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Tables of the Metric System,
The following are the tables of the Metric System, which has been adopted by Congress, and, we trust, will soon be in general use.
The following exquisite little poem was written by Miss MARIE LACOSTE, of Savannah, Ga., and originally published, (we think,) in the "Southern Churchman." It will commend itself by its touching pathos to all readers. The incident it commemorates was unfortunately but too common in both armies:
Into a ward of the whitewashed walls,
Matted and damp are the curls of gold
Somebody's darling is dying now!
Kiss him once for SOMEBODY's sake,
Was it a mother's, soft and white?
Been baptized in those waves of light?
God knows best. He was somebody's love;
Night and morn, on the wings of prayer.
Somebody's watching and waiting for him,
Tenderly bury the fair young dead,
Pausing to drop on his grave a tear;
"SOMELODY'S DARLING LIES BURIED HERE!",
THE POOR MAN'S LIBRARY.-Its range of topics and fullness of treatment on matters in regard to which we have never thought of consulting a dictionary before, and yet have not known where else to go, have made the new illustrated edition of Webster a library for the poor man, and an indispensable piece of furniture for the table of the scholar.(GEORGE WOODS, LL.D., President Western University, Pa.)
Keeping Scholars After School.
This is a subject which teachers often discuss and on which the best of teachers disagree. Some very excellent teachers oblige their pupils to learn the task assigned them before they allow them to return to their homes. These teachers claim that the fear of punishment of this kind, which they consider disgraceful, causes increased exertion on their part, also that the loss of their accustomed amusements after school is perhaps a greater punishment than the disgrace of being kept after school. Our experience in keeping scholars after school has not been such as to warrant us in recommending it. The first scholar we kept after school was a boy as obstinate as a mule and very dull. We stayed until darkness compelled us to adjourn. We have tried it many times since, but never with success. Most scholars seem to enjoy it; they feel that they are punishing the teacher, and in nine cases out of ten the teacher suffers more than the scholar. When the teacher has labored hard for six hours, nature is nearly exhausted, and he needs rest, while the scholar has scarcely begun to feel any fatigue. Our chief objection, then, to this kind of punishment is, that the teacher suffers more from it than the scholar. Several writers have recommended the dismissal of all scholars who have recited perfect lessons and have been perfect in deportment one-half hour before the dismissal of the school, claiming that the hope of a reward of this kind was a greater inducement to study than the fear of punishWe have tried this and found it to be the case, but we would urge no teacher to adopt this practice until thoroughly convinced of its utility. At all events, it is far easier for the teacher.
Examinination and Licensing of Teachers.
At a meeting of County and City Superintendents held at Portage City, in August last, the following report on examination of teachers was unanimously adopted:
Your committee to whom was referred that portion of the President's address relating to the examination of teachers respectfully report: That the object of the examination is to determine
FIRST, What the teacher knows.
SECOND, What the teacher can do.
To obtain information upon these two points, it seems to us best that the superintendent have recourse to BOTH written and oral examinations. Written examinations can hardly be, with profit, superceded by oral examinations for the following reasons:
1. Applicants can prepare the answers with more deliberation, and with less embarrassment.
2. Much more can be done in a given time and more uniform questions can be submitted.
3. The superintendents having time can more carefully consider the answers given, and arrive at more correct results.
4. The filing of the written answers constitutes the only protection which the superintendent has against the charge of impartiality and injustice. Other considerations suggest themselves which your committee do not feel at liberty to discuss, owing to the shortness of our session; but among them may be mentioned the important fact, that the written examination shows to the examiner MUCH MORE than the simple answers to questions submitted. The penmanship, orthography, punctuation and style of an applicant are by no means minor considerations in deciding upon his qualifications. Your committee, would, however, by no means discard oral examinations. These, by their nature, better attain the second object of the examination by showing more clearly what the applicant can Do.
We, therefore, heartily endorse the suggestions of Supt. McMynn in reference to endeavoring to popularize examinations. Our own experience has demonstrated to us that the presence and assistance of qualified persons contribute much to the interest and profit of an examination. The oral examination should not be made up merely of
questions and answers, but should consist in part, at least, of demonstra tion and explanation from maps, globes, or blackboard.
Your committee submit the following suggestions in reference to methods of examination.
We are of opinion that an improvement can be made in the matter of the questions submitted.
So far as your committee is aware the custom has been to submit to the applicant five or ten questions and require him, in order to secure the highest grade upon his certificate, to answer fully all these questions. It seems to us that the results desired might be better attained by submitting 7 or 14 questions, allowing the applicant to elect 5 out of 7 or 10 out of 14, and answer these, thereby obtaining a grade of 100.
It may be urged in favor of this, first, that in many or the subjects upon which examinations are made, there is much of mere technical knowledge required, and the mere temporary inability to recall such knowledge is not an evidence of incompetency. By giving the applicant the election between questions, although they may be of equal difficulty, better justice would be done.
SECOND. It gives the examiner the opportunity to ask what may properly be called "suggestive or directing" questions, not 80 much for the purpose of having them answered, as to point out to teachers subjects or points for future study. This is a consideration by no means to be lost sight of.
The subject of "Theory and Practice of Teaching," also mentioned as a part of examinations, seems naturally to divide itself into two heads. Examinations under either of these must be very limited until more accessible means of qualifications are provided. The applicant's theory can be drawn out by questions pertaining to the various duties of the school room, and to his method of accomplishing certain results. Some knowledge of his philosophy of education (if he has any) may be obtained in this way. At all events, the examiner can find whether the applicant has ever read any educational books or periodicals-information of value in determining his fitness to teach.
If he is found deficient in knowledge of his profession, and if he can furuish no evidence of his fitness to teach, a certificate should not be granted.