheet of paper, in always be graven on my heart; and the moment circumstances which, the words “hope-despair-torture-bliss--madness- permit, I will break through all obstacles to return to my delight," and divers other super-superlatives are inscribed in country. the largest letters. Though we had selected one or two examples Adieu, take care of yourself, a thousand things to my relations. of this sort of epistle, we cannot find it in our hearts to print
Your son, Guillott. them. To publish a love-letter is like betraying a profound and delicate secret; one, too, which though delightful to the parties The Duke of Wellington's account of the battle of Waterloo occupied immediately concerned, seldom has any better effect upon the no more. See his Despatches, edited by Col. Gurwood. truly disinterested than that of causing a smile. The most we 7 Copies of original letters from the army of General Buonaparte in can do is to refer our readers to the “Complete Letter Writer," Egypt, intercepted by the Fleet under the command of Admiral Lord where they will find sentiments for every stage of the passion, Nelson. London, 8vo. 1798.
Women, it has been often remarked, are better writers of pen ; and yet he is too jealous of his country's honour, not to friendly gossiping letters than men. After the romance of girl. wish in silence, that it had been the first composition, as well hood has subsided, and their powers of observation have become as the writing of Mr. Garrick, whose talents are not only equal, sharpened by worldly experience, they communicate their ideas but much superior to such a work; Lord Bute desires Mr. with more graceful ease, and with a greater degree of fluency. Garrick would excuse his freedom as to the purport of his letter; The following epistle from one of the female wits of the court of he is persuaded his silence can never be taken ill; were it posLouis XIV. is an admirable specimen of lively, flowing humour. sible, he would take care to prevent it*." It is addressed by the celebrated Madame de Sévigné to her sonin-law, from whose “Correspondence we have translated it.
If any one of our readers should come to be prime minister,
we hope he will never have sufficient ingenuity to put together A M. DE COULANGES.
so many words rendered so cleverly innocent of all meaning. “ Paris, Monday, 15 December, 1670. The interpretation of this extra-official complimentary note is “I am going to communicate to you the most astonishing thought to have been a farce, founded on the Duke of Buck
supposed to be as follows: the “present" to Lord Bute is thing in the world ; an affair the most surprising, the most marvellous, the most miraculous, the most triumphant,
the most ingham's Rehearsal,” hence, though written by Garrick, was
not original, though the minister thought the actor had enough confounding, the most unheard-of, the most singular, the most extraordinary, the most inconceivable, the most unforeseen, the had not worked upon his own material. There could hardly be
of talent to have invented as good a plot, and regrets that he most important, the most insignificant, the most rare, the most common, the most public, the most private ; till this day, the
cited a more blundering instance of the utter confusion of rela. most brilliant, the most to be envied ; in short, a thing of which
tive pronouns with their antecedents, than this note presents.
Our last specimen is the pleasant and shrewd letter of a man past ages furnished no example, at least no precise example, a
of the world. The picture it gives of Parisian society, as it thing which we don't know how to believe in Paris ; how then
existed before the great Revolution, is interesting, because doubt. will you manage to believe it in Lyons? a thing which has set
less true. It supplies conclusive evidence of the height of everybody exclaiming, “Bless me!' A thing which has covered Madame de Rohan and Madame d'Hauterive with joy, tained, and which procured its downfall.
extravagance and prodigality to which the old régime had ata thing, indeed, which is to take place on Sunday, when those who will see it shall think their eyes are playing tricks of decep
MR. HORACE WALPOLE TO LADY SUFFOLK. tion, a thing which is to be done on Sunday, though it may
"Paris, Decr. 5, 1765; but does not set out till the 11th. not happen till Monday. I do not expect you to solve the mystery all at once. Guess! I'll give it you in three. Are you
“ Since Paris has begun to fill in spite of Fontainebleau, I am silent? Then I suppose I must tell it you. Listen! M. de much reconciled to it, and have seen several people I like. I Lauzun marries on Sunday in the Louvre. Answer: Whom? I
am established in two or three societies, where I sup every night. will give it you in four, I will give it you in six, I will give it you Richelieu, so pretty and pleasing, that if I thought it would
There is a young Comtesse d'Egmont, daughter of Marshal in a hundred. 'Oh!' exclaims Madame de Coulanges, this is a hard matter to guess; it is Madame de la Vallière. Quite break anybody's heart in England, I would be in love with
• Mademoiselle de Retz?' Wrong again ; wrong, madame.
her. your notions are horribly countrified. Truly, we are very
“ Yesterday I dined at La Borde's, the great banker of the stupid,' you answer; it must be Madame Colbert.'
Lord! madam, how little and poor all your houses in Then
certainly must be Mademoiselle de Créqui.' London will look after his! In the first place, you must have a No. I suppose I must tell you at last; he marries on Sunday garden half as long as the Mall, and then you must have fourat the Louvre, with the king's permission, Mademoiselle, Made
teen windows, each as long as the other half, looking into moiselle de * * Mademoiselle-Oh do guess her name !
He it, and each window must consist only of eight panes of looking. espouses Mademoiselle! The great Mademoiselle! Mademoi. glass. You must have a first and second ante-chamber, and they
Next must be selle, daughter of the late Monsieur, grand-daughter of Henry must have nothing in them but dirty servants. the Fourth, Mademoiselle d'Eu, Mademoiselle de Dombes, the grand cabinet hung with red damask, in gold frames, and Mademoiselle de Montpensier, Mademoiselle d'Orleans, Made covered with eight large and very bad pictures, that cost four moiselle cousin-german to the King, Mademoiselle destined for thousand pounds; I cannot afford them a farthing cheaper. the throne, Mademoiselle the only lady in France worthy of Under these, to give an air of lightness, must be hung basMonsieur. Here's a pretty subject for gossip ! If you talk about reliefs in marble. Then there must be immense armories of it till you talk away your senses, if you tell us plainly we lie, tortoise-shell and or-molu, inlaid with medals. And then you that our news is false, that we want to hoax you, to play a joke may go into the petit-cabinet, and then into the great salle, and upon you, if, in short, you call us names, we will not be the gallery, and the billiard-room, and the eating-room ; and all affronted. We have done unto others as you would do unto us.
these must be hung with crystal lustres and looking-glasses, Adieu ! By your other letters from here, you will see if we speak from top to bottom; and then you must stuff them fuller than truth or not.''
they will hold with granite tables, and porphyry urns, and
bronzes, and statues, and vases, &c. &c. But for fear you When men have become “full of wise saws, and modern in- should ruin yourself or the nation, the Duchess de Grammont stances,” their epistolary correspondence exhibits a great variety must give you this, and Madame de Marsan that ; and if you both of matter and style. The man of business pares down all have anybody that has any taste to advise you, your eating-room the redundancies of youthful verbosity, to "Yours of the must be hung with huge hunting pieces in frames of all-coloured - ultimo duly received," &c. or “ Herewith you will receive," golds, and at the top of one of them you may have a setting.dog, &c. The lawyer will not afford any more words for his six-and-who, having sprung a wooden partridge, it may be flying a yard eight-pence, than are honestly necessary to make his communi- off against the wainscot. To warm and light this palace it must cation intelligible; while, on the contrary, the statesman seems to overburden his sentences with verbiage on purpose that his true candles. If you cannot afford that, you must stay till my Lord
cost you eight-and-twenty thousand livres a-year in wood and meaning may be unintelligible. The art of conducting a genuine Clive returns with the rest of the Indies,t" &c. diplomatic correspondence has been set forth as being most perfect when certain words are arranged in a certain way, so as to
The last scene of all, leave the actual intent and purpose of the writer quite uncertain.
“ That ends this strange, eventful history," This has no doubt arisen from persons holding high situations is the letter with the black seal. Few words are required in of trust and responsibility, being fearful of what is called that ; the sable wax is the mute, but all-sufficient communicant. mitting themselves.” The following note from Lord Bute to Death is stamped legibly upon it; and tears flow too fast to Mr. Garrick, though on a most trivial subject, is an amusing break the charm at once, and learn the worst. The black-sealed instance of the kind.
epistle is always a melancholy object; it is the alloy which balances the delight so universally imparted by the letter from
the distant friend, or the loved relation.
“ Wednesday, July 17, 1768. “ Lord Bute's compliments attend Mr. Garrick ! He receives *" Private Correspondence of David Garrick," &c. &c. Vol. 1. p. 307. with great pleasure the present sent him, and he assures him | Letters to and from Henrietta, Countess of Suffolk, and her second that it is much more agreeable, by being the produce of his own husband, the Hon. George Berkely, &c. &c. Vol. ii. p. 311.
THE EARL OF BUTE TO MR. GARRICK.
A RUSSIAN BATH.
people have benefit clubs, and other means for averting the MARRIAGE BIDDINGS IN WALES.
misfortunes brought on by illness or want of work; and they A custom is in general use in South Wales, which is called a are as religious, frugal, sober, honest, and well-behaved a com
Bidding," and adopted for the purpose of furnishing the munity as any in existence. outfit of a young couple, when entering the holy state of That this mode of advancing a loan bearing no interest to matrimony.
new-married couples, payable by small and uncertain intervals, In the principality of Wales, where kindred is acknowledged answers extremely well in the almost primitive society where it to the remotest degree of relationship, and the claims of cousin. is practised, is certain. It is an ancient custom, amongst ship extend over a large connexion, considerable sums are often an ancient people. In the district in which it is practised, there collected on occasion of these biddings; particularly when the is little movement among the families ; almost all are connected parties are the children of respectable farmers : and sometimes with each other by ties of blood, there held in much higher cases occur when hundreds of pounds are subscribed at the call regard than in England, where little or nothing of the feelings or bidding of some popular or influential person, such as a which bind clans and tribes together are known, because those steward or titheman, whose good-will it is the policy of a tenantry relations do not exist. to cultivate.
Wherever the population is fixed, as is found in many agri. An announcement of the intention is made in the following cultural districts, a general subscription of this sort, founded as form, being a literal copy of a bidding letter, addressed to a it is upon some of the best feelings of our nature, might perhaps country friend. The parties named therein are the children of be introduced with advantage ; but it would be a very doubtful small farmers in the county of Carmarthen.
“ Nov. 30th, 1838. The fact of such a system being in operation from time out of " As we intend to enter the MATRIMONIAL State, on Tuesday, the 25th mind, to the present day, is curious and instructive. It appears day of December next, being Christmas-day, we are encouraged by our to have been a very ancient Celtic custom ; the penny-weddings Friends to make a BIDDING on the occasion the same day, the Young of Scotland bear some resemblance to it, but there, as far as we Man at hisown Dwelling-house, called Trebeddod, and the Young Woman at her Father's House, called PARC-Y-MYNYDD, both in the Parish of
have ever heard, repayment, the peculiar feature of these Bid. Llanelly; at either of which places the favour of your good Company is most dings, is not expected. It would be interesting to ascertain humbly solicited; and whatever Donation you may be pleased to confer
whether this custom obtains in Brittany, where the inhabitants on us then will be thankfully received, and cheerfully repaid whenever
we know still retain many very ancient British customs. called for on a similar occasion.
“ WALTER WALTERS,
“ HANNAH DAVIES. "*,* The Young Man desires that all Gifts of the above nature due to I MOUNTED a drosky and hurried to a bath. Riding out to him be returned on the above day, and will be thankful for all additional the suburbs, the drosky boy stopped at a large wooden building, Favours granted.
pouring forth steam from every chink and crevice. At the " Also, the Young Woman's Father and Mother (John and Hannah
entrance stood several half-naked men, one of whom led me to Davies), her Sister (Margaret), together with her Grandmother (Catherine
an apartment to undress, and then conducted me to another, in Davies), desire that all Gifts of the above nature due to them be returned to
one end of which were a furnace and apparatus for generating
steam. I was then familiar with the Turkish bath; but the the Young Woman on the above day, and will be thankful for all additional Favours copferred on her."
worst I had known was like the breath of the gentle south wind,
compared with the heat of this apartment. The operator stood On this occasion the friends were invited to two places, but me in the middle of the floor, opened the upper door of the sometimes they all assemble at the house of one of the parties, stove, and dashed into it a bucketful of water, which sent forth where they are regaled with wheaten and oaten cakes, and cheese, and then laid me down on a platform about three feet high, and
volumes of steam, like a thick fog, into every part of this room, and curw da (good ale), brewed for the occasion.
rubbed my body with a mop, dipped in soap and hot water : The refreshments are laid out on a long table, at the head of then he raised me up, and deluged me with hot water, pouring which sits a person, having a pewter dish before him to receive several tubfuls on my head; then laid me down again, and the gifts; and as each offering is made he registers the name scrubbed me with soap and water, from my head to my heels, of the person who presents or sends it; for these moneys are long enough, if the thing were possible, to make a blackamoor reclaimed on like occasions, either by the parties themselves, or
white; then gave me another sousing with hot water, and an.
other scrubbing with pure water, and then conducted me up a to whomsoever they assign them in the invitation letter.
flight of steps to a high platform, stretched me out on a bench It is considered highly discreditable to neglect attending within a few feet of the ceiling, and commenced whipping me these biddings, either in person or by deputy, for the purpose of with twigs of birch, with the leaves on them, dipped in hot repaying any offering that may be claimed ; and so well is the water. It was as hot as an oven where he laid me down on the custom established, that the sums have actually been recovered bench; the vapour, which had almost suffocated me below, in courts of law, the judges deciding on the plea of immemorial ascended to the ceiling, and finding no avenue of escape, ga. prescription.
thered round my devoted body, fairly scalding and blistering
me; and when I removed my hands from my face, I felt as if I The amount of the gift—which, although so called, is, strictly had carried away my whole profile. I tried to hold out to the speaking, a loan-varies from a crown to a sovereign ; the sum end, but I was burning, scorching, and consuming. In agony, received altogether depends upon the connexions of the parties, I cried out to my tormentor to let me get up; but he did not and their rank in life. It is seldom less than twenty or thirty understand me, or was loth to let me go, and kept thrashing me pounds, and oftentimes exceeds one hundred-quite a fortune with the bunch of twigs, until, perfectly desperate, I sprang off
the bench, tumbled him over, and descended to the floor. for a young couple entering life.
Snow, snow, a region of eternal snow, seemed paradise ; but It is true that, with the exception of what is sent by the my tormentor had not done with me; and, as I was hurrying to neighbouring gentry, the money collected must be afterwards the door, he dashed over me a tub of cold water. I was so repaid, but the calls for this purpose occur at long intervals ; in hot, that it seemed to hiss as it touched me; he came at me with the mean time the debt bears no interest, and with common
another, and at that moment I could imagine, what had always industry, a young couple, becoming by this means possessed of all seemed a traveller's story, the high satisfaction and perfect safety
with which the Russian, in mid-winter, rushes from his hot the necessaries, and even comforts, that their situation requires, bath, and rolls himself in the snow. The grim features of my can make their way in the world, and rear their children tormentor relaxed as he saw the change that came over me. I
withdrew to my dressing-room, dozed an hour on the settee, In the districts where this custom prevails, the country and went out a new man.-Stephens's Incidents of Travel.
MISSIONS TO THE SOUTH SEA ISLANDS.
London, during five days, September 21-25, 1795, it was
resolved, “That a mission be undertaken to Otabeite, the POLYNESIA presents to the view of the philosopher, the philan Friendly Islands, the Marquesas, Sandwich, and the Peler thropist, and the Christian, some of the most extraordinary moral Islands, as far as may be practicable and expedient.” This phenomena. Numerous tribes of the most ignorant of our species, resolution was passed with unanimity, and with tears of joy, by have been raised to something like their true rank as rational an unusually large assembly, and carried out at a series of meet. beings, to the possession of letters and the elements of science, ings of the most extraordinary character that had ever been held to the enjoyment of social delights, and to the elevation of moral in the British empire for the propagation of the gospel of Christ and devout worshippers of the true God. The contemplation of among the heathen. Large contributions were made on the such a spectacle cannot fail to excite the most lively satisfaction occasion : Captain Wilson, an eminently qualified gentleman, and delightful feelings in the breast of every Christian.
nobly offered his gratuitous services to convey the missionaries The islands in the Pacific, in which Christian Missions have to Otaheite. The ship “Duff” was purchased for £5000; and been established, comprise the chief clusters of Eastern Poly- all needful preparations having been made, thirty missionaries, nesia, and comprehend New Zealand, the Friendly, Feejees, (six of them, being married, were accompanied by their wives,) the Navigators' and Harvey Islands, Tahiti, or as it was for- embarked at London, August 10, 1796, and arrived at Tahiti, merly written, Otaheite, the Society, and Austral or Southern March 4, 1797. Islands, and the almost innumerable clusters of low islands Christian missionary labours and successes among the heathen forming the labyrinth or dangerous archipelago, the Marquesas, of the South Sea Islands cannot be rightly appreciated, without and the Sandwich Islands. Of all these, Hawaii, the chief of some general knowledge of their previous condition. These, the Sandwich group, is probably the largest, being nearly 300 therefore, it will be necessary to describe, especially as regards miles in circumference, rising to an elevation equal to the highest the Tahitians, whose character corresponded in most particulars land in Europe, and presenting a surface which has been computed with those of the other islanders. to contain four thousand square miles. The climate is remark- They were entirely destitute of letters: they possessed a system, ably pleasant, most equally removed from the severity of a or rather fragments of an absurd mythology. They had “ gods northern winter, and the oppressive heat of the East and West many, and lords many,”-warriors, chiefs, and heroes, whom Indies. However numerous the islands of the Southern Ocean, they had deified. Besides, they regarded with religious venera. and especially valuable their convenient harbours for various tion certain animals, birds, insects, and fishes, as having been commercial purposes, little was known of them until the latter part entered and possessed by their gods. Their idols, to represent of the last century: most of them were then first discovered by their divinities, were made of stone and of wood; the latter rudely British navigators.
carved to resemble the human face, and braided with the fibres Captain Wallis, of his Majesty's ship Dolphin, pursuing his of the cocoa-nut husk, and adorned with the beautiful feathers way across the comparatively untraversed waters of the Pacific, of the parroquet. Their worship was of a character with their discovered, June 19, 1767, the lofty island of Tahiti, and anchored gods ; all was repulsiveness and deformity in vice, recklessness on the 23rd, in the Bay of Matavai : this he called “ Port Royal,” in oppression, or diabolical in wanton and diversified cruelties. and designated the island itself, “ King George the Third's Benevolence, forbearance, or forgiveness, were never associated Island,'' in honour of his royal master.
with the ideas of their gods, who were considered as beings invested Captain Cook being sent, in 1768, to convey certain astrono- with power only to wreak their vengeance on the hapless objects mers, to observe, at Tahiti, the transit of the planet Venus, cast of their wrath, often implacable and destructive. Human victims anchor in the bay of Matavai, April, 13, 1769. This distinguished were sacrificed when they commenced one of their sacred temples, navigator visited the Pacific on two subsequent occasions : once during its progress, and when it was completed ; and also on in search of a favourite object of geographical speculation at
other occasions, accompanied with rites the most revolting and that period—a Southern Continent; and afterwards in hopes of horrible. Captain Cook was present at one of these sacrifices, discovering a northern passage from the Pacific to the Atlantic. when he counted forty-nine human skulls, all of which appeared During these voyages, Captain Cook visited and explored the recently taken from the victims ! eastern coast of New Holland; he re-discovered New Zealand, Morals among this people were as low as it was possible for first seen by Tasman, a Dutch navigator, December 13, 1642, the existence of their miserable society. Domestic love could and discovered the most northerly of the Marquesas, the Society, hardly be said to exist : the father and mother with their chil. Friendly and Sandwich Islands. This great commander, how- dren, never, as one social, happy band, surrounded the domestic ever, fell a victim to the mistaken apprehensions of the natives ; hearth, or partook together, as a family, of the bounties of being killed February 14, 1779, in a quarrel at Hawaii, then Divine Providence. Their sacred institutes of Oro and Tane called Owhyhee.
inexorably required that the wife should not eat those kinds of Captain Cook's published journals produced a deep impres- food on which her husband fed, nor eat in the same place with sion on the public mind, as to the importance of his discoveries; him, nor yet prepare them at the same fire : this degrading reand excited the liveliest interest among reflecting and religious striction applied to all females, and from their birth to their persons, throughout England : a mission was therefore seriously death ; nor was it ever relaxed in sickness or pain, for wife, contemplated by several eminent Christians, to ameliorate the sister, or daughter. Various flesh, fowls, and fish, were held condition of the numerous tribes of savages in the South Sea sacred as food for the men ; but inferior provisions for women Islands. Among those most zealous for the enterprise, was were kept in separate baskets, and eaten in lonely solitude by Selina, Countess of Huntingdon. That excellent lady died June them, in mean huts, resembling dog-kennels, when compared 17, 1791, charging her worthy chaplain and friend, Dr. Haweis, with the habitations of the men. Woman was, therefore, a with whom she had previously conferred on the practicability of wretched slave, doomed to neglect, insult, oppression, and such an undertaking, to endeavour to accomplish her wishes in cruelty. relation to Otaheite.
Infanticide prevailed to a most fearful extent among these Christian missions to the heathen had already been a subject islanders: the bloody practice attracted the notice of Captain of solemn consideration with many ministers of the gospel of Cook. The first three infants were frequently killed : in the different denominations, to which their minds had been espe- largest families, more than two or three children were seldom cially awakened by Dr. Doddridge. Hence originated the spared, while the numbers killed were astonishing. Many parents, Baptist Missionary Society, projected in 1792, by that learned according to their own confessions, and the united testimony of and successful missionary labourer, Dr. Carey; and hence, after their neighbours, had barbarously consigned to an untimely various correspondence, and published addresses in 1794, by the grave, four, or six, or eight, or ten children, and sometimes Evangelical Magazine, then first established, the formation, in even a greater number ! 1795, of the “MISSIONARY Society," since, for the sake of Messrs. Bennett and Tyerman, the deputation from the London distinction, called the “ London Missionary Society.” Subse- Missionary Society, when at Tahiti, in 1821, inquired concerning quently, the “ Church Missionary Society" was established, this dreadful practice. They state, “We conversed with Mr. and afterwards the organization of the “ Wesleyan Missionary Nott, who has resided here from the commencement of the Society."
mission, on the subject of infanticide, and learned with horror, Dr. Haweis was faithful to the charge received from his noble that it had been practised to an extent incredible, except on such patroness, and became one of the founders and directors of the testimony and evidence as he and the brethren on other stations Missionary Society, by which, at its first general meeting, held in have had the means of accumulating. He assured us, that three.