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Capt. John Mason, a merchant of London, later land, with Captain Griffeth Williams's account known as the proprietor of New Hampshire, was of the island of Newfoundland (London, 1765) at one time governor of Newfoundland, and a and John Reeves' Hist. of the Government of promoter of colonization there, which he sought Newfoundland (London, 1793), there have been to further by a tract, which was printed at Edin- three distinct monographs during the present burgh in 1620: A briefe Discourse of the New century :foundland, with the situation, temperature and Lewis Amadeus Anspach, History of the island commodities thereof, inciting our nation to goe of Newfoundland (London, 1819, 1827). The forward in that hopefull plantation begunne. It author was a magistrate and missionary of the was reprinted in 1867 by the Bannatyne Club in island. David Laing's Royal Letters, etc., relating to New Charles Pedley, History of Newfoundland to Scotland, which contains an account of Mason 1860 (London, 1863). Prepared from the public and other early promoters of the colonization of archives at the instance of the governor of the Newfoundland.2 A map of Newfoundland was colony. made from Mason's surveys, and appeared in Joseph Hatton and M. Harvey, Newfound1626 in an's Golden Fleece, and is the land, the oldest British ony ; its histor its earliest special representation of the configura- present condition, and its prospects (London, tion of the coast.3

1883). There are two other early tracts: A short dis- To these may be added: course of the Newfoundland, contayning diverse M. F. Howley, Ecclesiastical History of Newreasons and inducements for the planting of that foundland (Boston, 1888); and for travels, Sir colony. Published for the satisfaction of all such R. H. Bonnycastle's Newfoundland in 1842 as shall be willing to be adventurers in the said (London, 1842); J. B. Jukes’ Excursions in and Plantation. Dublin, 1623.4 Richard Eburne's about Newfoundland, 1839-1840 (London, 1842); Plaine Pathway to Plantations ... with certain and Ernst von Hesse-Wartegg's Kanada und motives for a present plantation in Newfoundland Neufundland nach einigen Reisen und Beobachabove the rest, 1624.5

tungen (Freiburg). Robert Hayman,

“sometimes governor of the As respects the neighboring Labrador, there plantations there,” fixed upon the country the is much to elucidate its early cartographical tisnew name of “Britaniola,” in a collection of epi- tory in ante, Vol. IV.; and Chavanne (Polar Re. grams which he wrote there, and which he pub- gions, p. 220) gives something of a bibliography. lished in London, in 1628, as Quodlibets lately Cartwright's Journal is one of the older authorcome over from New Britaniola, Old Newfound- ities. Cf. Henry Y. Hinde's Explorations in land. The Crown in 1633 published A Com- the interior of the Labrador peninsula, the Counmission for the well gouverning of our people in- try of the Montagnais and Nasquapee Indians habiting in Newfoundland.?

(London, 1863), and W. A. Stearns' Labrador, Beside the general histories of Canada and a sketch of its peoples, its industries, and its natNew France, covering the history of Newfound- ural history (Boston, 1884).

the Mag. Amer. Hist., Oct., 1883; Oct., 1885. As late as the middle of the last century, the representative of Lord Baltimore made claim to the territory of Avalon, and a report of the attorney and solicitor general on that claim, April 5, 1754, is among the Shelburne MSS., vol. 61, as noted in the Hist. MSS. Commission, Report V., p. 230.

1 Sabin, xi. 45,453, who quotes the title from Lowndes, adding that the tract is “so rare that we have been unable to find a copy." Laing says only three copies are known. Cf. Brit. Mus. Cat. of Eng. Books to 1040, p. 1076. The Prince Society has recently published Captain John Mason, the founder of New Hampshire, including his tract on Newfoundland, 1620, and a Memoir by C. W. Tuttle, edited by John Ward Dean (Boston, 1887).

2 Carter-Brown, ii. no. 239.

8 Howley in his Ecclesiastical Hist. of Newfoundland gives various early maps, including one found in the Vatican, dated 1556. The earlier draft of Lescarbot is given ante, Vol. IV. p. 379, where are some notes on antecedent maps.




among the Kohl collection, no. 168. A map by Nicolas Visscher is considered the earliest with elaborate soundings on the banks. Popple (1733) and Buache (1736) made maps (North collection in Harvard Coll. lib., ii. nos. 5-7). There is a map in Charlevoix, by Bellin, which is repro duced in Shea's translation. A Pilot de Terre Neuve was published in 1784 (Harv. Coll. Atlases, no. 650).

4 Carter-Brown, ii. no. 283.
6 Carter-Brown, ii. no. 291 ; Mass. Hist. Soc. Proc., May, 1883, p. 230. It is a rare book.
6 Carter-Brown, ii. nos. 335, 336.
7 Harv. Coll. lib., 4344. 20.

Note. — The map on the preceding page is a fac-simile of that in Mason's Briefe Discourse.




N the second volume of the present work the progress of Spanish explo-

ration and settlement in North America was traced down to the withdrawal of Cortés from Mexico in 1540, and to the return of Coronado from his long and northward march in 1542. There were some intentionally brief indications given of other Spanish explorations towards New Mexico even so late as the alleged expedition of Peñalosa in 1662; while the course of maritime discovery along the Pacific coast was sketched in outline to the close of the eighteenth century, connecting it with the distinctively Arctic ventures, which are followed in the present volume in preceding chapters. It is the present purpose to pursue, in a condensed way, the general course of the succeeding history of the Spanish countries in North America down to the middle of the nineteenth century. We have seen how in 1535 Spain had sent her first viceroy to Mexico in Antonio de Mendoza. New Spain was under his sway until 1550, and the story of the vice-regal period begins with eliciting our sympathy, as it continued to do, for the natives, degraded beneath in human burdens. They were baptized by the millions, if we may believe the figures; but it may be a question if such spiritual relief, imagined or actual, was equal in beneficence to the release of death which came by other millions, as the record goes, through disease and inhumanity. The Spaniards indeed conquered provinces, established towns, and developed mines, and in all this the country seemed prosperous; but Benzoni, travelling through the country, tells us how their rapacious laws and the bondage of the Indians depopulated whole towns. It seemed, in fact, to matter little whether a tribe was an ally or an enemy; the scourge and the doom were as sure for each. The natives revolted only to intensify the horrors of their situation. It was death in the mines, and inhumanity worse than death in the fields. Las Casas, as we have seen, pleaded so vehemently that at last, by imperial cédula and by the code of the so-called new laws,» remedies were established to prevent depopulation and horrors. The measures were not indeed so radical as Las Casas had wished, but still there was justice enough in them to prevent slavery for all but those then subjected to it under a legal title.

1 Ch. I and 2.

2 Vol. II. ch. 5.

3 Ante, Vol. II. p. 537.

Francisco Tello de Sandoval was sent to execute these laws, and landed at Vera Cruz in March, 1544. The ordinances soon provoked opposition from the Spanish owners of encomiendas 1 and from the religious orders, which were likewise interested in preserving the old conditions. These

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opponents of the statutes combined to make such representations that in 1545 the laws in their obnoxious traits were revoked, notwithstanding the protests of Las Casas. In other respects the rule of Mendoza was not without success. He improved the social and external conditions of life; he subjugated and pacified distant tribes of the hostile Chichimecs in

1 The original MS. of Cortés' opinion on en- priced at £12. 12. 0. Cf. Vol. II. p. 348, for an comiendas is noted in Stevens, Bibl. Amer., 1885, account of this institution.

Champlain's sketch in his Voyage to the West Indies and Mexico (London, 1859). The etchings of the originals in this volume were done by Mrs. C. R. Markham.


Zacatecas, and crowned his conquests here and in New Galicia by opening sources of revenue in their mines.

In 1547 Mexico was raised to an archbishopric, but Zumárraga as its prelate enjoyed his elevation for a few days only, before he died on June 3, 1548. Meanwhile Las Casas had made his final visit to New Spain, and returned to Europe to print his famous tracts at Seville in 1552-53, and to work on his Historia up to 1561.2

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It is to the credit of Luis de Velasco, the second viceroy, that he did what he could to carry out the royal commands for ameliorating the condition of the natives. He saw in 1553 not only the capital city subjected to one of those great floods which occasionally devastated the town, but he

1 There were at this time about 15,000 Span- 2 Cf. Vol. II. pp. 308, 333, 339. iards in America, and the policy of excluding 8 On the Indian treatment, 1550-60, see Banconvicts was now begun.

croft, Mexico, ii. ch. 27. . From Idæa vera et genuina of De Bry's Nona Pars (Frankfort, 1602). Cf. on the Spanish mining, Ban. croft's Mexico, iii. ch. 28, on “Mines and Mining (1500-1800),” with bibliog., pp. 599–601; vi. ch. 1 (18001887); Helps' Spanish Conquest, 140; and C. B. Dahlgren's Historic mines of Mexico; a review of the mines of that republic for the past three centuries. Compiled from the works of Von Humboldt, Ward, Burkart, etc. (New York, 1883).

VOL. VIII. — - 13

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