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This officer receives all money accruing to the State

from taxation or otherwise ; keeps all Duties.

notes, bonds, and other securities which are the property of the Commonwealth ; pays the interest on the debts of the State ; and pays out such sums as the governor, with consent of the council, draws his warrant for. With the approbation of the governor and council, he invests the school fund. He has the custody of the weights, measures, and balances which are by law made the standard in the Commonwealth, and furnishes copies of them to the treasurer of each county, city, and town. He has power to employ such clerks as are necessary. No man is eligible to the office of Treasurer for more than five successive years.

The Auditor is chosen annually by the people under

the same constitutional provision respectElection.

ing election, qualifications, oaths, and vacancy, as the secretary and treasurer. Like them he may employ such assistance as is necessary, and like them also he is required to make to the legislature an annual report of his department with a detailed account of the expenses of the same. Thus the General Court controls the expenditure of the State. It is the duty of the auditor to examine all accounts

and demands against the State, and to preDuties.

pare a certificate of each, stating the amount due and the law authorizing its payment. On receiving this certificate, the governor draws his warrant for the money. Hence, to get money from the Steps in Draw. treasury of the Commonwealth, the following Money. ing steps are necessary : (1) an appropriation by act of the General Court; (2) an examina

tion of the account by the auditor, and the issue of his certificate; (3) the signature of the governor, with consent of the council, to a warrant drawn on the treasury; (4) the presenting of the warrant to the treasurer.

Another duty of the auditor is, to keep an account of public receipts and expenditures, a

Other Duties. statement of the school fund and other public property, and of all debts due to and from the Commonwealth. In his annual report, he gives a full statement of the financial condition of the Commonwealth, and an estimate of the income for the following year. It is also his duty annually to examine the accounts of the treasurer.

ATTORNEY-GENERAL. Besides the secretary, treasurer, and auditor, the people annually elect an Attorney-General, having the same qualifications as the others, and, like them, receiving for his services an annual salary determined by the legislature. His duty is, to appear for the Commonwealth in the supreme judicial court in all prosecutions for capital crime, and in the same court in all cases in which the Commonwealth is a party. He advises the district attorneys in the discharge of their duties. Upon request of either branch of the General Court, he attends its sessions to advise concerning legislative business; and he also consults with the other executive officers, and advises them in matters pertaining to their official duties. He makes an annual report to the legislature of the cases conducted by him during the preceding year, with observations and suggestions upon the criminal law of the State.

BOARDS AND COMMISSIONERS. In the administration of the public business, it is impossible for the governor immediately to superintend all the departments. Much of the work of supervision is committed to boards created by acts of the legislature, and consisting of persons appointed by the governor, and responsible to him.

The Board of Education consists of the governor Board of Eda- and lieutenant-governor, and eight percation.

sons appointed by the governor, each holding office eight years, and retiring each year in the order of appointment. The board has the supervision of the normal schools of the State. It also prescribes the form of registers to be kept in the public schools, and the form of blanks for school statistics; and annually reports to the legislature the condition of education within the State, with suggestions for improving it. The board appoints a secretary, whose duties are, to

collect information respecting the schools Secrotary.

of the State, to diffuse throughout the State information as to the best means of improving the schools, to visit different parts of the State in order to awaken public interest in education, to preserve all documents relating to the educational interests of the State, to attend educational meetings. The board also appoints one or more agents, whose work is similar to that of the secretary. The secretary and agents annually hold teachers' institutes in different parts of the State, for the purpose of illustrating to teachers improved methods of instruction. The members of this board have no compensation for their services. The secretary and agents have salaries fixed by law.

The Board of Agriculture consists of the governor, lieutenant-governor, and secretary, three Board of Agripersons appointed by the governor, and culture, one person appointed by each agricultural society of the State, and the president of the agricultural college. Onethird of the appointed members retire annually, the term of service being three years. The duties of the board are, to learn how agriculture may be improved, and to make an annual report thereon. The board has power to fix the day on which the agricultural societies in the State may begin their exhibitions. The board appoints a secretary to visit the towns for the purpose of acquiring and giving information respecting the various departments of husbandry. This officer has a salary; but the members of the board receive no compensation.

The Board of Health, Lunacy and Charity consists of nine persons, appointed by the governor and council for a term of five years each. The general duties Bea of this board concerning the public health Lunacy and are described in the following statute: “ The Charity. board shall take cognizance of the interests of health and life among the citizens of this Commonwealth. They shall make sanitary investigations and inquiries in respect to the people, the causes of disease, and especially of epidemics and the sources of mortality, and the effects of localities, employment, conditions, and circumstances, on the public health ; and they shall gather such information in respect to those matters, as they may deem proper for diffusion among the people. They shall advise the governor in regard to the location of any public institution.” This board is also entrusted with the enforcement of the laws against the adulteration of foods and drugs.

It has power to investigate the question of the insanity of any person committed to any lunatic hospital or asylum, and to discharge such if it seems safe to do so.

The board has general supervision over the State lunatic hospitals, the State almshouse, the State workhouse, the State primary school, the State industrial school for girls, and the Lyman school for boys. It is its duty to “investigate and supervise the whole system of the public charitable and correctional institutions of the Commonwealth.” The examination and transfer of paupers and lunatics, the care of alien passengers, the investigation of the causes and best treatment of pauperism, crime, disease, and insanity, are among the duties of the officers of the board. The board is empowered to appoint such officers as are necessary, and these receive pay. The members of the board serve without compensation.

The special care of the charitable and reformatory institutions is given to boards of trustees, appointed by the governor and council and responsible to them. These trustees appoint the superintendents, and prescribe rules and regulations for the management of the institutions. They are required to make frequent visits and detailed reports. · When directed to do so by the governor, the duties of any of these boards of trustees may be assumed by the board of health, lunacy and charity.

The board makes an annual report to the legislature, with suggestions concerning legislation.

The Board of Prison Commissioners consists of three Prison Commis- men and two women, appointed by the

governor and council for a term of five years, one retiring annually. Their duties are, to superintend the classification and transfer of convicts, and to make rules and regulations for their discipline and employment, to inspect the jails and houses of correction of the State, and to make an annual report to the legislature. They have the general supervision of the State prison for men at Boston, the State reformatory for men at Con


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