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by a jury shall be otherwise re-examined in any court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.
Article the Eighth. Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusal punishments inflicted.
Article the Ninth. The enumeration in the Constitution of certain - rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.
Article the Tenth. The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states respectively, or to the people.
Article the Eleventh. The Judicial Power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States by citizens of another state, or by citizens or subjects of any foreign state.
Article the Twelfth. 1. The electors shall meet in their respective states, and vote by ballot for President and VicePresident, one of whom, at least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same state with themselves; they shall name in their ballots the person voted for as President and in distinct hallots the person voted for as Vice-President; and they shall make distinct lists of all persons voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as Vice-President, and of the number of votes for each, which lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit, sealed, to the seat of the government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate ; the President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates, and the votes shall then be counted; the person having the greatest number of votes for President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed ; and if no person have such majority, then from the persons having the highest numbers, not exceeding three, on the list of those voted for as President, the House of Representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by states, the representation of each state having one vote ; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member, or members from two thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. And if the House of Representatives shall not choose a President whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day of March next, following, then the Vice-President shall act as President, as in the case of the death, or other constitutional disability of the President.
2. The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice-President, shall be the Vice-President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed ; and if no person have a majority, then from the two highest numbers on the list, the Senate shall choose the Vice-President; a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two thirds of the whole number of Senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice.
3. But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President, shall be eligible to that of VicePresident of the United States.
Article the Thirteenth. If any citizen of the United States, shall accept, claim, receive, or retain any title of nobility or honour, or shall, without the consent of Congress, accept and retain any present, pension, office, or emolument of any kind whatever, from any Empe
ror, King, Prince, or foreign power, such person shall cease to be a citizen of the United States, and shall be incapable of holding any office of trust, or profit, ander them, or either of them.
(N. B. This article has been ratified by some of the States, but not by a number sufficient to make it a part of the Constitution. Feb. 1819.]
COMMONWEALTH OF PENNSYLVANIA.
WE, the people of the Commonwealth of Pennsylva
nia, ordain and establish this Constitution for its Government.
ARTICLE I. SECTION I. The legislative power of this commonwealth shall be vested in a General Assembly, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives. .
SECT. II. The Representatives shall be chosen, annually, by the citizens of the city of Philadelphia, and of each county respectively, on the second Tuesday of October.
SECT. III. No person shall be a Representative, who shall not have attained the age of twenty-one years, and have been a citizen and inhabitant of the state three years next preceding his election, and the last year thereof an inhabitant of the city or county in which he shall be chosen ; unless he shall have been absent on the public business of the United States, or of this state. No person, residing within any city, town or borough, which shall be entitled to a separate representation, shall be elected a member for any county ; nor shall any person,
residing without the limits of any such city, town or borough, be elected a member therefor.
SECT. IV. Within three years after the first meeting of the General Assembly, and within every , subsequent term of seven years, an enumeration of
the taxable inhabitants shall be made, in such manner as shall be directed by law. The number of Representatives shall, at the several periods of making such enumeration, be fixed by the legislature, and apportioned among the city of Philadelphia and the several counties, according to the number of taxable inhabitants in each; and shall never be less than sixty, nor greater than one hundred. Each county shall have, at least, one Representative; but no county, hereafter erected, shall be entitled to a separate representation, until a sufficient number of taxable inhabitants shall be contained within it, to entitle them to one Representative, agreeably to the ratio which shall then be established.
Sect. V. The Senators shall be chosen, for four years, by the citizens of Philadelphia, and of the several counties, at the same time, in the same manner, at the same places, where they shall vote for Representatives.
Sect. VI. The number of Senators shall, at the several periods of making the enumeration before mentioned, be fixed by the legislature, and apportioned among the districts, formed as herein after directed, according to the number of taxable inhabitants in each ; and shall never be less than one fourth, nor greater than one third, of the number of Representatives.
SECT. VII. The Senators shall be chosen in districts, to be formed by the legislature, each district containing such a number of taxable inhabitants as shall be entitled to elect not more than four Senators: When a district shall be composed of two or
more counties, they shall be adjoining. Neither the city of Philadelphia nor any county shall be divided, in forming a district.
SECT. VIII. No person shall be a Senator, who shall not have attained the age of twenty-five years, and have been a citizen and inhabitant of the state four years next before his election, and the last year thereof an inhabitant of the district for which he shall be chosen ; unless he shall have been absent on the public business of the United States, or of this state.
SECT. IX. Immediately after the Senators shall be assembled, in consequence of the first election, subsequent to the first enumeration, they shall be divided, by lot, as equally as may be, into four classes. The seats of the Senators of the first class shall be vacated at the expiration of the first year, of the second class at the expiration of the second year, of the third class at the expiration of the third year, and of the fourth class at the expiration of the fourth year; so that one fourth may be chosen every year.
SECT. X. The General Assembly shall meet on the first Tuesday of December in every year, unless sooner convened by the Governor.
Sect. XI. Each house shall choose its Speaker and other officers; and the Senate shall also choose a Speaker pro tempore, when the Speaker shall exercise the office of Governor.
Sect. XII, Each House shall judge of the qualifications of its members. Contested elections shall be determined by a committee, to be selected, formed, and regulated in such manner as shall be directed by law. A majority of each House shall constitute a quorum to do business; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorised, by law, to compel the attendance of