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speech (as the lips, the teeth, or the palate), thing may be either popped into water or be freely interchanged, as we find them, any other fluid, or may have water or any actually to be in the practice of speaking. other fuid popped upon, or popped into him That part of the word which reinains un or it, and the whole mystery vanishes.” varied after these operations, falls to be p. 27. considered as the radical term. Apply these rules to the words in question. Dis.
Now whatever of the air of burlesque čard the terminations, and you have the there may be in all this, Mr. Ewing desyllable bap; change the intermediate clares hiinself quite serious in offering vowel a into o, and the labial consonant 6 it to public examination. Let us next into the labial consonant p, and you have attend to what Mr. Cox has to say in the term pop, which is the root required." the way of reply. The combatants, it p. 22.
will be seen, are " Arcades ambo, et .“ Will the reader, then, have the good.
cantare pares et respondere parati.” ness to accustom his ear to the following sounds? Pop.to, pop-tizo, pop-tistes, pop
" No one can deny, after entertaining tos, pop-tismos, and pop-tisma. In this
himself with these passages, that our identical form the root occurs, in Greek, in
author has popped upon a very amusing, if Latin, and in English. In Greek we have
not a very convincing etymology; but one TOTTÚğW, I blow, hiss, or whistle, cheer my
is tempted to use the words of an Homeric horse by calling to him or patting him with stanza, though with a different application: my hand, stroke; or applaud; also the nouns
S oi dè secà ágrúperol #sp, éx' attų nao yén&osno πόππυσμα and ποππυσμός, α puf, hiss, or whistle, a smack or gentlé sound with mouth | i. e. Although distressed, they smiled pleaor hands, expression of farour, applause, santly upon him ;--for though it is to be cheering, or soothing, a gentle stroke, a soft regretted that a person of learning and blow with the hand. In like manner pop- various attainment should have allowed Pysmus and poppysmu in Latin, which are himself to treat this subjectso ludicrously, the same words as those just mentioned in / yet it produces no emotion of anger; and Greek, and of the same signification. In were it not for the intimate association of English the tern pop is thus explained by
the novel criticism with important truth, Dr. Johnson."-(Then follows a quotation
we should suffer it to pass with only the of the several explanations and illustra expression of “a pleasant smile." It is tions if his Dictionary.) p. 24.
necessary to keep in mind, that for an ex. “Mr. Walker, after giving in his Dic. | planation of mort, pop, we have at full length tionary Johnson's explanation of pop, adds,
the definitions and illustrations of John. ? undoubtedly derived from the noise caused | son's English Dictionary! . by the sudden expulsion of some small
“Suppose, then, we first proceed in our body.' This is true, but it is only part of | author's own manner. He admits, that by the truth: for the word pop applies equally | the same rule the root may be pronounced to the noise caused by the sudden impulsion
bob or bab. This, indeed, is obvious; forof some small body. In short, it is the
Discard the terminations, and you have noise caused by the agency of body in
the syllable bap; change the vowel a into motion upon body, and that in any direction
0, and the labial consonant p into the whatever. It may be entrance or exit,
labial consonant b, and you have the term ascent or descent. . We say, to pop in. tó 1 bob, which is the root required. Will the pop out, to por forth; to pop up, or to pop
reader, then, have the goodness to accus. down; to pop into; to pop upon ; to pop
tom his ear to the following sounds ? Bobout of, or out from ; to pop off. I have to
to, bob.tizo, bod-tistes, bob.tos, bob-tismos, add, that the word is not limited in its and bob-tisma. In English the word bob is application to solids or to the aerial fluid, thus explained by Dr. Johnson :but is with equal frequency applied to To BoB. v, n. To play backward and forwater, or any otherfluid whatever. Finally, ward; to play loosely against any thing, though a pop may be sometimes so power And sometimes Jurk l'in a gossip's bowl, ful that the noise shall be startling, it is
In very likeness of a roasted crab; generally caused by the stroke of a small
And when she drinks, against ber lips I bol,
And on her withered dewláp pour the ale: body; and hence it is usually so slight
Shakspea;es Midsummer Night's Dreant. and gentle, that the noise, though marked They comb, and i ben they order every hair ; in the very sound of the word, comes in
A birth-day jewel bobbing at each ear.
Dryden. fact to be commonly nothing at all." p. 26. I
I'm rich in jewels, rings, and bobbing pearls. “Keep in mind, now, the above expla- ! Pluck'd from Moor's ears.
Dryden. nation, and apply it to baptism, (pop-tism)
“ It is not necessary to cite all the expla. and you are furnished with a key, which nations and references, after the examp will naturally and consistently account of Mr. Ewing with regard to the word pop; for all its much disputed acceptations. I since we are at present only in search You have only to observe, that a person or an illustration, to afford the reader som
MR. Cox's REPLY TO MR. EWING ON BAPTISM
179 general idea of the curious method he has nevertheless endeavours to support it adopted, and since the authority in ques- from Aristotle. “I plead for no innova. tion is universally accessible. Now, to Lion,” says he, “but am supported by the pursue our author's strain, having thus ancient and high authority of Aristotle;" translated the word baptism, we are pre- from whose writings he quotes a few pared to shew that it signifies the sudden |
udden lines which he thus translates. "The and slight application of water or some
root (of a word) then, is an undivided other liquid ; but, in a more lax sense, the application of it in any manner, or for any
sound; not every such sound, however, purpose;' or rather the application of a
but one that is significant; for cries of solid, (“ for the word is not limited in its beasts are also undivided sounds, but I application to fluids," the slight applica- do not say that any of them is a root." tion to the lips or the neck, so as to resem
On a careful examination of the entire ble, for instance, the jogging of the elbow passage in the writings of Aristotle, Mr. when a person is drinking, (vide example Cox thinks he has discovered a little from Shakspeare, or the motion of an ear- unfairness on the part of Mr. Ewing; ring. Hence, in fact, baptism may be he therefore gives the passage at greater Bobbing in any way. “It is not always that | length, and having corrected some errors the analysis is of so easy and satisfactory
of translation into which Mr. E. has a nature ! “By the rules already laid down, our
falleo, thus sums up the amount of the root may be pronounced vap; and in
investigation :- Latin,' as Dr. Murray remarks, 'vap, wet,
“ Having given the passage from Arisblow, ventilate, cool, dry by the wind, or
totle in its connection, let us now inquire, produce evaporation by exposure to the
to what purpose it has been adduced by
our author ? That any suffrage of the air, produced vap-or, in Greek atmos, from at, blow.' In this we may feel a little
ancient philosopher is given to Mr. E.'s perplexed to determine whether the proper
method of analysis, by which his present action is to dry, or to wet, or to blow ;
conclusions are sanctioned, will surely not some one might ingeniously conjecture,
be contended ; and from its utter irrelethat a vapour bath is intended! In the
vancy to any such end, we infer, could present instance I am unable to find the
never have been designed ; although the verb to vap in Johnson; but he gives us
manner of its introduction was calculated to vapour, which, amongst other significa
to occasion this misconception. But as tions, is said to mean to brag, and also to
no other purpose appears answered by this scatier in fume or vapour. Perhaps a cer
| quotation in Mr. E.'s pages, it would seem tain reviewer had both these explanations
that his intention was to point out a coinm his eye when he wrote The body of
cidence between his own views and those of evidence which the author has adduced
Aristotle, with regard to an ultimate part of completely overthrows the doctrine of im
a word; this is obvious also from his having mersion;'--that is, vaps, vapours, or eva
rendered otorxeio, a root. But the slightest porates it!
attention to the language will shew that "The convenience of this term is sur- | OtorXriov, in the Greek sentence, is not to prising; for, as a witty friend has ob
be understood of a grammatical root, but served - Discard the terminations, and you or
of an elementary letter. If, therefore, the have the syllabie bap: change the inter- | scope of our author's analytical labours be mediate vowel a into .. and the labial con- | the saine with the element of the Peripasonant b into the labial consonant m, and
tetic philosopher, he has prematurely stop
te you have the term mop, which is the root
which is the root ped short in his enterprize. Pop cannot required. This derivation possesses the be the sound, because it is not the element confirmatory circumstance, that (Johnson
to which the ultimate etymology proceeds; also being witness) we can go to the Latin
this would be one of the letters or undilanguage and find mappa, and (ourselves
vided sounds a, 0, B, a, or some of their being judges) to the Greek also, where we
interehangeable vowels or consonants. If, happily discover pante, per Syncop. for
on the other hand, be quits Aristotle, and maptéery ; from Mapato, capio, prehendo, to
adopts the common idea of the term root, tahe, that is, in any way; and metonymi.
he has proceeded inuch too far; inasmuch cally, to surprize. Hence to marp, or map,
as ton is po Greek word whatever, and the or mop, may be to take a person or child,
verb in the present tense, Bánow, has all and surprize him by popping upon or mop
the appearance of the theme to which the tizing his face with water. I am indis
other tenses are reducible : or if we seek posed to pursue the ludicrous applications
a simpler förm, it will be presently shewn of this new term, but they inay be easily
how it may be legitimately traced.” conceived.”
Our limits do not permit us to lay be. But, farcical as Mr. Ewing's analysis fore the reader any thing like an analysis o the word baptize may seem to us, he 'of Mr. Cox's refutation of his opponent's
principle of Etymology, but he may col- tution. I was curious to bear in what lect some idea of the amount from the manner he read Greek. He very confollowing paragraph :-"
1 descendingly, at my request, took down a "Were the attempt to press the imaginary
Greek Testament, and read, perhaps, root in question into the consideration of the
twenty verses in one of the Gospels, in elements of the word Baptism, as successful
which the word Bártw occurred. “I said, as it is vain, and futile, no single point
"Sir, you know there is a controversy would be gained.--Admit that bapto is
among Christians respecting the meaning popto, and that baptism is poptism; admit
of that word.' He smiled, and replied, that to pop, is to pop in, to pop out, to pop
The Baptists have the advantage of us!'
He cited immediately the well known forth, to pop up, or to pop down, to pop into, to pop upon, to pop out of, or out from,
passage in Pindar, and one or two of those to pop off; is the great etymological ques
in the Gospels, mentioned in this letter; tion determined ?
I inquired, whether, in his opinion, Bantiču Is there less variety'in the senses of the term poptism than in those
| nust be considered equal to Bártw, which of baptism? Is the original idea, or is the
he said was to tinge, as dyers? He re
plied to this effect practice ascertained better than before Mr.
that if there be a
difference, he should take the former to be Ewing popped upon us with his critical
| the strongest. He fully assured me, that alchemy, and pretended to the discovery of the grand secret? By whatever pame
it signified a total immersion. This conwe designate the institution, it leaves un
versation took place August 27, 1807.' touched the question of the mode and sub
(Baptismal Immersion Defended, pp. 13, jects of baptism; and decides nothing with
14, &c.)" regard to apostolic practice. Instead of In the next chapter, Mr. Çox prosaying that John or the disciples of Christ ceeds to consider the correspondence baptized the people, Mr. Ewing insists between Baptisin and Burial, implied in upon our saying that he poptized them: be the metaphorical allusion, Rom vi. 4. it so-in christian courtesy, were it not at and Col. ii. 12. It is admitted on all least for the ludierous sound of the expres
hands, that some correspondence is imsion, we should be willing to adopt it: but then the enquiry remains, what is pop
ported in these allusions; but the questism? Is it popping in or into, or under,
tion is, wherein does it consist, and is it or upon? Oh, says Mr. Ewing, “it is pop
such'as favours the Baptist or the Pædo. ping upon and upon the face. I assure you baptist practice? Mr. Ewing's method that poptizo signifies, I pop water upon the of disposing of the Baptist argument * turned-up face' of the person poptized: from these texts is, by considering the I have consulted Johnson's Dictionary, and reference to be, not to the act of interhe quotes once from Addison, and once from ment, but to the attendant circumstances L'Estrange to show that the verb to pop or preparatory rites, such as embalning, in certain cases means to pop upon; and
| anointing, and washing. This is a this English sense is the undoubted radical notion of the Greek syllable 07, which
strange subterfuge, as Mr. Cox clearly has, moreover, the very sound of our own
shews, inasmuch as it confounds the native word ; and, believe me, it is not
attendant circumstances with the act always that the analysis is of so easy and
of burial itself. The latter is the ini. satisfactory a nature!!!”
port of the verb “to bury," and not the In opposition to the foregoing whim
preparatory rites, which have each their
appropriate expression distinct from the sical and untenable theory, Mr. Cox
term burial. On this part of the argum subjoins many testimonies of high au
ment we can only make room for & thority, all tending to shew that Baptism |
short extract. is immersion; and at p. 36 he gives the following anecdote from Dr. Newman,
“It is our happiness,” says Mr. Ewing, containing the opinion of the late Pro
" to know that our blessed Saviour neres
was finally interred.” Whenee the pecufessor Porson, on the point in dispute.
liar satisfaction of such a discovery can “My friend, Dr. Newman, has recorded arise, I am really at a loss to imagin à conversation which he once held with especially as this remark is followed by Professor PORSON, in company with a limmediate citation of the words, he wao much respected friend,' and which, as a buried, and he rose again the third corroborative testimony of no mean con- In Acts xiii. 29, 30. it is recorded,, sideration, may properly be inserted in took him down from the tree and latu this place. Not long before the death of l in a sepulchre ; but God raised him Professor PORSON, I went in company with the dead;' and yet we are instry a much respected friend, to see that cele deduce peculiar consolation to brated Greek scholar, at the London Insti, thought, that he was never finan
we are instructed to
was never finally in.
MR. Cox's REPLY TO MR. EWING ON BAPTISM. 181 terred !' Surely he was either interred or for what he stated, and three witnesses to not--he was either laid in a sepulchre or the truth of it, whose testimony no sophistry not. Does Mr. E. intend to say he was not or cross-examination can overthrow--ETY. interred, because he did not see corruption ? | MOLOGY, use, and ANTIQUITY! Mr. Ewing or that he was not finally interred, because knows well that EVERY AUTHORITY is he did not remain in the sepulchre during against him, and in favour of Dr. Campa longer period than three days ?-or be bell. If Mr. Ewing or any of his brethren cause his female friends had not time to will produce me A SINGLE CASE, in which it finish the entire process of embalming him? is shewn that sprinkling is more properly Whether finally interred or not, was he | the radical idea than plunging, I will conREALLY interred? If Mr. E. intends to cede the etymological point at once ; and insinuate the negative (which he seems to | if he or any of his brethren will bring fordo by representing that our Lord was not word ONE SINGLE INSTANCE ONLY of infant interred, but only prepared to be buried,) sprinkling from the New Testament or the we must charge it upon him as a serious Old, or ONE SINGLE COMMAND inculcating contradiction to Scripture testimony, and the practice, I will instantly concede the as tending to subvert one of the most im- practical point, and attach myself to the portant facts of Christianity, upon which Pædobaptist denomination. Will Mr, our faith reposes; if he admit the affirma- | Ewing or any of his brethren VENTURE TO tive, then his reasoning is ruined; he has GIVE ME A SIMILAR PLEDGE ?"'virtually said nothing. Either horn of The this dilemma will inevitably pierce his
The remainder of Mr. Cox's volume argument.
" is occupied in replying to various scat“Besides, so far as the notion of the tered criticisms contained in his oppointerment not being final, can be supposed nent's perforinance; and having done to have any foundation in fact, and any this, he proceeds to examine Dr.Dwight's force in argument, it is altogether in our Discourses on Baptism, in his System of favour. Our blessed Saviour was never Theology, and concludes with a few finally interred; the Baptists do not Strictures on Dr. Wardlaw's Lectures finally immerse, that is, they do not drown on the Abrahamic Covenant; but on their candidates, but represent a spiritual neither of these can we dwell at any burial with Christ, and a resurrection to length newness of life, by a temporary, not a
| On what relates to the inode of Bapfinal submersion under water."
tism, Mr. Ewing, with the exception of · It seems that Mr. Ewing, in the course his pop, seems to have advanced but of his “Essay on Baptism,” had fallen little that is new. He brings forward foul of the character of the late Princi- the old hackneyed remarks respecting pal Campbell, whom he charges with the communication of the Spirit-the dogmatism, inconsistency, and insin- vast labour which it is supposed immercerity, because in his translation of the sion would occasion and the inport of four Gospels, he had presumed to trans- certain Greek prepositions that occur in late év údate, in water; and, moreover, connection with baptizing. Without had affirmed that in both sacred and wishing to detract in any measure from classical writers, Bantiters, signifies to the force of Mr. Cox's replies, on any of dip, plunge, or immerse. Mr. Cox acted these topics, there is one of his oppovery justifiably in throwing a shield | nent's-arguments, should we call them? around the character of Dr. Campbell; which we think may be disposed of in a but we scarcely think he needed to have more summary manner than he has displayed the warmth he has done on done it. We refer to the sentiment that the occasion-for certainly there was pouring can be the import of Bantu or little danger of the Doctor's reputation, Battitw. Nothing can be plainer than as a Greek critic, suffering from any that these are active verbs, consequently attack which Mr. Ewing could make the nouns governed by them are the upon it. We all indeed know that Mr. objects of the action performed. Persons Ewing published a Greek Lexicon a which stand in this relation to Bashitw or few years ago; but we know also that it Bantitw, may be the objects of immerwas such a Lexicon as any school-boy sion, of sprinkling, or of washing, but might put together by the help of a can never be the objects of pouring. pair of scissars and a little paste, who Fluids may be poured, but persons canhad just made his way through the Col- not. When it is said, “lie shall baplectanea Græca Majora!
tize you with the Holy Ghost and with "I venture to add,” says Mr. Cox, fire," how would it do to substitute that Dr. Campbell had the best reasons pouring, and to say, “He shall pour you
with the Holy Ghosť and with fire?", duced,” says he, “into the family of The Pædobaptists attempt to get over God by their baptism; but then they are this by introducing a preposition, and not members of the church in the saying, “le shall pour upon you the sense commonly intended by the term ; Holy Ghost,” &c. but who does not see they are not members of the invisible that, in this case, it is no longer a per- kingdom of Christ, nor of any particular son that is the object of the verb pour, church, but of the church general! And, but the thing poured!
therefore, a personal profession of reliThe meaning of the Greek preposi.gion is necessary before the parties can tions ’ATò, ex, iís, ev, which occur in I become entitled to communion at the those passages that relate to Baptism, Sacramental table." Mr. Cox very prohave often been the subject of remark, perly analyzes these singular positions, as well as the import of the Greek verbs and exposes the inconsistency of reckonBattw and Bantiţw. The former are fre-ing baptized infants as introduced into quently rendered out of, in or into, and the family of God, and being members that they bear this signification is in- of the church general, without their disputable. To what purpose, then, are being members of any particular church, a thousand arguments, grounded on the or collective bodies of those who make fact that they occasionally are used with up the general church. In fact, the a greater latitude of meaning? Dr. I learned President has left the difficulty Ryland, in a letter addressed to Mr. Cox, where he found it; he has not succeeded on the subject of Mr. Ewing's book, very lin giving any more distinct view of what justly remarks, that
is meant by the church-membership of " Quibbles may be multiplied without
infants, than those who have preceded end,'till the commorr people are persuaded,
him in the controversy. On the general that nothing can be determinately express
question, of the right of infants to baped by the Greek prepositions. But though
tism, Dr. Dwight has advanced nothing Mr. Ewing seems to think, that he has new in the way of argument; but with popped upon a better mode of settling this respect to the sense given to the words controversy, than any of his brethren | βαπτω and βαπτίζω by lexicographers, he thought of before him, yet I am as far as makes a most singular assertion, viz. eyer from being convinced, that we do not that the majority of them declare the follow the directions and example of our primary meaning of the words to be, to Lord and his apostles. Mr. Ewing, how-l tinge stain, dve
- tinge, stain, dye, or colour, and immer ever, appears to consider it as more diffi
sion only a secondary and occasional cult reverently, to submit to infallible !
sense. “This,” says Mr. Cox, “is pass. authority, in respect of one man's immersing another, than in the rite to which
ing strange; and I confess that the only Joshua attended at Gilgal, chap. v. I
way in which, upon the principles of cannot account for his feelings."
Christian charity, I can account for so
untrue a statement, is by concluding As Dr. Dwight's System of Theology that Dr. Dwight never examined them! has obtained a very extensive circular | Let any one look at Scapula the first tion in this country, and the author meanings are mergo seu immergo, lo dip, having devoted a few of his discourses to plunge ; let him consult Siephanus, to the subject of Baptism, Mr. Cox has Hedericus, Suicerus, Schleusner, all the embraced the opportunity afforded him authorities. I demand only a simple in answering Mr. Ewing, to bestow a inspection of them, as an answer to this little attention on the train of his argu- strange and erroneous misrepresenmentation. There is, indeed, little that tation." is new in it, for his reasonings are pretty | The last thirty pages of Mr. Cox's much the same as are usually employed volume are devoted to an examination by Pædobaptists, as often as the subject of Dr. Wardlaw's Lectures on the Abracomes before them. On one point, hamic Covenant; and he informs us in however, the Doctor acknowledges, that the Preface, that his Strictures were “the conduct and opinions of those with written before he knew of Mr. M.Lean's whom he is connected are, in a greater masterly Reply to Dr. Wardlaw, which or less degree, erroneous and indefen- he expresses his regret is so little known sible.” This concession seems to respect in England. As a new edition of this the sense in which baptized infants are pamphlet has been recently published to be considered in relation to the at the office of our Magazine, we hope Christion church.. “ They are intro-'Mr. Cox's commendation of it will serve