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or of leisure for reading from pursuing this inquiry, but shall peruse with interest whatever may appear in "N. & Q." upon the subject. I will only take the liberty of suggesting that it would seem desirable to have ::

1. Dry evidence showing whether, as a matter of fact, Maiden Castle in the British Islands is, or is not, always, or often, the site of a Celtic stronghold, and at the same time possesses, or does not possess, natural characteristics rendering maidyn "the fort of the field or plain ") an appropriate name, as in the above instance.

2. In each case a statement of the earliest recorded connexion of the term maiden (or of any term phonetically resembling this) with the locality in question.

Should any correspondent suggest that our hills bearing the name of Maiden Castle or Maiden Bower were so called on the principle on which the town of Péronne was named "La Pucelle" (that is, from having for a long period from its foundation experienced sieges, but escaped capture), it would

be desirable to have evidence either of this as a fact or of the existence of a local belief to that effect, with the grounds, if any are known, for such belief. JOHN W. BONE.

26, Bedford Place.

TWO WELSH-ENGLISH VERSIONS OF A POEM TO THE VIRGIN.—Mr. Wm. W. E. Wynne, of Peniarth, Towyn, Merioneth, to whom the famous Hengwrt collection of MSS. was bequeathed by its late owner, Sir R. Vaughan, Bart., has kindly sent me a specimen of two versions of an Early English poem to the Virgin, written by a Welsh scribe. We hope to print the whole, by Mr. Wynne's leave, in the Early English Text Society. Mean time here is the sample:

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version the transcriber has adopted Welsh spelling, or perhaps it was so in the original. Dd in Welsh has nearly the pronunciation of th, and w of oo." F. J. F.

THE VISORS OF WONCOT.-It may interest some of your readers to hear that I have recently purchased a number of old deeds respecting this family, showing who the "William Visor of Woncot," mentioned by Shakespeare in the second part of Henry IV., really was, and the exact locality of his residence. It is something to know that the great dramatist was speaking of a veritable personage of his own day. J. O. HALLIWELL-PHILLIPPS.

WILLIAM JAY, OF BATH.-As one of your correspondents (5th S. xi. 245), is engaged on a bibliography of Bath, I send a few notes on this great ornament of the town :

Autobiography of W. J., with reminiscences of some Edited by Dr. George distinguished contemporaries. Redford and the Rev. John Angell James.

1854, 8vo. 12s.; third ed., 1855, cr. 8vo. 7s. 6d.


A sketch of the life and labours of W. J., with a sermon preached the Sunday after the funeral by Wm. H. Dyer, minister of Argyle Chapel. Bath and London, 1854, 8vo. 6d.

Ministerial qualifications and success: a sermon preached at Argyle Chapel, Bath, Jan. 8, 1854, on the decease of W. J. By James Sherman. 6d.

A portraiture of W. J., being an outline of his mind, character, and pulpit eloquence. By Rev. Thomas Wallace. 1854, 12mo. 3s. 6d.

Recollections of W. J., of Bath, with glances at his contemporaries and friends. By his Son. 1859, cr. 8vo. three portraits.

Memoir of W. J. By the Rev. S. S. Wilson. With an appendix, containing remarkable passages selected from his discourses. 18-, 12mo. portrait.

Cf. Memorials of the Rev. Robert Bolton, Rector of Felham, U.S., and Chaplain to the Earl of Ducie, and Mrs. Bolton, by W. J. Bolton, M.A., London, 1860. Wilberforce regarded Jay as the best extempore preacher of his day (Moultrie's Memoir of W. S. Walker, p. lvi). See Wm. Jowett's Memoir of Corn. Neale (1833), 14.

Add to Watt's list of Jay's works :

Farewell sermon, 1789.

Token of respect to the memory of the Rev. T. Tuppen, 1790.

Sermon on ministerial usefulness, 1791.
Value of life, a sermon, 1803.

See further T. S. Whalley's Memoirs, ii, 224 seq.


JOSEPH HUME, M.P.-Not many months before the death of Joseph Hume, in 1855, at the close of a conversation which to me was full of interest, the old man said, lowering his voice and seeming for the moment to forget that any one was present, "And I shall soon be dead. I shall pass away and be forgotten. Some few will rejoice, perhaps, but the great majority will soon forget me altogether.

I shall die a neglected and useless man, and the people for whom I have so long worked will think of me no more." I ventured to say, "Oh, sir, you should not say that! England owes you a large debt of gratitude; your country will never forget the good which you have done." Mr. Hume looked up at me intently for a moment, and then said, in his old incisive manner, "The good I have done, sir! You don't know what you are talking about. The good I have done! God knows I have done very little good in my time, and for that little I deserve no thanks, and expect no gratitude. But I'll tell you what-the country does owe me thanks, not for the good I have done, but for the evil that I have prevented! Year after year I have denounced every job which came before the House, till I became the terror of all corrupt place-seekers, direct and indirect. I know as a fact that millions have been saved to this country because, as ministers have often said, 'We dare not do this thing, for that fellow Hume is as sharp as a hawk, and he would be sure to expose it in the House.'" As a characteristic memory of one who was a power in the state for many years, perhaps this little anecdote is not unworthy of being recorded. EDWARD SOLLY.

AMERICAN SPELLING.-May I be permitted, dear Mr. Editor, to ask (as deferentially as possible), through you, all publishers and editors who reprint American books to leave us our native language? If Americans have a particular liking for coming to the defense of travelers in a wagon, who might have stayed there forever had not anyone helped them, by all means let them accomplish this eccentric feat; but do let us Britishers retain the correct spelling of the words in question. I cannot see where we are to land if we follow up such horrors as forever and anyone. In another ten years we shall have takecare and didntyou. Can't we stop? HERMENTRUde.

SIR JOHN LUBBOCK ANTICIPATED.-In the 29 & 30 Vict. c. iii. sec. 8 (An Act to further amend the Acts relating to the Ecclesiastical Commissioners for England), Aug. 10, 1866, occur the following remarkable expressions :

"Whereas certain portions of Lambeth Palace, namely the Lollards' Tower and Cardinal Morton's Tower, are not necessary or useful for the enjoyment by the Archbishop of Canterbury of the palace as a place of residence, whilst it is expedient that they should be preserved as monuments of historical and antiquarian interest," &c.

Here is a declaration by the legislature that monuments of historical and antiquarian interest ought to be preserved.

H. C. C.

[We are sure the Primate's attention has only to be called to the unglazed casements in the Lollards' Tower, in order that an effectual remedy may be applied.]

AMERICAN FOLK-LORE.-When a boy of about ten years of age, I saw in Burlington County, New

Jersey, a tree, the trunk of which had divided into two parts, which rejoined a short distance above. Through the opening created by this lusus naturæ, it was customary to pass children who had been ruptured, in the belief that they would be cured thereby. M. E. Philadelphia.


We must request correspondents desiring information on family matters of only private interest, to affix their names and addresses to their queries, in order that the answers may be addressed to them direct.

MATTHEW CAREY, PHILADELPHIA, 1819.— Having lately observed a notice of the death of Mr. Henry Charles Carey, at the age of eighty-six, in Philadelphia, who was a bookseller there until 1836, and had a great antipathy to this country, I am reminded of an extraordinary book which was written by Matthew Carey, possibly his father (who also had a great antipathy to this country), in a vigorous strain, respecting the, treatment in times past of Roman Catholics in Ireland, from whence he had emigrated. As near as I can say, the title of the book was "Vindicia Hibernica; 01, Ireland Vindicated. By Matthew Carey (a Native of Ireland), Member of the American Philosophical and Antiquarian Societies, &c. Philadelphia, printed for Carey & Hart, 1819,", 8vo. The work may be rare in this country, but it surely cannot be so in America, for at the end of the preface of this edition, the dedication of which is dated Philadelphia, March 6, 1819, the following extraordinary notification is given :

"Pecuniary considerations have had no place among the motives that led to this undertaking. This edition consists of only 750 copies, of which 250 are intended to be gratuitously distributed to public libraries, reading rooms, and enlightened individuals, in order to afford the work a chance of perusal, and my calumniated country an opportunity of justification. While that number lasts, any library company sending an order for a copy shall be supplied without expense. Agents shall be appointed to distribute the books, on this plan, in Boston, New York, Baltimore, &c."

Can any correspondent furnish an exact copy of the title-page? D. WHYTE.

MEYLER FITZ-HENRY.-Can you give me information about Meyler or Myles Fitz-Henry, who was Chief Justiciary of Ireland in 1200? I am already acquainted with the brief notices of him in Mr. Ireland in the Public Record Office, London, from Sweetman's Calendar of Documents relating to which I learn that "the King (by charter 2nd John, mem. 28 dors.) commits to Meyler Fitz-Henry the Chief Justiciary thereof. Mandate that the Archcare and custody of all Ireland, and appoints him bishops, &c., of Ireland be intentive to Meyler accordingly" (about October, 1200). Is anything known of Fitz-Henry's birth and family; and

what were his arms? I suppose he was one of the Norman knights who went to Ireland with Strongbow or Henry HI. Is it the fact that this Fitz-Henry is now represented by any descendants? There is an Irish family of Henry, which bears what looks like a very early coat of arms, viz., Per pale indented, argent and gules, on a chief azure a lion passant argent. Does this family descend from Meyler Fitz-Henry, and, if so, how can I obtain particulars of their pedigree? In a curious old peerage that I have, The Irish Compendium, London, 1745, I find on p. 39, in a table of the Chief Governors of Ireland, the following_entry: "1199, Miler FitzHenry, Son of King John, Governor." Can it be true that he was a son of King John? I should think he would have been named "Fitz-John" in that case. If of royal birth at all, it would be more likely that "Fitz-Henry" meant son of Henry III. What was his real parentage, and what is the correct form of his Christian name? Any replies to the preceding questions would, no doubt, be interesting to many of your genealogical readers, as well as to


"PRINCESS." -What is the correct accentuation of this word? A friend of mine is very warm on the subject, and will have the accent on the second syllable. He asserts that if you accentuate on the first, you speak of the princes, not of the princess. But I take the liberty of doubting this, because I cannot recall any analogical word thus accentuated. We say "duchess," marchioness," ," "countess," "baroness," all with the accent on the first syllable. Neither does my friend send his linen to a laundréss, nor take off his hat to an abbéss, nor speak of such women as seek his editorial suffrage as authorésses. Why, then, are the hapless princesses to be excepted and isolated? HERMENTRUDE.



Jocelyn or Jocelin who quartered the following coats, which are blazoned from an old silver seal dating, I have reason to believe, from the seventeenth century?-1, Az., a circular wreath arg. and sa., with four hawks' bells joined thereto in quadrangle or (Jocelyn or Jocelin). 2, Gu., a demi-lion rampant arg., ducally crowned or. 3, Gu., a fesse 4, Or, a griffin segreant within a bordure invecked sa. 5, Arg., an escutcheon gu. within an orle of martlets sa. 6, Arg., on a saltire engrailed gu. five hawks' bells or; on a chief of the second three escallops of the field. 7, Gu., three escutcheons, two and one, arg. 8, Arg., three chevronels gu. Where can his pedigree be found?


J. H. J.

THE HISTORY OF LITERARY FORGERY.-Is there any book which investigates this subject? Judging from the number of spurious writings which have come down to us under the names of classical

authors and Christian fathers, one would imagine that the practice of "personification" must have been very common at certain periods of the later empire, and must have been regarded as morally venial. I shall be glad to be referred to any treatise which discusses historically such questions as the following:-At what periods was literary personification most prevalent? For what ends was it mainly practised? What class of men were most guilty of it? To what extent has it been regarded, by popular opinion and by ethical teachers in various ages, as either allowable or, at all events, not wholly immoral? JOHN CYPRIAN RUST.

The Vicarage, Soham, Cambridgeshire.

ROYALIST OR CROMWELLITE.-I lately saw in a deed dated April 20, 1653, a reference to some former transaction, which took place "23rd Dec., 1647, which was the 23 year of our Late Sovereign Lord Charles, late King of England," &c. Does the wording of this, at that date, show that the family, Cutlacke by name, was Royalist, or was it the usual legal form, even under the Commonwealth? RICHARD H. J. GURNEY.

PEERAGE OF STOCKPORT.-The Rev. John Watson, of B.N.C., Oxford, Rector of Stockport, about the year 1770 wrote a book to prove that Sir George Warren, of Poynton, near Stockport, and patron of that living, was the rightful heir to the barony of Stockport. Not more than six copies of this work were printed. It was printed by Eyres of Warrington, and Gilbert Wakefield says that it was one of the most accurate specimens of typography ever issued from any press. Where can I see a copy of the above book?

Hampstead, N.W.


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rally less than it is now, as if the miles had been at that time longer. Thus, "From Cirencester to Malmesbury 8 m.' It is now eleven. Ogilby, in his Book of Roads, published in 1674, always distinguishes between the commonly called and the real distance. Thus: "The road from Salisbury to Campden, co. Glouc.: the vulgar computation 56 miles; the dimensuration 76 miles." According to this "vulgar computation "the mile must have contained 2,390 yards.

J. E. J. "AUGMENTUM."-This word is in the rubrics of an old missal. What is its liturgical use? E.g., Hic augmentum," ," "Hic secunda pars augmenti."

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H. A. W.

WOLF JACOB VON FORSTNER(?).—A correspondent from Lorraine has sent me the following query, and I shall be greatly obliged if any of your readers can help me in the matter :

"An English gentleman, Wolf Jacob von Forstner (?), who lived for a long time with Duke Leopold I. of Lor; raine (from 1716-24), died at Luneville, and was buried on the left side of the altar of the (German Evangelical) church of Ste. Marie aux Mines, Alsace, on Nov. 4, 1724. Duval, whom he befriended, says that he was an English gentleman. I shall be greatly obliged by any information about his family, antecedents, &c. I should add that the Académie of Luneville was attended at that time by many young English gentlemen, attracted by

the duke's court."

T. W. C.

"CARCELL":"LESH LUMBERT."-What may these be? The words occur in the menu of an Oxford supper given in 1452 by one Geo. Neville of Balliol. "Lumbert" I take to be pie of some sort. T. F. R.

"TALIS CUM SIS, UTINAM NOSTER ESSES."-It has been suggested that this was written to Erasmus by one of the Protestant reformers; alse, that it occurs in a sermon of St. Augustin's, containing a eulogy of a certain virtuous heathen, in which the latter is apostrophized as above. A search in St. Augustin, made for me by a friend, has failed to find it. Whence does the phrase come? JOHN W. BONE. 26, Bedford Place, Russell Square.

AUTHOR NAMED MACCULLOCH.-In the November Contemporary I find, in an article on the Deluge, by M. Lenormant, the name of MacCulloch mentioned in conjunction with those of Humboldt and M. Maury, with respect to a supposed analogy between certain traditions of the Deluge and of the Four Ages of the World in India and in Mexico. In another part of the article M. Lenormant writes the name Macculloch. To what writer of this name does he allude, and in what work are the passages he refers to to be found? MYRETOUN.

23RD REGIMENT OF FOOT.-Three brothers, ancestors of mine, were in this corps, as chaplain and captains, in the first decade of the last century. One probably of the same family, although spelling his name differently, was a major in the 23rd Royal Welsh Fusileers, and fell at Quatre Bras. Were these two 23rd Regiments the same corps? What was General Hodshon's (Hodgson's) regiment in 1773? What corps now represents it? A. BEAK.


SINGING CAROLS IN CHURCHES.-On the even"THE LAND O' THE LEAL."-Why is it that one ing of Christmas Day, 1878, I attended service at St. version of this song represents the wife as dying Peter's Church, Plymouth. On the conclusion of the and as saying her farewell to "John," while another Rev. G. R. Prynne's sermon, and after the blessing portrays the death-bed scene of the husband, whose had been pronounced, nearly the whole of the perlast words are addressed to "Jean"? Prof. Morley, sons in the congregation kept their seats, and the in Shorter English Poems, gives the former, while carol, or, as it is locally called, the "curl," service the latter is preferred by Mr. Palgrave in the commenced. An appropriate voluntary was first Golden Treasury. Mr. Kennedy, too, the well-played, and then, from a paper specially printed for known Scottish singer, introduces the song to his audiences as being Lady Nairne's ideal of Burns's last hours. To those who have listened under this impression to his pathetic rendering of

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I'm wearin' awa', Jean,"

the occasion, and distributed gratuitously in the church, the minister gave out the carols one by one, the audience nearly all joining in the singing. A noticeable point was that the people sat down to sing, just in the same way as they do in the Estab

there is a startling disenchantment in the common-lished Presbyterian Church in Scotland. place assurance,

"I'm wearin' awa', John."

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singing some six or eight "curls," the congregation dispersed, taking with them the printed papers for further use at home. Is this "curl" service peculiar to Devonshire, or is it known in other counties? GEORGE C. BOASE.

15, Queen Anne's Gate, S.W. churches at Christmastide.] [Carols are now very commonly sung in London

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Phayer, who translated the Æneid in 1558? When and where was he born? Did he leave any children? What arms did he bear? Is the name of English, Welsh, or Flemish origin? His father is said to have belonged to Norwich. He himself was brought up under the patronage of the Marquis of Winchester, and was educated at Oxford. He studied law at Lincoln's Inn, and became "Sollicitour to the King and Queen's Majesties, attending their honourable Counsaile in the Marchies of Wales"; and afterwards, in 1559, "Doctour of Physike." He was buried in Kilgerran Forest, Pembrokeshire. PLYNLIMMON.

appears to have placed her in an equally hazardous position. W. F. PRIDEAUX.

Sehore, Central India.

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"A PAIR OF ORGANS."-In the Middle Ages, a pair of organs are generally spoken of as organs." In Durham Abbey there were three pairs of organs. Does this mean an organ with two keyboards? and, if so, were they played by two persons simultaneously? In Le Croix's Arts of the Middle Ages, p. 204, is given a drawing of an organ played by two persons. If two personsplayed together, did they play the same chords, only on different octaves, or did they play different THE MORRICE OR MORRIS DANCE.-The follow-chords, as two people now do on a piano? ing foot-note occurs in the Fair Maid of Perth :E. LEATON BLENKINSOPP.

"Considerable diversity of opinion exists respecting the introduction of the morrice dance into Britain. The name points it out as of Moorish origin, and so popular has this leaping kind of dancing for many centuries been in this country that when Handel was asked to point out the peculiar taste in dancing and music of the several nations of Europe, to the French he ascribed the minuet, to the Spaniard the saraband, to the Italian the arietta, to the English the hornpipe or morrice dance."

According to Sir Bernard Burke (Ulster) the name is of very ancient origin, and derived from the Welsh words Mawr-ruyce, viz., strong or powerful in war (see Landed Gentry, pedigree of Morris of Netherby, co. York). What say your correspondents to this divergence of views ?


[Sir Bernard is not speaking of the morris dance, neither is he to be held responsible for the etymologies which families may assign to their own names.]

THE PRONUNCIATION OF "ANTHONY."-As I am unable to pronounce my own Christian name with any degree of certainty, I shall be extremely obliged if you will allow me to have the opinion of your readers. It is generally pronounced as if written Antoni, but some good authorities maintain that the thought to retain its full sound.


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"On other occasions the witch is tied in a bag and thrown into a pool, where sinking is the only proof of her innocence. If her struggles keep her afloat, she is inevitably condemned and punished, either by being obliged to drink the water used by the leather dressers, which is a degradation from caste, or by having her nose cut off, or being put to death."

As this ordeal is identical with that to which suspected witches were formerly subjected in Europe, I should be glad to know if the origin of the test has ever been investigated, and if any reason can be assigned for a trial which, whether resulting in the guilt or innocence of the accused,

"PRESTIDIGITATEUR."-In the autobiography of Robert Houdin it is stated that a professor of sleight of hand, yclept Jules de Rovère, was the originator of this tall term: "Being of noble birth, he desired a title in accordance with it; but, as he had rejected with disdain the vulgar name of escamoteur, and as that of physicien was frequently used by his rivals, he was compelled to create a title for himself." Can anything be said against Jules de Rovère's originality? W. WHISTON.

WHAT ARE "'Esopus " PRICES ?-A poetical advertisement in the Ulster County Gazette (N. America) of December, 1799, concludes prosily: "The following articles will be received in payment. Wheat, rye, buckwheat, oats, corn, butter, flax, ashes, and raw hides. These articles will be taken in at the Esopus prices." H. P.

COL. LASCELLES: LORD LIGONIER: MASQUERADES AT HAY MARKET.-The Town and Country Magazine for Nov., 1770, gives the following. Col. (Frank) Lascelles as a cornet of Dragoons applied (before Nov., 1770) to the late Lord Ligonier for promotion when there was a vacancy in another corps. On this occasion his lordship said the celebrated bon mot, so well known in the army, "If I were a cornet of Dragoons and twenty years old I would not change stations with the Grand Signior." A few nights after, Col. Lascelles was at the masquerade in the Hay Market and won a sum of money at the E. O. table. I ask, What is the exact date when this bon mot was said, and is there any other account of it, and where? Which regiment of Dragoons was Cornet Lascelles in at that time? Is there any account, and where, of the masquerades at the Hay Market (? Opera House)? What is the meaning of the E. O. table?


3, Gloucester Crescent, Hyde Park.

"DANMONII."-In the Free Library of this town I find a book entitled Danmonii; or, Historical Sketch of the Ancient Inhabitants of Devon, by a

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