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Blakiston

(J12) 89, (Contem

dictionary. See Billings; Foster. Medicine and surgery. See Kesteven, W. B. Menæchmi (The). Plautus. net, $1.08. Leach, S. & S Mental diseases, Text-book of. Lewis, W. B. $6. Mercier, C. Sanity and insanity. porary sci. ser.) $1.25.... ..Scribner & W Merry Chanter. Stockton, F. R. p. 50c... Century Co Michaelis, R. Looking forward. (Jl12) 12°, (Globe lib., no. 129.) p. 25c.... ..Rand, McN Michigan. Sup. ct. Cases. (Fuller.) V. 71. (Jl12) O. shp. $3.50....... Callaghan Midnight marriage. Douglas, A. M. p. 25c. Street & S Mike Fletcher. Moore, G. p. 50c.... Minerva Pub. Co Miller, S. A., and Gurley, W. F. E. Description of some new genera and species of echinodermata. (J126) 8°, p. $1...

..Steiger

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Mitchell, E. C. Law of real estate and conveyancing in Pennsylvania. (Ralston.) (J15) O. shp. $5.. Welsh Models and exercises in unseen translation. Fox, H. F. $1.40.. Macmillan

Modern science essayist. See Chadwick; Le Row. - Zoroastrian. Laing, S. $1.25....... Lippincott Montague, C. H., and Dyar, C. W. Written in red. (J15) D. (Cassell's sunshine ser., no. 50.) 75c.: P. 50c. Cassell Montaigne, M. E. de. Essays. (McCarthy.) V. 3, 4. (J126) 18°, $1.50.... ....... Macmillan Montgomery, Mary C. My strange patient. (J112) 12, (Minerva ser., no. 22.) p. 25c... Minerva Pub. Co Moody, G. Life's retrospect. (J126) D. $1.50. Cranston & S Moore, G. Mike Fletcher. (Jl12) 12°, (Minerva ser., no. 17.) p. 50c... ......Minerva Pub. Co Morgan, T. J. Studies in pedagogy. (J126) 12°, $1.75. Silver, B

Mormonism. See Gregg, T.
Murlin, E. L. New York ballot reform law and city
and rural registry law. 5th ed. (J112) S. p. 15c.. Lyon
Murray, W. H. H. Mamelons and Ungava. (Jl12) D
$1.50....
.. De Wolfe, F.
Wilson,
...G. H. Wilson

Musical year-book of the United States, v. 7.
G. H. $....

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-reporter system. See Pacific; Southwestern.
Natural science. See Earl, A. G.
Nautical surveying. Shortland, Vice-Admiral. $5.25.
Macmillan

Nebraska general statutes. See Oklahoma.
New continent. Worthey, Mrs. $1.50......Macmillan
New York ballot reform law. Murlin, E. L. p. 15c.
J. A. Lyon

--Ct. of appeals. Repts. (Sickels.) V. 119. (Jl12.) O. shp. $2.50...

--Law and practice of surrogates' courts.
A. A. shp. net, $8

-

$4.

...Lyon Redfield, Baker, V

-supplement, v. 8. Permanent ed.

(Jl12) O. shp.

West Pub. Co

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Nichol, J., and McCormick, W. S. Questions and exercises on English composition. (J15) 16°, 35c.

Macmillan

Revell

Not his own master. Shadwell, L. $1.40...... Ober-Ammergau passion play. Snively, W. H. $1.25 P. 75C.....

Pott

Ohio Commandery of Military Order Loyal Legion. Sketches of war history 1861-1865. V. 3. (J126) 8°, net, $2.... ..R. Clarke Criminal code. (Wilson.) 3d ed. (Jl12) O. shp. net, $5 ..R. Clarke Oklahoma. Adopted code for the territory. (Guy A. Brown.) (J126) O. hf. shp. $3 ...Reed-Martin Pi. Co Old life's shadows. Lewis, H. $1; p. 50c......Bonner Specie, the treasury detective. Robertson, A. p. 25c. Street & S Organic materia medica. Maisch, J. M. $3........Lea Osborne, D. Robe of Nessus. (J126) D. (Belford Am. novel ser., v. 2, no. 4.) p. 50c..... ...Belford Ostrom, K. W. Massage and the original Swedish movements. (Jl26) 12°, 75C

Blakiston $1.. Putnam shp. $5. H. Jellett -reporter, v. 22. Permanent ed. (Jl12) Ŏ. (National reporter system, state ser.) shp. $3.50.....West Pub. Co Paladin, (pseud.) Glances at great and little men. (Jl12) 12°, $1.75. ....Scribner & W

Othello of Tommaso Salvini. Mason, E. F.
Pacific coast collection laws. Jellett, J. H.

Parsifal: the finding of Christ through art. Parsons,
A. R. St
Putnam
Parsons, A. R. Parsifal.
Parting at the Burnside.
Patentee's manual.
Pavements and roads.

(J15) O. $1.. ......Putnam
Rouse, L. L. $1.
Am. Bapt. Pub. So
Johnson, and J. H. $3.50.
Longmans, G

Love, E. G. $5.
Engineering and Building Record
Pedagogy, Studies in. Morgan, T. J. $1.75.. Silver, B
Pen and pencil ser. See Lovett, R.

Pendleton, J. Newspaper reporting in olden time and to-day. (J15) S. (The book-lovers' lib.) $1.25. Armstrong Pennsylvania real estate. Mitchell, E. C. shp. $5. Welsh

- Sup. ct. Repts. V. 130. (Crumrine.) $3.50.......

(J15) O. shp, Banks

- (Grant.) 2d ed. (Patterson.) V. 3. (J15) O. .Campbell

shp, $5... Periodicals that pay contributors.

Kirk, E. $1.

Eleanor Kirk

(Jl26) 12°, 75C. Woodman (J15) sq. 8°, $1.. Revell C. S. $1.

Gross & D 25c.; p. 15c.

March Bros. $1.50. Macmillan

Petavel, E. Extinction of evil.
Peters, C. Home handicrafts.
Philosophy in homoeopathy. Mack,
Physiology outlined. Warfel, J. F.
Plain tales from the hills. Kipling, R.
Planche, J. R., comp. Select recitations and readings.
(J15) D. (Handbook lib., no. 4.) p. 25c....... Street & S
Plautus, T. M. Menæchmi of Plautus. (Fowler.)
(J126) O. (Students' ser. of Latin classics.) net, $1.08.
Leach, S. & S
Political parties in Athens during the Peloponnesian
war. Whibley, L. goc......
Macmillan
Pope Gregory the Great. Kellett, F. W. 90c. Macmillan
Popular speakers. See Brown, I. H.
Precious thoughts. Ruskin, J. $1..

Wiley

Prescott, Margaret. How to behave in society. (J126) S. (Manual lib., no. 5.) p. 1oc.... .Street & S

Price, W. Turner's handbook on screw-cutting, coning, etc. (Jl5) 16°, 40C.

Gregg, T. $1... Cox, C. F. 75c..

..Spon

Alken

.Hodges

Primer of spoken English, Sweet, H. 90c. Macmillan
Principles of plane geometry. Macdonald, J. W. net,
30c...
..Allyn & B
Prindle, H. B. Popular treatise on the electric rail-
way. (J126) D. p. 50c...
Stillings
Prophet of Palmyra.
Protoplasm and life.
Pugh, E F. Forms of procedure in the court of ad-
miralty of the U. S. (J15) O. shp. $5........... Johnson
Pyat, F. Rag-picker of Paris. (fr. the Fr.) (J126) O.
$1; p. 50c....
Questions in English composition. Michol, J. 35c.
Macmillan
Quicksands. Fleetwood, J. J. p. 50c.

Tucker

Minerva Pub. Co

Rag-picker of Paris. Pyatt, F. $1; p. 50c.... Tucker Sprague, W. C. Advice on note forms. (Jl12) O. $5.

Ram, J. Treatise on facts as subjects of inquiry by a jury. 4th ed. (J15) O. shp. $4.50... Baker, V Real estate, Law of, in Pennsylvania. Mitchell, E. C. shp $5.. Rees, Welch & Co Redfield, A. A. Law and practice of surrogates' cts. in the State of New York. 4th ed. (J15) O. shp, net, $8 Rialto ser. See Fawcett. Richards, J. Law of wages. (J126) S. p. 25c. Ind. Pub. Co Riddles and conundrums. Rowan, R. p. 15c. Dick & F

Baker, V

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Street & S

Rocky Mountain Sam. Brentford, B. p. 25C. Roe, E. R. Belteshazzar. (J126) 12°, $1.... Donohue, H Ropp's (C.) Commercial calculator. N. rev. ed. (J15) 16, mor. tuck, $1.25; im. mor, tuck, 75c.; flex. bds. 50c.. ..Caspar

Ross, A. In Stella's shadow. (J126) D. (Albatross nov-
els.) p. 50c
G. W. Dillingham
Rouse, Lydia L. Parting at the Burnside. (J15) 12°,
$1
...... Am. Bapt. Pub. Soc.
Rowan, R. Riddles and conundrums. (J15) 16°, p. 15c.
Dick & F
Ruskin, J. Precious thoughts. (Jl26) 16°, (Ruskin lib.)
$1.
...Wiley
Sacred books of the East. V. 35. Davids, T. W. R. $2.75.
Macmillan
Sadia the rosebud. Edwards, J. p. 25c....Street & S
Saint-Amand, I. de. Marie Antoinette and the end of
the old régime. (J15) D. $1.25..... ...... Scribner
Saint-Venant, B. de. Elastical researches. (J15) 8°,
$2.75...
....Macmillan

Salmon fisher. Hallock, C. $2........Harris Pub. Co
Salvini, Tommasio. See Mason, E. F.
Sanity and insanity. Mercier, C. $1.25.Scribner & W.
Saratoga romance. Rockwood, C. W. P. 25c.
Lew Vanderpoole Co
Scarlatina, Natural history of. Gresswell, D. A. $2.50.
Macmillan

School helps. See Lemon, Warfel.
Screw-cutting, coning, etc. Price, W. 40c....Spon
Sea and shore ser. See Brentford.
Seaside lib. See Hatton; Linton.

Seawell, Molly, E. Throckmorton. (J126) D. (Appleton's town and country lib. no. 55.) 75 c.; p. 50c.

Secret institution. Lathrop, C. C. p. 50C.

-service ser. See Robertson, A.

Appleton

Minerva Pub. Co

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Social departure (A). Duncan, S. J. $1.75....Appleton Song stories for little people. Luckenbach, W. H. $. Funk & W Southwestern (The) reporter, v. 12. Permanent ed. (J12) O. (National reporter system, state ser.) shp. $4. West Pub. Co Southworth, Mrs. E. D. E. N. For woman's love. (Jl12) 12°, (Ledger lib., no. 18) $1; p. 50c....... Bonner - Lost lady of Lone. (Jl12) 12°, (Ledger lib., no. 16.) $1; p. 50c ....Bonner

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Century

Stratford-on-Avon. Lee, S. $2.........Macmillan. Stubbs, C. W. For Christ and city. (Jl26) 12°, $1.75.

Studies in pedagogy. Morgan, T. J.
Swan, Annie S. Ursula Vivian, the
(Jl12) D. $75C
Sweet, H. Primer of spoken English.

......

Macmillan $1.75.. Silver, B sister-mother. Cranston & S (Jl26) 16°, 90c. Macmillan

1, Linear dy

Macmillan

Syllabus of elementary dynamics. Pt.
namics. (J15) 4°, P. 30c...
Tariff and taxes. Chamberlain, N. H. $1; p. 50c.
De Wolfe, F
Terhune, Mrs. V. H. See Harland, Marion.
Thoughtless yes. Gardener, Helen H. $1; p. 50c.
Belford
Throckmorton. Seawell, M. E. 75c.; p. 50c..Appleton
Tom Brown's school-days. Hughes, T. p. 25c.

Macmillan Torrens, W. M. Memoirs of William Lamb. N. ed. (Jl12) 12°, 75c.; hf. cf. $1.75... Ward, L Townsend, G. A. Katy of Catoctin. N. ed. (Jl5) 12°, (Town and country lib.) p. 50c.. .Appleton - Mrs. Reynolds and Hamilton.

(J126) D. p. 50c. Bonaventure

Longmans, G

Toxar. A romance by the author of "Thoth." (Jl12) 12°, $1.25.

Training for running, walking, rowing, etc. Westhall, C. 40c Ward, L Trevert, E. Everybody's handbook of electricity. 4th ed. (J126) D. p. 25c... .....Bubier Pub. Co How to make electric batteries at home. (J126) S. p. 25C...... Bubier Pub. Co

Trumbull, M. M. See Wheelbarrow.

Turner's handbook on screw-cutting, coning, etc.
Price, W. 40C....
Spon
Two summers in Greenland. Carstensen, A.R. $2.50.
Lippincott
-women or one? Harland, H. 75C..... .Cassell
Under which Lord? Linton, Mrs. E. Lynn. p. 20c.
Lovell
$1.75.
Putnam

Unitarianism, Boston. Frothingham, O. B.
United States. Forms of procedure. Pugh, E. F.
shp. $5.....
Johnson

March

history outlined. Lemon, C. M. 25c.; p. 10с. Sup. ct. Repts., v. 134. (Davis.) (J15) O. shp. $2.50.....

..Banks

- Treasury Dept. Bureau of Statistics. Statistical abstract, no. 12: Finance, coinage, etc. (12) O. p. Gov't Pr. Off Ursula Vivian. Swan, A. S. 75C........Cranston & S Vance Vance, S. G. Lord Healy. (Jl12) D. $t...... Veterinary tablet. Dance, A. A. 50 c.; p. 25c.. Danc Victor, Mrs. M. V. Guilty or not guilty. (J126) D. (Select ser., no. 49.) p. 25C... Street & S Views and reviews. Henley, W. E. $1...... Scribner Village sermons. Kingsley, C. $1.25......Macmillan Vincent, F. In and out of Central America. (Jl26) D. ...Appleton Virgil. Æneid. Books I-3. (Pepillon and Haigh.) (J126) 12°, 75C.....

$2.

Macmillan - Same. Lib. 3. (Page.) (Jl26) 18°, 40c.....Macmillan Virginia. Acts and joint resolutions passed 1889-90. (J15) 8°, hf. shp. net, $2.50... Randolph & E Voyage of the ark. Allen, F. M. p. 25c......Ogilvie Wages, Law of. Richards, J. p. 25c.... Ind. Pub. Co Wagner's Parsifal. See Parsons, A. R. War history 1861-1865. See Ohio Commandery. Warfel, J. F. Physiology outlined. (J15) T. (School helps, no. 3.) 25c.; p. 15c..... Warner's crown lib. See Lover,

March

... Heath

Wells, R., and Kelly, J. W., comps. English-Eskimo
and Eskimo-English vocabularies. [J126) O. (Bureau
of Educ. circular of information, no. 2, 1890.) p.
Gov't Pr. Off
Wenkebach, Carla. Deutsche literaturgeschichte auf
kulturhistorischer grundlage. (J126) D.) Heath's mod-
ern language ser.) p. 50c..
West Virginia. Acts of the legislature at its 19th reg-
ular session. (Jl26) O. hf. shp. $1.50......... Donnally
Westhall, C. Modern method of training for running,
walking, rowing, etc. New ed. rev. (Jl12) 16°, 40C.
Ward, L
What's the matter? Chamberlain, N. H. $1; p. 50c.
De Wolfe, F
Wheelbarrow, [pseud.] Wheelbarrow articles and
discussions on the labor question. (J15) D. $1.
Open Court Pub. Co
Wheeler, J. T. Indian history, Asiatic and European
(Jl26) 18°, 35C
...Macmillan
Whibley, L. Political parties in Athens during the
Peloponnesian war. 2d ed. (Jl26) 12°, 90c. Macmillan
Whistler, J. McN. The gentle art of making enemies.
(J126) O. $2. Ed. de luxe. $10.....
Whittlesey, M., and Jamieson, A. F., comps. Han
mony in praise. (J15) O. $1.05..

Williams, J. L. & Son, comp. 1890 manual of in-
vestments. (Jl26) O. limited ed. $2..........Williams
Wilson, Sir C. Lord Clive. (J126) 12°, 60c. Macmillan
Wilson, G. H., comp. Musical year-book of the U. S.
V. 7. (15) S. p. $1.
Wilson
With the best intentions. Harland, M. $1; p. 50c.
Scribner
Wolgemuth, C. H. Carpenter and builder's ready
reckoner. (J15) 16°, flex. leatherette, $t... Caspar
Wolley, C. P. Snap. (Jl12) 12°, $1.50...Longmans, G
Worthey, Mrs.-The new continent. (Jl26) 12°, $1.50.
Macmillan
Wright, T. W. Text-book of mechanics for colleges.
(J12) 12°, $2.50....
......... Van Nostrand
Written in red. Montague, C. H. 75C. p. 50c.

Cassell
Wrong box. Stevenson, R. L. p. 50c........ Scribner
Wyoming Valley. Families of. See Kulp, G. B.
Yensie Walton books. See Clark, S. A. G.
.....Lovell
Yonge, Charlotte M. Cameos from English history.
(J15) 12°, $1.25..
..Macmillan

Heath

LIST OF NEW ENGLISH BOOKS.
Selected from the current [London] "Publishers' Circular.”

Baillie, A. F. Kurrachee (Karachi), past, present, and
future. With maps, plans, and photographs. Roy. 8°.
284 p., 21S......
Simpkin
Bashforth, F. A revised account of the experiments
made with the Bashforth chronograph to find the re-
sistance of the air to the motion of projectiles, with the
application of the results to the calculation of trajec-
tories according to J. Bernouilli's method. 8°. 326 p.,
......Cambridge Warehouse

125.....

Bismarck Intime. By a fellow-student. Translated by
Henry Hayward 8°. 286 p., 6s....
Dean

420 P., 6s. 6d

Bjornson, B. In God's way: a novel. Translated from
the Norwegian by Elizabeth Carmichael. (Heinemann's
international library.) Post 8°. 282 p., 2s. 6d. and 3s. 6d.
Heinemann
Braithwaite, J. Retrospect of medicine; a half-yearly
journal. Vol. 101. 12°.
......Simpkin
Brown, J. W. An Italian campaign; or, the Evangeli-
cal movement in Italy 1845-1887 from the letters of the
Late Rev. R. W. Stuart. Post 8°. 274 P., 3s. 6d. Hodder
Burnand, F. C. A new light thrown across the keep it
quite Darkest Africa: a satirical and humorous sketch.
12. 174 P., Is.....
...... Trischler
Burnand, F. C. Very much abroad. With i. from
Punch. Post 8°. 420 P., 58..
..Bradbury
Drayson, A. W. Untrodden ground in astronomy and
geology: giving further details of the second rotation
of the earth, and of the important calculations which can
be made by aid of a knowledge thereof. 8°. 306 P.,

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Drury, R. Madagascar; or, Robert Drury's journal
during fifteen years' captivity on that island, and a
further description of Madagascar by the Abbé Alexis
Richon. Edited with an introduction and notes by
Captain Pasfield Oliver. il. 8°. 396 p., 5s......Unwin
Ewald, A. C. Paper and parchment historical sketches.
Post 8°. 324 P., 6s.....
......... Ward & D
Garnett, Lucy M. J. The women of Turkey and their
folk-lore, with an ethnographical map and introductory
chapters on the ethnography of Turkey and folk con-
ceptions of nature by John S. Stuart Glennie. The
Christian women.
8°.
444 P., Ios. 6d
...Nutt
Gray and his friends: letters and lyrics in great part
hitherto unpublished. Edited by Duncan C. Tovey.
Post 8°. 316 p., 6s
....Cambridge Warehouse
Harris, J. R., and Gifford, S. K. The acts of the Mar-
tyrdom of Perpetua and Felicitas. The original Greek
text, now first edited from a мs. in the library of the
convent of the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem. Roy. 8°.
66 p., 5s.....
.....Cambridge Warehouse
Hartmann, F. In the Pronaos of the temple of wis-
dom: containing the history of the true and false Rosi-
crucians. With an introduction into the mystery of the
Hermetic philosophy. 8°. 126 p., 7s. 6d.
Theosophical Pub. Soc
Henley, W. E. Views and reviews: Essays in appre-
ciation: Literature. 12°. 220 P., 5S....
...Nutt
Inagaki, M. Japan and the Pacific, and a Japanese
view of the eastern question.

258 p., 2s. 6d..

With maps. Post 8°.

Unwin

Junker, W. Travels in Africa during the years 1875-
1878. Translated from the German by A. H. Keane.
il. 8°. 522 P., 21S.
.....Chapma
Kipling, R. The story of the Gadsbys. Cr. 8°. IS.

Low

La Bruyere. The morals and manners of_the_seventeenth century: being the characters of La Bruyere translated by Helen Stott. (Masterpieces of fcreign authors.) 12°. 320 P., 2s. 6d..... ....... Stott

..Low

Low

Mollett, J. W. Carmen Macaronicum: a collection of
extracts from foreign and ancient literature, with trans-
lations. Vol. 1, Night and morning, 2d ed.; v. 2, Sea-
sons of the year. 32°. 28. ea....
..Gilbert and R
Mollett, J. W. The painters of Barbizon: Corot, Dau-
bigny, Dupré. Post 8°. 138 p., 3s. 6d...
Mollett, J. W. The painters of Barbizon: Millet, Rous-
seau, Diaz. (Great artists.) Post 8°. 130 p., 3s. 6d.
Moore, G. A drama in muslin: a realistic novel. 9th
ed. Post 8°. 330 p., 2s....
Vizetelly
Omar Khayyam. Rubáiyát of Omar Khayyám, the
astronomer-poet of Persia. Rendered into English verse.
Post 8°. 106 p., 10s 6d..............
Macmillan
Schopenhauer, A. Counsels and maxims: being the
second part of Aphorismen zur Lebensweisheit."
Translated by T. Bailey Saunders. Post 8°. 162 P.,
2s. 6d
...Sonnenschein
Schurer, E. A history of the Jewish people in the time
of Jesus Christ: being a second and revised edition of a
manual of the history of New Testament times. 1st
division: Political history of Palestine, from B.C. 175 to
A.D. 135. Translated by Rev. John Macpherson. Vol. 1,
(Foreign theol. lib. Edinburgh: Clark.) 8°. 468 p.,

IOS. 6d. Hamilton Schweinfurth, G. The heart of Africa: being three years' travels and adventures in the unexplored regions of Central Africa. New ed., map and il., 2 vols. Cr. 8°. Low 3s. 6d....

12°.

Thacker

Tweedie, J. Hindustani as it ought to be spoken. Post
8°. 186 p., 5s
Post 8°. 216 p., Is.
Tyler, M. L. Gentleman Jack.
Authors' Co-operative Publishing Co
Vizetelly, H. Facts about champagne. New and re-
vised ed., with upwards of 100 il. Post 8. 154 P., IS.
Vizetelly
Vizetelly, H. Count Königsmark, and "Tom of Ten
Thousand." II. with portraits and other engravings.
(People who have made a noise in the world, v. 2.)
142 P., IS.....
Vizetelly
Ward, H. The literary antecedents of the French revo-
lution: the Chancellor's essay, 1890. (Oxford, Black-
well.) 8°. 28 p.. 1s..
Simpkin
Woodbury, W. E. The encyclopædia of photography,
containing over 1000 references, and illustrated with
above 200 explanatory sketches and diagrams by the au-
thor. Part 1. 8°. 6d. (Published monthly.).... Iliffe
Wrightson, R. H. The Sancta Respublica Romana:
a handbook to the history of Rome and Italy, from the
division of the Roman world to the breaking up of
Charlemagne's empire, A.D. 395-888. Post 8°.
280 P
7s. 6d....
Frowde
Yonge, C. M. Cameos from English history, the rebel-
lion and restoration (1642-1678). 7th series. 12°. 340 P.,
5S..
Macmillan

Che Publishers' Weekly.

FOUNDED BY F. LEYPOLDT.

AUGUST 2, 1890.

The editor does not hold himself responsible for the views expressed in contributed articles or communications.

All matter, whether for the reading matter columns or our advertising pages, should reach this office not later than Wednesday noon, to insure insertion in the same week's issue

In case of business changes, notification or card should be immediately sent to this office for entry under "Business Notes." New catalogues issued will also be mentioned when forwarded.

Publishers are requested to furnish title-page proofs and advance information of books forthcoming, both for

entry in the lists and for descriptive mention. An early

copy of each book published should be forwarded, to insure correctness in the final entry.

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THE German book trade has just entered upon the third year of its crusade against underselling. Inaugurated in a sanguinary, uncompromising spirit, it is now carried on in a no less earnest but in a decidedly more conciliatory manner. At the last annual meeting of the Börsenverein, held during the Ostermesse, the situation appears to be as follows:

Thirty district committees have been formed throughout Germany; each of these committees decides upon the rate of discount to be given in its jurisdiction, and no bookseller, in whatever part of Germany he may reside, is allowed to offer a larger discount to any bookbuyer within the jurisdiction than that fixed by the committee. For instance, if the booksellers' union of Silesia fixes u on five per cent, as the discount for its territory no bookseller, whether he be a

resident of Silesia or an outsider, is allowed to give more than five per cent. discount to a customer within its boundaries. Most of the com

mittees have decided upon five per cent. as the maximum discount to bookbuyers. Leipzig and Berlin booksellers, however, insist upon being allowed to give ten per cent., in which action they are supported by a number of the members of the Börsenverein. Up to this point the reform movement works smoothly. But now the Berlin deal. ers, almost as a unit, and a number of booksellers in other cities say: "We cannot refuse to give old customers, to whom we have been selling for

years at ten per cent. discount, the old rates, even though they live beyond the limits of our jurisdiction." The less revolutionary members of the Bör senverein are inclined to sympathize with this demand. They hold that it would be unreasonable and unbusinesslike to expect a reduction of discount from twenty and fifteen per cent. to five without compromise, and by such radical measures to compel firms whose customers are scattered throughout Germany to give them up and thereby run the risk of ruining their business.

Already a number of houses, especially Berlin firms, have declared their intention to adhere to the ten per cent. rule. The Börsenverein, notwithstanding its splendid organization, recognizes its powerlessness to control such insubordination. Violent measures, such as were resorted to a year or two ago, did not meet with much favor, and were operative only in a limited degree. And so the question is left generally to the discretion of the publishing houses. These are largely in favor of restricting the discount, many of the smaller houses insisting upon the strict enforcing of the discount rulings made by the Börsenverein. Some of the larger houses in many cases reserve their decision for individual cases, saying that they are not willing, under certain circumstances, to burden the retailer who sells most of their publications for the sake of a retailer who insists upon the low rate of discount and does not take the same trouble to secure trade.

One thing, however, has been gained. A lower rate of discount has become the general rule and thereby an increase in profit secured to the dealer. Where formerly the discount allowed the bookbuyer ranged from fifteen to twenty per cent., the maximum is now ten per cent. in the cities. Whether this can eventually be brought down to a uniform scale of five per cent. is, at present, doubtful, especially as the public and state institutions and libraries (the largest contingent of bookbuyers) have refused to concede to the petition of the book trade and still demand ten per

cent.

THE COPYRIGHT BILL IN THE HOUSE.

HON. W. E. SIMONDS has tried faithfully to get his copyright bill up in the House, but without success. Under the morning-hour" rule, which permits the calling up of bills by the committees in their alphabetical order, the roll of committees had proceeded, a few weeks ago, almost to the very name of the Committee on Patents, when the Committee on Rules began to steer the House, day after day, into another order of business immediately to follow the reading of the journal. Why the suspension of the morning hour should have been made just at this juncture it is hard to understand. However, if the bill does not come up in this session, Mr. Simonds is determined to carry his measure through after December.

64

CONCIO AD CLERUM.
From the N, Y. Evening Post.

Now that the popular conscience is in a way to be aroused upon the subject of copyright, it is of the greatest importance that there should be no misunderstanding of the nature of the proprie tary right involved. Fortunately, it happens that this right, far from being mysterious and questionable, is one of the clearest and simplest with which jurisprudence can deal, and is moreover exactly defined by the term in common use, copyright." It is the right to copy, to imitate, to consciously repeat what has already been done, and negatives the idea of originality in labor, in thought, or in discovery. The expression "property in ideas" is a peculiarly unfortunate one to apply to this right. It implies either that the holder of copyright and his assigns are the only persons entitled to think certain thoughts, to entertain certain ideas, or that they alone may practically apply the thoughts or make use of the ideas. Neither of these implications has the slightest support in the facts of the case.

This expression is not improperly applied to the right conferred by letters-patent, which is of an entirely different character from copyright. Nothing but confusion can result from attempting to consider the two rights together. The holder of a patent cannot, it is true, prevent others from thinking his thoughts and having his ideas, but he can prevent them from making any practical use of these thoughts and ideas. He can prevent them from moving portions of matter in a particular manner-that is, in conformity to certain ideas; and as all labor consists in moving matter, he has a legal monopoly of certain modes of labor. Property in material things exists when one person may move certain portions of matter in such ways as he chooses, to the exclusion of other persons, but this right, though called absolute, is subordinate to patent right. The owner of a patent, it is true, would not be able to use it unless he were at the same time the owner of matter; but the owner of matter may not use it in any novel manner if this novel use has been patented. There may have been a hundred men working independently, to each of whom the same idea would have occurred at almost the same time, but the one that patents it may forbid the rest of mankind from applying it in the use of their property. come to the discoverer by accident, and without The idea may have labor on his part, while accident has prevented those who sought for it from finding it; that makes no difference with his legal right. The invention may have been one that every one would have thought of when a certain stage of invention was reached, but the man that gets a patent on it holds it against the world. The application of the idea might relieve hundreds of thousands of men from burdensome toil; it might save many from suffering, some from death; but the law gives to one man absolute power to forbid every human being from enjoying the fruits of this knowledge.

If we turn to copyright, we see at once that it confers no such monopoly. The ideas contained in a copyrighted book are no one's property. They may be every one expressed in other words, which may be printed and published; they may be memorized; they may be applied to any use by any person, and the right of the author is not infringed. By this right no human being is prevented from making any use of his mind or of his

165

property that he pleases, while it may suggest to him novel uses of both. By it no man is hindered exist. No man can say that by it he is deprived from doing what he would have done did it not of the use of any of the advantages that Nature has to offer to her children, or restrained in the As to property in ideas, in themselves, it is plain use of any of the faculties that God has given him. that they are not limited in quantity and not susceptible of appropriation; and as to property in copyright does not confer it. the application or use of ideas, it is plain that

quarter to the right of property rests ultimately Every objection that has ever been raised in any upon the ground that the subject of propertymatter-is in relation to the possible owner-the quantity. Hence, the possession of one may nepresent or future generations of men-limited in cessitate the exclusion of another, who, on the assumption of the equal rights of mankind, is entitled to his share of the common heritage. In short, the whole pother arises from the fear that there may not be enough matter to go around. No such objection can be raised against copyright. ranged words in a certain order, no other man That right simply means that if a man has arshall arrange the same words in the same order. Now, although the number of words is limited, the number of possible combinations of words is, compared with the numbers of mankind, practically infinite.

If all the writers of English since ing down to the present day, not one of them the language was written had been steadily writspeare's sonnets in the order that Shakespeare would have written the words of one of Shakewrote them, unless he copied from Shakespeare. If all the human beings that ever existed were to write from the creation of the world to the crack of doom, the probability that any one of them would, without copying, produce am," or even a single stanza of it, is about as great as that of the earth's presently colliding In Memoriwith one of the other planets. possibility of the right of one excluding the equal right of another, copyright involves no interfeBut if there is no rence with natural liberty.

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Why, then, is copyright not acknowledged withmankind. Covetousness will not suffer it. Propout question? Because of the natural rapacity of erty in material things became established in illiterate days by the might of its possessors. would have seemed absurd when our fundamental conception of right in an arrangement of words The laws were formed, and authors have never had the physical power to enforce their claims to a species of property that is peculiarly difficult to imperishable, whose services to mankind are peprotect. As a result, those men whose glory is rennial, who have added to our poor human life all that are overcome by the miserable reality, an ideal counterpart that has been a refuge for have been compelled to beg from their rulers some temporary shelter from the baseness of huand have been robbed for doing it. They have man ingratitude. They have enriched the world, told with a malignant irony that on that account labored for the delight of others, and have been they should ask nothing for themselves. They claim a monopoly. They do not, like the laborer upon matter, appropriate what may be needed by others. They do not, like the inventor, prevent others from making use of the common gifts of hausted, but strengthened by their use of it; it is nature. Their material-language-is not enriched and not impovished for posterity. Their

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