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To clear up difficulties; not to make The present state of things cannot them. He has no right to make arbi- last forever. There is a convention, and trary rules and forms of practice, and the talk is of reform. We may hope, then to use those rules and forms if not for a code, at least for a thorough to defeat the object for which he was sifting and weeding out of common-law nominated. We do not want a judge follies ; and may Special Term who, like an Indian medicine-man, distinctions perish with the rest. And thinks his manipulations and incanta- when the Law and not the Letter tions necessary to the success of his prevails, there may come a day when simples. An unjust or foolish statute the officers and ministers of justice shall is a disease he cannot cure ; but the stand forth as respectable members of a milder attacks of common law or com- noble and practical profession, and be mon practice absurdity, admit of no longer the despised of Cicero and remedius which a judicious magistrate of Bolingbroke - Leguleius quidam could easily administer, had he the cautus et acutus præco actionum, cautor suitable skill and freedom from preju- formularum, auceps syllabarum. dice. Such men are wanted, and such men the people will be sure to elect.


“ Their gods
Swarm populous, un number'd as the sands
Of Barca or Cyrene's torrid soil-

names of old renown,
Osiris, Isis, Orus, and their train."

In the opinion of those who have of Shinar; and this legend was derived made the most industrious researches by the Greeks of after ages, from the into the traditions and records of anti- Orientals of Indostan. It unquestionquity, the mythology of the Pagans ably alludes to the garden of Eden, and ascended no higher than the deluge. to an antediluvian age and race. Why The Hindoos had an indistinct notion of it was lost to those branches of Noah's of a remote and golden age, when man posterity, who wandered in other direchad no cause to labor—when the earth tions, after the dispersion from Babel, yielded its fruits spontaneously—the cannot be accounted for; but there are air was filled with the fragrance of flow no traces of it before we come to the ers--the sight was refreshed with the Mosaical account of the creation of the brightest and softest hues—the warb- world, ling of birds, and the music of the The first object of deification, after spheres charmed his hearing-ease and the flood, both in India and Egypt, was contentment, health, happiness, and Noah, whose wisdom in building and long life were his portion in one peren- navigating the Ark over " that shorenial spring. This delightful romance less ocean,” filled his descendants with originated, without doubt, in some of astonishment, admiration, and awe. the lingering recollections of Noah, or They saw in him the father of all men; his sons, transmitted to their descend- they believed him the creator of all ants before the confession of tongues, things; and as he receded from their which dispersed them from the plains sight, and the mist of time began to ob

* This account of the origin of idolatrous worship was drawn up with no design of publication. It was derived from data reaching to the remotest perjo:ls, and none of its statements are made lightly, or on dubious evidence. The writer regrets that the authenticity of the article, (which was written some time since,) cannot be verified by citing the authorities, but they were not preserved at the time, and are not now conveniently accessible.

a God.

scure his mortal lineaments, they ascri- temple for the radiant serpent God." bed to him the power and attributes of The serpent was admired for his keen

If he ever gave them any in- eye and curious colors; and was also struction regarding the pure worship of reverenced as a symbol of defence, bethe Creator, they lost sight of it when cause anything encircled by his terrible he was no longer present, and transfer- folds was secure from external assault. red their gratitude and reverence to Another branch of the idolatrous fasensible images representing him as mily of Ham may be traced in India, rising from the sea, possessed of univer, where his descendants deified him in sal dominion, producing and controlling common with their progenitor, Noah. all things by his power. They viewed They saw no sensible object his equal the Ark as a goddess, the common mo- in glory; but the sun approaching ther of all things, the companion of nearest to his grandeur, they called Noah, and both—the common parents that luminary “Ham, or the Šun," in of gods and men.

honor of their father, and soon transImmediately after the separation at ferred their adorations to him, as the Babel, one branch of the descendants source of all honor and happiness. Juof Ham migrated to Egypt, and wor- piter Ammon, the word Jupiter being shipped him as Osiris, and the Ark an addition to “Ham-On," or “ Ham as Isis. Enshrining Osiris became a the Sun," was the most renowned deity ceremony of great pomp and splendor. of antiquity. Twice a year, a personification of From this followed the worship of Noah or Ham-or Oannes or Thoth fire, as an emanation from the sun, and - for he had many appellations, the temples dedicated to the sun or fire, was placed in a magnificent ark, were denominated Pi-Ur-Am-Ait-liteand conveyed through the streets, rally, Pyramid; the form of which is “ amidst the shouts of adoring multi- deduced from the figure of an ascendtudes." The Egyptians also instituted ing flame. religious rites in commemoration of his The element which sustained the ark rescue from the flood. They carried was another object of adoration ; and an ark in triumphal procession, in token the wanderers from Shinar carried the of “the debarkation of the patriarch,” worship of water to Egypt and India, after which they descended into the and celebrated divine rites to the Nile sea, and the keepers of the robes, ajded and the Ganges.—The Hindoos worby the priests, took from a consecrated sipped, also, many objects as types of chest a little ark of gold, into which the ark; such, for example, as the Ibis, they poured clean water, and proclaim- an aquatic bird, because it sat like a boat ed, with loud acclamations, that “ Osi- upon the water. In tracing the analogy ris was safe."

of languages, it appears undoubted The form of the ark was also a fruit- that Boodha, the great God of the Hinful source of objects for idolatrous wor- doos, is derived from Boodh, a boat, the ship. A circular crescent-shape invest- ark itself: and that the Woden of the ed objects with a peculiar sanctity; Goths, the Maheena of the friendly hence the worship of the moon, and of Islands in the Pacific Ocean—the Siathe serpent, for his circular writhings. mese Gautma, and the Chinese Foe, The curved horns of the cow and bull, all came from the same Chaldaic origirendered those animals sacred to Isis, nal. and objects of universal homage. In The Arkite idolatry, including Osiris, the progress of time, accidents operating Isis, Apis, Ibis, and everything apperupon the imaginations of men, enlarged taining to the deluge--the Oophite, or their catalogue of deities; and from Serpent-worship, and the Solar, or Firedeeming a curve or an image a symbol worship, are believed to be the three of their primary objects, they consider- radical fountains from whence all sysed them distinct divinities, and estab tems of mythology had their origin. lished for their service appropriate rites. As the human race spread gradually

They denominated the serpent, Oub; over the coasts of Asia Minor and the and after his deification, Ob-El—the north and west of Europe, divine rites Serpent God. The temples erected to were celebrated for the patriarch, under his worship were cylindrical, and were the appellations of Xuth, Thor, Mercalled Ob-El-Es-Ca, or Obelisk—"A curius, and Thuisco. In succeeding


ages different nations enlarged or modi The history of Rome testifies, through fied the theories which had been hand- all its changes, (until the subversion of ed down, adapting them to their own the empire) to the haughty and warlike superstitions, or the peculiar tempera- character of Romulus, and the arbitrary ment of individuals. The ferocious and selfishness, and disregard of justice, austere, the depraved and abandoned of which marked his robber followers. every country, suited their gods to Scarcely a country of antiquity, or of their perverse, or their polluted imagi- modern times, can be named, but some nations. The latter practised scanda- of the peculiarities of its earliest prolous and revolting rites, while the former genitors may be perceived in its characwrought up their horrid mysteries with ter, to ts latest period. So, in paying cruel ingenuity, immolating human vic- divine honors, the sanctions of tradition tims upon their altars.

preserved the outlines of the original The mythology of the Greeks par- deity ; yet religious rites became cruel took of their genius and politeness. In and sanguinary, where the votaries deplace of the dark and gloomy myste- precated the judgments of gods, whom ries of the Druids, or the bloody and they deemed barbarous, like themselves: frightful rites of the Asiatics, or the bru- while with more amiable and polished talizing ceremonies of Egypt and Ethi- people, a naiad in every rill was an opia, they poured out libations to the object of adoration—the trees concealed gods--invoked their clemency and pro- dryads and wood-nymphs, emanations tection with music, poetry, and elo- from the deity—the stars, and the hosts quence, consecrating the choicest gifts, of heaven were invoked to and the most costly productions of the rule the condition of men and prosper arts to Apollo, at Delphi, and Jupiter their concerns. Olympias, at Elis.

The endless catalogue of idols, and But in the idol-worship of every age the confused and mingled rites discoverand country, while some touches of gra- ed in distant countries, and in successive titude are apparent towards that su ages, partake, in different degrees, of all pernatural power which the worship- the original objects and modes of Pagan pers contemplate ; whether under the worship. The ceremonies which priArkite stupidity of Boodha ; the hide- marily appertained to distinct deities, ous Oophite, Ob-El-Ha ; the more ele are blended in the wildest disorder; and vated form of Osiris ; the elegant and to them are superadded unnatural and sublime images of Jupiter and A pollo, shocking observances, the offspring of or the beautiful representations of Ve- the most perverse and horrible imaginanus and Ceres, all felt a dread and ter tions. These prove the worthlessness ror of the unknown deity which they of heathen worship, and attest the verignorantly worshipped," and varied ity of that revelation, which declares their rites according to their impulses of the being of one, holy, omniscient God, hope or fear.

whose immutable character and attri. Through all tradition and history, butes are power, wisdom, justice, truth, families and countries retain traces to benevolence, and mercy, which having the latest posterity, of the tempers, brought - life and immortality to light,” habits, and language of their founders; dispels the darkness which shrouded hence the polished, poetical, and philo- the heathen, and points to the glorious sophical race of Hellenes, among the and joyful elevation of immortalityGreeks, while the contemporary Pelas- Eternity and Heaven. gii, another tribe of those people, inherit the gloomy, ferocious, and brutal traits of their father, Pelasgus.


We must unavoidably form an incor- general state of society in England, rect judgment upon the general aspect and then advert to that of our own of English and American society, un- country, perhaps we shall best compass less we know the reasons which cause the end at which we aim, illustrate a difference in their respective customs, our views by facts and the light of conhabits, and manners. A transient ob- trast, and bring out the characteristic server, no matter how great his ge- features of both. nius, how classic his pen, how brilliant In England the feudal system, that his imagination, hastening through a tremendous military power, which, foreign country, with no standard on with a rod of iron, reduced the British his mind but that of his own nation, nation to a vast army, and held the lays hold of things at random, as they population in the most inexorable bondare presented to his view, and without age, is abolished. But the spirit of any clear conception of their fitness, that system in all its most essential and without tracing the effect to the proportions as they bear upon modern cause, is apt to condemn and ridicule society, still remains in full vigor. Inwhat he does not comprehend. I shall deed, the various classes of the comendeavor to place the subject in such a munity are more distinctly marked off, clear point of view, that every En- and each assigned to its specific rank, glishman may feel that he is right in now, than they were under the feudal believing, that there is no government system itself. in the world so wisely adapted to pro In those remote ages the mass of the mote his interests and secure his hap- people of England were absolute slaves piness as his own; and every American captured in war, sold as bondsmen, inthat there is no government so well capable of holding any property, subcalculated to guard his liberty, secure ject to the entire control of the barons his rights, and consolidate his happi- in peace or war, and transferable with ness as the one of his choice; and that the soil, precisely in the same manner consequently the manners, habits, and that Africans, or any other slaves, are customs of each are just such as natu at the present day. But interesting as rally flow from the respective systems this subject is, and bearing directly of government, and although diverging upon the point in hand, it is not my in contrary directions from a common intention to trace it through its succescentre, show, nevertheless, an equal sive meliorations, from its introduction justness and fitness. There is no solid into England by William the Conground for condemnation, still less for queror to its final abrogation at Runnyridicule; and, therefore, he who sets mede. A reference to it only, as conhimself up as judge and arbiter, and stituting the basis on which the whole shapes his decrees by the exclusive structure of English society rests, and standard of his own country, places as affording a clue for the development himself in a false position, and deserves of many traits of character and habits the humiliation of seeing his judgment of life which would otherwise appear overruled. These two fundamental to an American singularly absurd and principles being settled, all the differ- incongruous, will be sufficient. But ences of national character will be re our attention may well be directed to cognized as exactly appropriate to the the consideration of the spirit of the system to wbich they belong, and cannot feudal system, entwining itself around be removed or taken down without every branch of society, and holding destroying the frame-work of society in one compact body the component and dissolving its elementary principles. parts of a mighty nation.

If we consider, in the first place, the The hereditary claims of birth, the

deference paid by every subject to his daily intercourse, and are more fully superior in rank, and the promptitude and more mechanically organized than with which he takes and occupies his they were when the feudal system appropriate station in the general sys. bore its intolerably oppressive hand tem, all flow from the spirit of feudal- upon the population of the country. ism, and are perfectly agreeable to the Those accustomed to this aristocratical mind, and congenial with the feelings state of society feel it neither grievous of an Englishman. It will be per nor degrading to yield submission to ceived that rank is not confined to the those above, seeing they receive the nobility. Every individual in the em same homage from all below them. pire holds rank-is a peer in his own Having pointed out this general clascircle—and just as tenacious to main- sification as nearly as practicable withtain it as if he sat upon the throne. out pretending to perfect accuracy, but

The crown, as head of the mon- sufficiently near for our purpose, we archy, and conservator of the Church, may direct our attention to its consethe centre of power, the source of quences. emolument, and the arbiter of honor It is true, no class is confined to its able distinction, necessarily claims the appropriate orbit by any physical force, first and only rank without a peer.— but there is a moral influence, ten thouTo be alienated from the crown is to sand times stronger, that never ceases be an outlaw. In the eyes of an En to act, which binds the system in one glishman, everything that is great and compact indissoluble union. glorious, and venerable, clusters around Born, educated, and marshalled under the name of majesty.

such an influence, Americans cannot be The hereditary nobility of the coun- surprised that Britons regard king, try, the great lauded proprietors of the lords, and commons as the perfection kingdom, sharing in the administration of government, and that they proudly of government, and consequently the sustain it, individually and collectively, most prominent defenders of the throne, as the only form worthy of their supstand next in rank.

port. Of course they must look upon The legal profession, whence recruits every other form as weak and defective, are most usually drawn to strengthen incapable of upholding and defending and invigorate the power of the nobility, the rights and privileges of the suband to supply the defects of time and ject, and the legitimate object of their imbecility, may be considered, in con ridicule and contempt. junction with the Church establishment, Under the active influence of such a as holding the third rank in the state. system, without the practical means of

The army, navy, and literary classes judging of the effects of the supreme the fourth.

power of the state lodged in the hands The merchants and bankers the fifth of the people, and incapable of appreThe manufacturers the sixth. ciating the advantages of a delegated

The warehousemen and wholesale authority, is it not just and reasonable dealers the seventh.

to conclude that the government of The shopkeepers, retail dealers, and England is better adapted to the taste, brokers the eighth.

humor, and affections of Englishmen The mechanics and master trades- than any other? A free representative men the ninth.

governinent, like our own, cannot exist The laborers, (agricultural, manu in England, and never did exist, nor facturing, and all other descriptions,) in any part of Europe to any considerthe tenth.

able extent. The middle and subordiThese are the general divisions of nate classes of society have precisely English society, with shades of differ- the same feelings of attachment to ence and occasional intermingling of their government and to the respective contiguous classes, as they exist at the ranks in which they move, as their supresent time in Great Britain, and, with periors. Ti face of society, under some local distinctions, over the face of the rule of such a system, must, in Europe.

the nature of things, take its general All these distinctive grades of soci- features from the higher ranks of the ety, walled off, the one from the other, community, and not at all from the by common consent, are recognized in humbler walks of life. The compari

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