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to arrest suspected persons; the cour's prevôtales united their efforts, and multiplied executions without mercy; an inflamed soldiery was let loose upon the inhabitants of the country, treating each place like a town taken by storm; terror everywhere prevailed to the uttermost degree ;-and there was at last reason to apprehend a real revolt, from the effects of such exasperating treatment upon the spirit of a peaceful bat gallant people.

At this juncture, Marshal Marmont arrived in Lyons; and his first difficulty arose from the clouds of misrepresentation through which he was obliged to view every thing. For the statements of all persons in office, except onc, agreed, with a marvelloas uniforinity, in painting the situation of the districts as next to rebellious; and they detailed a multitude of particular facts, scarcely possible to resist, in support of their accounts; -openly accusing of sinister views the only one of their number who differed from them, and offering apparently conclusive proofs of the charge. For a moment there seemed no possibility of doubting at least the general truth of their representations; and a minister at a distance, who only received such uniform accounts, and could not see with his own eyes, (or a secret committee who obtained intorination from the minister), would hardly have been justified in questioning their accuracy. But as soon as the Marshal went out of the circle of the coiistituted authorities, conversed with the most respectable individuals of all classes, examined himself every proceeding, especially of the Prevotal Courts, and saw plainiy all that had been done by some and suffered by others, the facts appeared in their true colours; and the causes of the miserable state into which Lyons was plunged could no longer be concealed from his view. Let the English reader ponder well the following passage, in which the chief of those causes is described; and if it brings unpleasant reflexions to his niind--it, instead of renewing his indignation at the arts practised last year, it should smite him with a consciousness that he suffered himself to be deluded by the fabrications of our plot-mongers, and under that influence to join in wounding the liberties of his country, let him atone for his error by firmly resolving in future always to watch the ministers with redoubled jealousy when they set themselves about accusing the people of disaffection.

* La ville de Lyon et les communes qui l'entourent avaient vu renaitre pour elles le régime de 1793. Conme alors, les hommes qui avaient le pouvoir proclamaient que la terreur seule pouvait le faire respecter, et n'agissaient que trop bien en conséquence de ce principe ; comme alors, la haine avait pris la place de la justice, et tous les moyens paraissaient légitimes pour écraser ceux qu'on regardait

comme des ennemis. Dans ces derniers temps, on ne frappait les victimes qu'après les avoir trompées, et la violence n'était que le dernier terme des combinaisons les plus révoltantes.

Une foule d'agens parcouraient la ville et les campagnes, s'introduisaient dans les cabarets et jusque dans les maisons particulières, y prenaient le rôle d'un mécontent, exhalaient les plaintes les plus vives contre l'autorité, annonçaient des changemens, des revolutions ; et s'ils arrachaient un signe d'approbation à de malheureux citoyens pressés par la misère, ou tourmentés par mille vexations, ils s'empressaient d'aller les dénoncer et recueillir le prix de leurs infâmes stratagèmes.

• Les procédures de la cour prévôtale ont attesté l'emploi de ces moyens odieux, mais l'excès même avec lequel on s'y livrait les a bientốt rendus publics : chacune des autorités ayant ses moyens de police à part, à chaque instant ces vils instrumens se rencontraient sans se connaître, s'attaquaient avec une égale ardeur, et bientôt le moins diligent, dénoncé par l'autre, expiait un moment sous les verroux son infamie. Il fallait alors décliner sa mission : l'autorité intervenait pour réclamer son agent ; le prisonnier disparaissait, et allait ailleurs chercher une nouvelle proie, ou préparer un nouveau scandale.

· A l'aide de ces nombreux délateurs, les prisons regorgeaient de victimes entassées avec un tel désordre, que la lecture seule des registres d'écrou prouvait à quel point était porté le mépris des lois et de l'humanité : indépendamment de celles que la procédure ordinaire plaçait sous la main de la cour prévôtale, on voyait encore dans les caves de l'hôtel de ville, des centaines de malheureux, victimes de vaines terreurs ou de funestes conseils ; et là, ces malheureux, privés de tous soins comme de tout secours, attendaient pendant des mois entiers la faveur d'être interrogés; et tel, qui ne l'a été qu'au bout de quatre-vingt-deux jours, a fini par être acquitté : l'arbitraire était porté dans toutes les parties de l'administration. Les autorités municipales prenaient des arrêtés contraires aux lois, et condamnaient à l'emprisonnement pour des faits qu'aucune loi ne considère comme des délits.' p. 8–10.

Thus far the cases of our own Home Department and that of France are nearly parallel ; but the local magistracy of Lyons, it must be confessed, carried their vigour a little further than our most active dealers in plot dared, with the rigours of parliamentary inquiry awaiting them.

• Des colonnes mobiles parcouraient les campagnes, imposaient arbitrairement telle commune à leur fournir, non pas seulement des vivres qui ne leur étaient pas dus, mais des effets d'habillement.

Des détachemens chargés de protéger de cruelles exécutions ont ajouté à l'horreur de ce spectacle, en insultant, en maltraitant les femmes et les enfans que la terreur n'avaient pas fait fuir de leur domicile, l'épouse qu'on venait de rendre veuve, la mère dont on venait de frapper l'enfant. Et lorsqu'un cri d'indignation générale a force de livrer les cou. pables à la sévérité des lois, elles n'ont pu les atteindré, et c'est la terreur même qu'ils avaient répandue qui a assuré leur impunité.

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« Ce n'était pas seulement au milieu des campagnes que les lois, et l'humanité plus respectable encore, étaient foulées aux pieds par des hommes indignes de porter l'habit de soldat; au milieu même de la ville de Lyon, sous les yeux de leurs chefs, ils prodiguaient l'insulte et l'outrage.

• Pendant notre séjour dans cette ville, un soldat, placé en sentinelle près d'une prison, lâche son coup de fusil, à bout portant, sur un malheureux qui, à travers les barreaux de sa fenêtre, leur reprochait les attentats de Saint-Genis-Laval. Au bruit de l'explosion, la g:rde accourt, et, sans attendre l'ordre de son chef, fait feu sur les infortunés qui s'empressaient autour de leur camarade mourant. Deux sont blessés à ses côtés : l'officier du poste, traduit devant un conseil de guerre avec les soldats, a invoqué pour leur défense l'usage suivi jusqu'alors. Jusqu'à présent, disait-il, on a tiré dans les prisons presque journeliement. Et cette horrible justification, qui n'eût dû servir qu'à livrer à la justice d'autres coupables, a suffi pour sauver ceux-ci. En vain les nombreuses irrégularités de ce jugement ont été dénoncées au conseil de révision: on n'en a retiré que la triste certitude que, dans l'état où se trouvaient les choses à Lyon, ce n'était plus la justice impartiale, mais l'aveugle et féroce esprit de parti qui départissait les peines et les absolutions, et nous verrons bientôt si les arrêts de la cour prévôtale étaient faits pour affaiblir cette conviction.' p. 11, 12.

Such proceedings, we thank heaven, have not yet had any parallel in this country: But let not the interested advocates, or the easy dupes of our false alarms, congratulate themselves too surely upon the lesser degree of persecution which was practised in England upon a late occasion. All was done that the purposes of the deception required;--a clamour was raised; the constitution was suspended; many persons shut up for months in dungeons; some cruelly ironed and carried about the country in that state for selling a supposed libel; and, after all, an act of indemnity passed to screen the agents of the mischief, of whatever rank, from all legal inquiry. As yet, indeed, we have seen no military execution lay waste the comtry; no domiciliary visits torment its peacciul inhabitants; no new courts of justice supersede the law of the land. But if the violent encroachments already made had not been manfully resisted in Parliament; and if the country at the late elections had not loudly pronounced its disapprobation of them, who shall say that the next danger in which the ministers found themselves of losing their places, would not have been met by those more violent measures? Nay, are the advocates of last year's proVOL. XXX. Xo. 59.

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ceedings quite sure that they were not themselves prepared to go further? Can they sincerely say that they would then have reccived a proposition for suspending jury trial in cases of seditious and blasphemous libel, with the same abhorrence with which they now regard the institution of Cours prévótales ? Are they quite certain that they could have had nothing to say in behalf of a more free use of the military, and of measures for disarming the people, and of course searching for arms ? Had those measures been adopted, and an indemnity asked, should we have heard nothing of the praiseworthy vigour' of ministers; their disinterested conduct in undertaking the respon

sibility ;' the extraordinary aspect of the times ; ' the pain• ful but paramount necessity of putting down so vast a con

spiracy by all means'? But we devoutly trust that such times may never recur; and that the lesson taught the people of the dangers of credulity, will long remain deeply impressed upon their minds. We shall therefore pass on to what remains of the French story, resembling our own all along in many of its most remarkable features.

Before the movement of the 8th of June, several reports had prevailed of an approaching explosion; and at each time that it was annoui

unced, some government spy or agent was arrested as concerned. This happened in November and December. • In February,' says Colonel Fabvier, “ the agitation of • the public mind increased with the distress of the labouring • classes, who were in a state to receive easily the impressions • sought to be given to them. This was the period when seeret « enrolments of men were talked of.'- A person was now arrested as concerned in these enrolments; he did not deny his guiltbut he was found to be an agent of the military police, and as such set at liberty. In the month of May another agent was taken in the act of encouraging revolt; but being claimed by the police, he too escaped; and our author remarks, that each arrest of an emissary was followed by the restoration of perfect calm. At length came the 8th of June, answering exactly to our own 11th June of the same year ; for it was described as the grand explosion of a conspiracy which embraced all France in its ramifications, and was to overthrow the government from its foundation.-Lyons was announced as its centre. Yet, certain it is, that nothing whatever happened there, not even the seizure of any one person in arms, except a labourer going out of the gate leading to a quarter never accused of being concerned in the sea dition. Of all the communes in the neighbourhood said to be deeply engaged in the plot, only cleven sounded the Tocsin ; anii of these, four are so situated as to have no possible communica

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tion with the other. Not more than 250 men assembled in all; of these, only fifty had any arms, none of them any ammunition, and many of them thought they were called out to extinguish a fire! Even this trifling corps never assembled together, and only a very few from two of the communes, left their own neighbourhood to go to Lyons; in all the others the mob dispersed itself, after making some seditious outeries and some trifling riots, which did not cost a single life. Colonel Fabvier justly charges the local authorities with the blame of this riot, such as it was; for they did nothing to prevent it; and their own agents were among its most active instigators.

Even after the 8th of June, those pestiferous wretches continua ed their incessant activity; yet, to the infinite credit of the loyal and peaceable inhabitants, all their attempts to create insurrection failed. Again we beg the attention of the English reader to the account given of those attempts. He will thus perceive that human nature is everywhere the same, if, indeed, it is not a libel upon our species so to term the nature of those miscreants. Le inoyen • le plus fréquemment employé, et le plus dangereux sans doute, • était d'indiquer des points de ralliement, de répandre le bruit s d'une conspiration générale, de placer à sa tête des généraux • renommés par leur bravoure et par la haine qu'on leur sup

pose contre le gouvernement actuel.' Marshal Marmont happily arrived during the progress of these attempts, on the part of the magistrates, to carve out work for themselves, and to produce movements beneficial to their Ultra-Royalist patrons. He came without any troops ; he never used a single threat of military execution; far less did he ever make the least show of force; and immediately every thing became quiet, and has continued so without interruption to the present day.

Our author gives some curious but melancholy particulars of the judicial proceedings, if the Cours Prérôtales can be deemed tribunals of justice, which arose out of the riots on the 8th of June. Two hundred and fitty persons in all had assembled, and sixty only were armed. Yet, of these, above 110 were condemned to various severe punishments, as the authors or ringleaders of the sedition! Our author points out many instances of the most glaring illegality in these proceedings, and compares them to the condemnations en masse of the reign of terror.

The steps taken by Marshal Marmont for restoring tranquillity close this tract; and they cannot be too highly praised.

· Les prémiers soins du maréchal ont été de faire cesser l'arbitraire, et de rendre aux lois la force qu'elles avaient perdue, de faire tous les efforts pour rapprocher ce qu'on avait affecté d'isoler, calıner

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