Imagens das páginas


the distance which divides Liverpool from Kilimani; the quality is occupation, and a merchant at Lagos must employ eight or ten the two-headed cone which we had called Albert Mountain, and a better, the country is more settled, and the people are far less unman-1“cowrie-girls." The weight of each bag of 2,000 blue Africans will bluff wall or dyke, which I had not time to visit. ageable; yet it is my sincere belief-founded on facts which will be from 80 to 90 lbs., and of white Indians from 35 to 45 lbs., and

There were subsequent ascents, and at the lastfof them the appear in the course of this narrative-that years must elapse before yet it is barely worth one pound sterling. Mungo Park, when he even Western Africa can supply with cotton the mills of England opened a shop during

his second journey

at Sansanding, was obliged Union Jack was hoisted on the lip of the volcano, and for one week of work in the twelve months. These may be new to employ three tellers to count bis cash-25,756 cowries, worth at there were left on the peak a slip of sheet lead inscribed views, I am convinced that they are true views.

Lagos 11. 53. Lieut. Forbes complains that to carry 50 dollars, be with the names of the successful climbers, and two sixSo far as we are concerned these are not new views.

bad to bire five women. A horse will cost 60,000 to 120,000, a sheep pences in an empty bottle. The highest point of the range Abeokuta has been described from fancy, and painted in It is fully time to change the system. At Zanzibar and Maskat, is on the crest of a slope half a mile due north of the rose tint, by two ladies, who had never been in Western the late Sayyid Said found no difficulty in so doing. He applied to Victoria Mountain and 435 feet higher, or 13,129 feet high. Africa. It has been described, from personal knowledge, the East Indian Government for some tons of pice or copper coins, This point is eighteen statute miles of indirect and thirteen by the Rev. Mr Bowen, in a book published at Charleston and the improvement was readily adopted by his subjects. The geographical miles of direct distance from the settlement under the name of Central Africa, though its writer only in perinde probabild be tried without delay tar Lagos, and, if successful, of Victoria, formed in 1858 by the Baptist missionary, Mr penetrated about 170 miles through a well opened country; At present the country has the nuisance of twelve different dollar. Saker, with his, family and negro communicants, who and also by Mr Robert Campbell, a coloured man. Captain coinages in circulation, and when these different dollars bave been crossed over to the mainland when expelled by the Burton finds these very faulty, and especially directs got rid of there still remains the inconvenience of two currencies, Spaniards from Fernando Po. Having obtained 1,5001. attention to one error that might lead, if acted upon

by relative proportion. And the Abeokutans are little aware of their with a coast length of twelve miles, on a spot decried by

English money and cowries, which, as bas been seen, bear no fixed damages from the Spanish Government they bought land, missionary zeal, to serious consequences. In Mr Camp. losses by the system of barter to which the retail purchaser is somebell's book, he says:

times driven: it obliges them to pay one hundred per cent. above the the jealousy of traders; while We are explicitly told, and more than once, that ground amongst could be profitably sold by the merchant at a maximum of fifty per that

the native tribes were few, scattered, and not dangerous ; that the invoice price for English goods, which, if the currency were settled, On the other hand, Mr Saker, and those who were with bim, contended the Egbas is deemed common property, any individual enjoying the

cent. right of taking unoccupied land, as much as he can use, wherever

country can be made highly productive, and support fine cattle, wbich and whenever he pleases." This may be ignorance, and to a certain Having returned to Lagos, Captain Burton left that port the island cannot ; that building material everywhere abounds; that asserted long before Mr Campbell that “there is no property in land, the Brass and Bonny rivers, set forth on his more interest, and mangrove swamps are unknown; that the sea-breeze is pure and extent it is warranted by the incuriousness of Mr Bowen, who again on the 21st of November, *1861, and after visiting the north-east tornadoes, which do so much damage at Fernando Po, is that any number of Christiano con veres ope colonies of Africo ing adventure of a march to the unexplored recesses and healthy in the lower levels, and that by ascending the high lands any Canadians can be permanently settled in the Egba country. I the topmost height of the Camaroons Mountains. At the temperature can be obtained ; that the islands are fit for lighthouses distinctly assert that the reverse is the fact, and that all such theories Camaroons mission station of Victoria he found Herr and coal depôts, and the level strand for sheds and slips ; that the injury. The country is by no means a no-man's land,” and ignore 1860, preparing for a second attempt to advance and scale tbe lee of Mondori; that the position lies in the very track of the foisted on the public with a view to emigration are likely to do mere Mann, who had made a first short trip to the mountains in eastern sea-arm is open even to the largest ships at all seasons

, and with which New Zealand has scandalized the civilized world. There their highest summit:

mail steamers, wbich must now diverge to Feroando Po; that the are two ideas incomprebensible to Europeans, but part and parcel of He is a young man of twenty-five, a native of Brunswick, a

tenure of land would not be arbitrary, as must ever be the case in a the African mind. The first, which here requires only enunciation, gardener from the Royal Gardens, Kew, to which he was recommended military station; that

Victoria offers complete religious toleration, is that a slaveborn man is a slave for ever. The second is the non- by the Court of Hanover. Origiually attached, in 1869, to Dr and, finally, that the Camaroons generally would be the key of the alienation of land. Whatever be the tenure of property in ground, Baikei's Niger expedition in place of the lamented Dr Barter, he has valuable Oil Rivers, whose export trade to England is calculated it cannot permanently be given or sold. A chief will, for a quit- been continued as Government botanist in West Africa by the Ad- at not less than a million and a half of pounds sterling per annum. rent, permit any stranger to cultivate unreclaimed commons, but the miralty, with the ostensible motive of inspecting the timber. The Certain it is that the region is wealthy, and Captain bargain is purely personal

. If the original tenant die, the heir or “ Amabilis scientia'-whose votaries, however, can at times be as cross Burton lays much stress on the value of the Camaroons successor is expeoted by another“ dash” to obtain renewal of the as poets-appears still at a discount in public opinion. Whilst in these Mountains as an African sanatorium. lease, and his refusal would justify, in the African mind, bis ejection days the geologist bolds bis head higb, one rarely reads of a detached On the other hand, if the chief attempt to raise bis terms, the beir "botaniker; ” as a rule the poor herbalist" is attached as a decent

Mr Winwood Reade's book upon Savage Africa pairs might insist upon not paying a sum higher than the original quit- appendage to some Government expedition. Economy is often made only by contrast with that of Captain Burton. Captain rent, and amongst the more civilized tribes the

voice of the people to entrench upon utility. And why should the collector, after bear- Burton does, perhaps, a little too much affect a dashing, would be on bis side. No resident in West Africa will ignore that ing the best and burden of the day, lose his reward? Why should entertaining style; but Mr Winwood Reade a great deal what I have stated is the fact, and those who are unacquainted with not "Hooker's Niger Flora" be known as “Vogel's Herbarium too much affects it, and has not the privilege of an old the coast should beware of the fallacies of Messrs Bowen and described by Hooker”? And yet another

point. Why should not the African traveller to speak as one at home on his own Campbell.

collector be allowed to reserve a certain percentage of new plants to of the colony of Abeokuta gathered about the rock study and to name after, his friends ?

ground. It is true that he claims only the merit "of Olumo, Captain Burton gives this sketch :

Meanwhile M. Mann, after visiting the Bagroo river, near Sierra Leone having been the first young man about town to make a

and Barracoon Point, on the Niger, made, after twice failing, two " bona fide tour in Western Africa ; to travel in that agreeBeyond the barren mass of stern grey stone—ilthily dirty—which ascents (in April and December, 1860) of Fernando Po Peak, where able and salubrious country with no special object, and afforded me a standing-place, there was a perpendicular drop of some be was guided by a Spanish official, M. Pellon, the Special Delegate fifty feet, disclosing part of the city below and in front. It was a of Public Works. Their visit was the second ever made to the sum

" at his own expense; to flaner in the virgin forest; to grisly mass of rusty thatching and dull red-clay wall, with narrow mit, the late Mr Beecroft's being the first. He subsequently ascended " flirt with pretty savages; and to smoke his cigar among winding lanes and irregular open spaces, a ragged tree rising here and to the summits of Prince's Island and San Thomé, and visited the “ cannibals." The book, though it is often flippant and there. The only comparison wbich the scene suggested was that of Gaboon and other African rivers. He has been indefatigable in col-conceited, makes the most-in a partly substantial, partly a huge ant-hill scattered over with dead leaves and dwarf sbrube. lecting and in preserving bis collections, and has supplied one of the On the left was a high tongue of land, with top sinking towards the greatest desiderata in botanical geography. The results have been to superficial, and always showy way-of its materials, and is foreground; it supports Bagura, one of the most populous townships ; establish: “1. An intimate relationship with Abyssinia, of whose on the whole certainly better than the tone of its preface and here the houses that crowd one another prevent the ground from flora that of the Fernandian Peak is a member, and from which it is would lead anybody to expect. being seen. It is separated by a stony stream-bed, the usual fence separated by 1,800 miles of absolutely explored country; 2. A curious in this part of Africa, from the neighbouring settlemente, Ikereku and relationship with the East African Islands, which are still further off; Ikija, Ilawo and Ikporo. In the distance is a narrow line repre- 3. An almost total dissimilarity from the Cape flora.” With the West senting the Ogun River above the rapids, and the horizon is shut in African Islands again, contrary to expectation, there is no marked The Natural Laws of Husbandry. By Justus von Liebig. by rising ground which appears barren and sterile. In the magnifi- relationship whatever. cence of its distances Abeokuta greatly resembles Washington, but

Edited by John Blyth, M.D., Professor of Chemistry there the similarity ends. The main peculiarity of the scene is the Burton says is thus briefly accounted for :

The local nomenclature of this part of Africa Captain in Queen's College, Cork. Walton and Maberly. shape of the houses, large irregular squares, with huge thatches raised high at the angles to throw off the rain. There are but two According to Mr J. Grazilhier, who, as related by Barbot, made a last utterance of one who has long been preaching doc

A special interest attaches to this volume. It is the which attract the ege by superiority of size, viz., those of the late voyage to Old Calabar in A.D. 1699, the land was called by the PortuOgobonna, and of the waggish savage Ogodippe. guese Alta Tierra de Ambozes—the highlands of Ambozes. Tbe

trines too wise to be generally accepted in his own geneOlumo, however, is classic ground in these regions, the Arg, the latter word, not being Lusitanian, may probably be the name of some ration. Most farmers are so wedded to the old-fashioned Ibadan have not yet prevailed. It was the point de réunion of the disappear. It has been corrupted to Amboizes, Amboize, and Ambas, adopt the sensible teaching of Baron Liebig as to the Capitolium of the Egba race, the Rock against which the gates of extinct tribe ; bere and elsewhere the maritime African races rapidly modes of husbandry that they have little inclination to winds by intestine tumults and the fury of their enemiet. Some names of the mountains and the river to their east-Camaroons, fur work of chemistry in preparing soils and otherwise econothirty-five or forty years ago, say in 1825, a few of the better sort, ther debased to Cameroons, and by the Jonesian writers to the yet mizing agricultural materials, and their opposition has Aying from their new masters, took refuge under "the Builder,” where, more meaningless Kamerunscomes from the Portuguese Camaráo, been not a little increased by the injudicious zeal with it is said, they found robbers--probably their own countrymen— or the Spanish Camaron, a shrimp or prawn, of which there is a great which some experimentalists have brought that teaching who had preceded them. As in classic Rome, the sanctuary was variety from Lagos southwards. I have retained the name, although into ridicule. “I am doubtful if the time has yet arrived joined by other fugitives and villains. When the new.comers found to call this stupendous pile and the broad estuary begond it " Shrimp themselves strong enough, they drove out the original bandite, and Mountains," of " Prawn River,” sounds somewhat absurd. Captain

“ for its acceptance," said the venerable author, sixteen then laid the foundations of a city which, after Olumo, they called Allen, instructed by some Bimbia man, in his map gave to the highest years after the sixth edition of his Chemistry applied to Abeokuta. It grew apace. In memory of their former settlemente, peak the name of Mongo mi Lobá, which means in Isubu “ Mountain Agriculture and Physiology' had appeared. "I build my they gave to the new seats the names of their ancient townships- of Heaven,” i.e. the starry expanse. The natives acknowledge this " hopes, however, on the young generation who enter upon Ake, for instance, was the old capital of Egba-land in the days when word: they usually, however, call the whole upper region Mongo mo it was a province of Yoruba-and they conferred upon their military Ndemi, literally the Mountain of Greatness, which is also Dr Krapf's

apfelpractice with a different preparation from their fathers. and civil chiefs titles familiar to their ears in olden times. They translation of the words Kilima-njero, applied to the Ethiopic “ As for myself, I have reached the age when the elements hung up their barps by the side of Olumo, and holding the soil to be Olympus in Eastern Africa. But to the lower eminence the smaller “ of the mortal body betray a certain tendency to commence hard and sterile, they sighed for a return to the lands flowing with hump of the camel's back, which was formerly called “Camarones " a new circle of action, when we begin to think about milk and honey.

Pequeños," or " Little Camaroons,” and “ Gibraltar Rock," and which“ putting our house in order, and must defer to no later Presently Abeokuta became a fenced city, and was girt with a the Baptist missionaries have lately baptized “Mount Trestrail,”moat and a clay wall, after the approved fashion of African fortifica. Captain Allen bas assigned the name of Mongo ma Etindeh, the period what we have still to say. As every investigation. Its population waxed numerous. Mr T. B. Freeman, in 1842," Mountain of Separation,” that is to say, “tbe separate mountain," tion in agriculture requires a year before we have all the estimated it to contain forty-five thousand souls. In 1858, Mr which the natives do not recognise. I bbould prefer to call the high-" facts before us, I have scarcely any prospect of living to Bowen gave it eighty thousand : more modern travellers have raised land region and bay Ambozes, the two peaks Larger and Lesser“ see the results of my teaching. The only thing that the number to one buodred thousand ; and, looking at the extent and Mongo, and the settlement Victoria : it would only, however, confuse“ remains for me to do, under these circumstances, is to the thickness of the population, I should not wonder if, when the those who have learned Camaroons and Ambase to unlearned the termost place my views in such a manner before the public, that soldiers return from the Ibadaa war, it was found to contain one hundred and fifty thousand souls, nearly equal to the entire population of the fifteenth century, by the noble Portuguese Fernao de Poo," there can be no possibility of misconception on the part of redoubted Dabome. It contains the remnants of some one who vosaged during the reign of D. Affonso V.; his name still sur- “ of those who will give themselves the trouble of behundred and fifty townships-some say one hundred, but they vives in the Island of Fernando Po. diminish for fear of exaggeration, and others, too sanguine, raise it

“ coming thoroughly acquainted with them.” Therefore to two bundred and eighty-five-which all retain their own pecu

At half-past one on the 27th of December Captain this book has been written. liar institutions. The constitution, in fact, is that of a federal Burton secured to British climbing the credit of being Its grand object is to expound and enforce what is called republic under a perpetual president.

first up to the chief point of the Camaroons, and deposited the Mineral Theory, “which holds that the food of plants In touching upon the religion of the Abeokutans, Captain under the small cairn he built there a piece of the British " is of inorganic nature, and that every one of the elements Burton reverts to his old freedom of argument upon mind in the shape of a leaf out of " Punch.' By his right " of food must be present in a soil for the proper growth of the theory of polygamy, for which he says what he can; as an explorer he named the mountain of the Great Peak" a plant.” The treatise, therefore, begins with a descripand of which he adds his belief that, if the missionaries Victoria, and

tion of the growth and requirements of plants, their powers had made less objection to polygamy, the heathen would Victoria Mountain now proved to be the shell of a huge “double of selecting food, and the work done by various mihave found fewer obstacles to conversion.

crater," opening to the south-eastward, where a tremendous torrent Deral bodies in supplying it; and this is followed by an To the continued use at Lagos of cowry currency, which accessible breach now lay before me, plunging sheer in vertical cliff. and of the different mechanical operations, manures, and

of fire had broken down the weaker wall. The whole interior and its examination of the different sorts of soil and subsoil, has no other advantage than the making of young arith- The depth of the bowl may be 250 feet; the total diameter of the two chemical appliances used in stocking them with nourishmeticians, Captain Burton points attention, as a practice which are separated by a rough partition of lava, 1,000 feet. obviously in need of prompt reform :

interior slope is a highly irregular cliff

, which drops horizontally, ment suitable for the plants in cultivation. It is not truer

streaked and ribboned with igneous matter, red and yellow, whose that man cannot live by bread alone than that the plants The “plump-breasted dove," as the Yorubas call it, is a vile bands of colour indicate horizontal stratification, and communi- that go to the making of man's bread require, for their currency, an intolerable burden. Lycurgus did not fetter the com- cated scoriæ standing at an angle of 460: Not a blade of grass, not a healthy growth and productive fruitage, variety and abunmust be pierced and strung upon grass or palm fibre, which takes black as Erebus, except where the fire has painted it red and dance of food. And if the land loses its vigour, the

men 20 short time. At Dahome a hundred slayes will be engaged in this yellow. To the north-west appeared a ridge

overtopping the rest of whom it has supported must pass from it." "Historians




are wont to attribute the decay of nations to political elevation of the soul is the main object of the believer's life, in ment, which engages to pay a life-pension to all persons who had " events and social causes. These may, indeed, have regard to which family affectione, personal friendships, national inte- claim to share in such estates when the law was promulgated. This “ greatly contributed to the result; but one may well cherished, indeed, when consistent with this elevation, but to be same convent or is drafted into another, or quits the religious life and

rests, and civil duties, are all matters of minor account,—to be pension is equally paid whether the person continue to reside in the “ ask whether some far deeper cause, not so easily sacrificed when opposed to it. It in this creed you substitute the becomes secularised. There is an administration called the “Cassa "recognised by historians, has not produced these events in elevation of the mind for that of the soul, you will have formed, we Ecclesiastica," whose duty it is to take possession of the property "the lives of nations, and whether most of the exterminat- think, a tolerable estimate of the principle which ruled Goethe's life falling under the law, and pay the pensions to the members of the « ing wars between different races may not have sprung which are said to have been the last words on hie dying lips, ex: in practice even more than in profession. The “light, more light," suppressed community;

We have been unable to ascertain the number of convents thus from the irrevocable law of self-preservation ? Nations, press the aim and struggle of his life. To secure that end, he would treated throughout Italy, but are informed that in Tuscany alone the "like men, pass from youth to age, and then die out-so it sacrifice the affections of others as readily as he would bis own; more number of monks and nung has been reduced by 6,000. "may appear to the superficial observer ; but if we look at readily he could not.

The article ends with some interesting and trustworthy “ the matter a little more closely, we shall find that, as the

The text of the next article is a pamphlet of Miss Cobbe's accounts of the manner in which recent political and social “ conditions for the continuance of the human race which

upon · What Annexation has done for Italy. There are changes have differently affected different Italian towns. “nature has placed in the ground are very limited and Universities in nineteen of the towns of Italy; that of Dr Smith's Dictionary of the Bible, and the history of readily exhausted, the nations that have disappeared from Pavia, the most frequented, received during the past year mediæval and modern Greece, as illustrative of Greek “ the earth have dug their own graves by not knowing 1,131 students. Of the 7,730 communes of the Italian questions of to-day, are the next topics of the National “ how to preserve these conditions." That principle, Kingdom 7,390 have elementary schools, teaching in all Review. In the Dictionary of the Bible' the reviewer worth heeding by all, is illustrated from the history, both rather more than 800,000 pupils

. There are twenty-one finds uniform excellence only in the geography and natural of nations that by neglecting the natural laws of agriculo normal schools for the training of schoolmasters, and history articles, elsewhere he points out want of conture have made their homes too poor to hold them, and of eighteen for schoolmistresses, containing about 2,500 pupils, sistency, occasional want of temper and want of proporothers, like the Japanese, that, though ill-regulated in other of whom each receives a pension of 250 francs. There are tion. respects, have held their ground through a prudent study also freo infant schools and adult evening schools, which of the various ways of strengthening and restoring their number two-and-thirty in the Genoese district alone, with the long-delayed Report of the Public School Commis

There is an article on “Eton Reform," in anticipation of lands. The comparative merits of different systems of manuring was set down in last year's Italian budget as a charge upon

forty-six teachers and about 2,000 adult pupils. Education sioners, of which the gist is expressed in these sentences : are fully handled by Herr von Liebig in the latter por- the country of 2,317,472 francs. In speaking of the

Two or three points appear to us as those without which all other tion of his book. All through it he labours to show the to which Italian reading and thinking power thus developed dissatisfaction so loudly and widely expressed with the rule of the

change would be well-nigh useless. We cannot but believe that the dignity of agricultural pursuits, the importance of scien- shall be put, the reviewer gives the following sketch of present head-master will cause him to resign. He will deserve the tific husbandry, both to the individual welfare of the Italian journalism :

thanks of all for having come forward at a critical period with the agriculturists themselves and to the advancement of the whole nations to which they belong.

The freedom of the press is of course the first step towards the re- best intentions; he will retire with dignity from changes he cannot Buscitation of literature. As yet, however, want of commercial approve. There exists, we believe, no power for his removal; the enterprise, want of a reading public, want of circulating libraries, since become a mere name. But even if such a power existed, we

visitorship of the College, vested in the Bishop of Lincoln, bas long and want of interesting books, form a vicious circle, from which should be sorry to see it exercised. All must feel a certain tenderQueens of Song. Being Memoirs of some of the most there is no promise of the speedy discovery of a way of regreso: ness for a man forced against his will into a position for wbich he was Celebrated Vocalists who have appeared on the Lyric Autorità e le Tendenze del secolo,' in which it is demonstrated, first, obstinate errors by a sense of bis own incompetence. These, then,

not strong enougb, for an amiable man goaded into the committal of Stage, from the earliest days of Opera to the present that authority is the best thing in the world ; and secondly, ibat the seem the all-important measures of change: i. That the school and time. To which is added a Chronological List of all Papa! government is the best government in the world, because i college should be one ; perhaps by the abolition of fellowsbips, and the Operas that have been performed in Europe. By Clero

, and proves that that source of a!l corruption might advan: the provost and head-master should each be the best man who can be Ellen Creathorne Clayton. Two Volumes. Smith and tageously be done away witb, because the Jewish high-priest was found to fill the post, Etonian or pop-Etonian, lay or cleric. The Elder. allowed to marry, and many of the Fathers approved of wedlock.

provost to be appointed by the Crown, the head-master by the proThe act of reading this work is very like that of dining the newspaper press, it is certainly rising, and will, we trust

, ere his special work should be unfettered, and the office should, as at

So dangerous and revolutionary are the brochures of Italy! As to vost and assistant-masters. 3. Once appointed, the head-master in in a pastrycook's shop, where every dish is a sweetmeat : long become like that of England, "an estate of the realm :" but Winchester, expire at the end of a definite period. A good heada jam puff, a gooseberry tart, a cream or a custard, each in it has a good way to travel ere it attain that dignity. It must write master would always be reappointed. These changes made, all other its way is admirable

, but a banquet composed of nothing better leaders, and above all cease to be afraid of offending possible needful reforms would follow in due course, and Eton would take the but these delicacies is apt to be rather cloying. There are subscribers, and insert letters of correspondents, and take up social proud position to which she makes so large a claim, in the front of thirty-nine memoirs in this collection, and as all of them either of the constirutional party or the party of action, or the party land.

and commercial questions, and altogether cease to be a mere advocate those iustitutions which train and nurture the intellectual life of our are of “Queens of Song," superexcellence in art is indu- of Popolini and Codini. bitably the right of every one,-and to every one the right is of the papers now existing in Italy, the most respectable is pro

An article on the Administration of Justice in India fully conceded.

In saying this we mean nothing in bably the Nazione of Florence. It contrasts very favourably with strongly sets forth the evils of the old system, that has not disparagement of the author's labours, but are merely least twice the size, twice as well written, and conveying its intelli- templated in the acts passed in India in 1859, and by the

the Giornale di Roma (the chief periodical of the Neri), being at yet wholly been superseded by the judicial reforms conmust necessarily produce when read straight on, from in Rome are disguised. There is a fiuilleton of the usual French Imperial Legislature in 1862. These reforms beginning to end. But if we take each memoir in turn, and kind, which to our English eyes always suggest the idea of the mouth. May be briefly summed up as follows. We may say that four codes content ourselves for the time being with one oply, the full of jana to tempt the unwilling juvenile appetite to the dose of have been enacted ; two codes of penal law and criminal procedure result is sufficiently agreeable, and our satisfaction is such politics

. There is a summary of tbe day's newe. There is a leading have put the whole system of criminal justice on a definite, regulated,

article; sometimes of very fair ability. Then there are foreign and simple footing; by an agrarian code, known as Act X. of 1859, that, to refer once more to the gratification of the palate, telegrams and a few bits of local news. Then (the fourth page) it has been sought to regulate the determination of the rights of the we are very much in the condition of Oliver Twist (though wholly devoted to advertisements, among which quack medicines various parties claiming an interest in the soil, and to consolidate the he never had the luck of tarts), and disposed, at a proper dilerine arare, perhaps, of the whole press of Italy at this moment is and improved that part of the

Indian system. Aper lawrtailed the interval, to ask for more.” Miss Clayton's diligence has the humorous side ,--the papers which appear several times a week tion, prescribing very much shorter terms, has greatly curtailed the been great and her reading extensive, and of the materials rivalling our Punch in drollery, and fearlessly attacking humbug future license of litigation, and some modern enactments have imwhich she has collected, or which have been placed at her uoder all its forme, lag and ecclesiastical. Three of these have proved the mode dealing with the estates of intestates, minors disposal, she has made a very good use. She appears also appeared in Florence-the Lampione, the Chiacchiera, and the lunatics

, &c. High courts, combining

professional knowledge of law to be possessed of considerable knowledge of music, her Arlecchino. In all cases the letter-press, throughout devoid of wit, with Indian esperience, have been established at the three presicritical opinions are well expressed, and with respect to an artist who, under the name of “ Mata,” produces lithographs duced; and there has been, especially in Bengal proper, a very the composition of her work no possible objection can be really excellent in an artistic point of view, as well as cleverly sati- general extension of the personnel of the judicial establishments in all made. According to the programme set forth in the title- rical. A peculiar joke favoured just now in Italy is the production branches. The number of courts and facilities to suitors have been page, the list of “Queens of Song" begins with Katherine of a picture which when opened shall convey one subject, and when increased. Tofts and Margarita de l'Epine, at the commencement of

folded in a particular manner, quite another. The week in which
we write offers a large tableau represonting Italy looking on, while

Another paper in the National treats of a French the last century, and--taking every operatic celebrity that the lion of St Mark's overthrows the Emperor of Austria, and the Coleridge, Joseph Joubert, born in 1754, one of many intervened-closes with the name of Madlle Tietjens, the Roman wolf mauls Pio IX. On folding the paper there appears only children of a poor doctor in Perigord, who came, in 1778, "bright, particular star" of the year 1863. The volumes, a good lithograph of Garibaldi. Last week there was a sketch of as a young man with weak health into the literary circles which abound in anecdote, are very entertaining,

four prize pigs, precisely such as might appear in our Illustrated
News. Judiciously closed, this produced a capital likeness of the of Paris, where he “s'inquiétait de perfection bien plus
Pope. Besides these there are pictures of a serious kind, satirising que de gloire." Chateaubriand called him, in the words of

all manner of Roman Catholic miracles and pretensions. In one Epicurus, a man who had chosen "to hide his life.” QUARTERLIES.

a priest is showing to the people a Madonna, whose arms The National Review for January opens with an account while Jesus Christ exposes the deception. other priests in the background are pulling with cords, statesmen ; but Joubert remained in the shade. His constitution

Years went on, and his friends became conspicuous authors or of the recently published volume of diffuse and unpruned Jesuita care collecting money to loopave the Church," and was of such fragility that how he lived so long, or accomplished so Correspondence between Goethe and his patron, the Duke squabbling for it behind the scenes among themselves. of Saxe-Weimar. The reviewer rightly appreciates the audacious of all is a very large picture of a crucifix before which the hardly any body at all ; both from bis stomach and from his chest be distinctive point in Goethe's character, which separates Pope is kneeling, while the figure on the cross strikes the tiara from seems to have had constant sufferings, though he lived by rule, and him most widely, from Schiller, and pervades all that he series representing the life of the late Grand Duke, and by caricatures reading, or talking, he remained for days together in a state of utter wrote. Schiller, in the great stir of the time, gave mind or the entieadventures of his followerran Nor does the Government prostration. condemned to absolute silence and inaction ; too

happy and soul to a large interest in the welfare and development escape its fair share of sarcasm. In the older series the round face have the repose of which he stood in such need. With this weakof communities. Goethe, basing his philosophy, it may of poor Cavour continually figured, and the delays of diplomacy

are be, on more egotism, gave his chief thought to the progress Chained and held back, while goaded by stinging waspo

. In another

, of the prolonged contention of spirit necessary for the creation of

the favourite theme of many later illustrations. In one, Italy is ness of health, these repeated suspensions of energy, he was incapable of the individual . It is well said, therefore, by the Garibaldi" is cutting the knot of all to culties in a third

; great works ; but he read and thought immensely, he was an un: reviewer of these letters in the National, Goethe's letters, there is also a total absence of any petty buman Perseus, the Rape of the Sabines, &c.-applied to modern subjecte, elasticity; he seemed to hold on to life by a single thread only, but

That if in some respects there is a want of human sympathy about by snails upon the road to Rome. Copies of old statues--the and delightful talker. The gaiety and amenity of his natural disjealousy. Throughout this correspondence, extending over half a

, .

that single thread was very tenacious. More and more, as his soul century, there is not an ill-Datured word about anybody. He was

There are now forty-one lines of Italian railway, or in and knowledge ripened more and more, his friends pressed to his to determination to hon har detractores loyecessful not to bave enemies; all about 1,800 or 1,900 miles ; railway communication room in the Rue si, Honoré ; often be received them in bed, for he persons in the world against whom he nourishes any personal ill. having been more than doubled since the outbreak of the door, on bis bad days, Madame Joubert stood sentry, trying, not feeling are ihe disbelievers ia bis colour-theory, and even them be war from which Italy secured to herself the freedom she always with succese, to keep back the thirsty comers from the founpities rather than blames for their ignorant opposition. As we have enjoys. The extent of the telegraph wire has also been tain which was forbidden to flow. Fontanes did nothing in the Gaid the forei atbaie publication tbrows comparatively little new light on doubled, and the use of it made cheap and easy to the University without consulting him, and Joubert's ideas and pen were distinctly than before, the known features of this exceptionable public

. The common roads of the country have also been Villeneuve, the young priests of bis neighbourhood used to resort to The “I am Goethe " tone runs through it all, not offen- vastly extended and improved. Letter boxes, like our bim, in order to profit by his library and by his conversation. He, sively, but still with a strange preëminence. The destiny of nations, pillar boxes, are set up in the towns and villages facili- like our Coleridge, was particularly qualified to attract men of this ther dos turas e o fire umanity, the great external vicissitudes of the tate postal delivery. Some solid progress has been made kind, and to benefit them : retaining perfect independence of mind, world's drama, are of small importance in his eyes compared with the also in the suppression of an indolent monasticism.

he was religious; be was a religious philosopber. As age came on, progress of his own internal development. It would be wrong to

bis infirmities became more and more overwhelming; some of his say that his letters are selfish ; on the contrary, they are tender In all the new provinces except Sicily the law of May 29th, 1855, friends, too, died; other became so immersed in politics, that hearted to an extraordinary degree. The point of view from which has been applied. It provides for the gradual extinction, and in some Joubert, who hated politics, saw them seldomer than of old; but the Goethe regarded humanity, and hiş relation to it, is one hard to cases the immediate suppression of all monasteries and convents of moroseness of age and infirmity never touched him, and he never describe in words. To us, however

, it seems to resemble the creed religious orders which are not occupied either in preaching, educa- quarrelled with a friend or lost one. From these miseries he was professed rather than acted upon by the ascetic school of believers, tion, or the care of the sick. The property of such religious ordere

, preserved by that quality in him of which we have already spoken ;only that the object of the faith is different. There is a class of and of the chapters of certain collegiate churches which are sine a quality which is best expressed by a word, not of common use in religious persons who assert, with more or less conviction, that the cures, has passed, according to this law, into the hands of Govern. English–alas, we have too little in our national character of the


quality which this word expresses-his inborn, his constant amenity. Astrology and Magic, Depreciation of Gold, and Gil-, while the legs and feet can have their circulation so increased that He lived till the year 1821. On the 4th of May in that year he christ's Life of Blake are the next topics of the West- they become thoroughly warm by ice applied to the lower part of the died, at the age of seventy. He survives only in a volume of fragments, first published minster. The reviewer, who discusses “parties and

(by for private circulation by Chateaubriand fourteen years prospects in Parliament,” connects men oddly together, means of hot-water bags) produces opposite effecte

, lessening the after his death, and since twice reprinted in editions for when, after dwelling in ealogy upon Lord Palmerston's circulation in the parts under the control of those portions of the the public. It is upon this volume that the reviewer superior effectiveness as a speaker, derived from his nervous centres along the back over which it is applied. tact in representing “under all circumstances the

Now the bearing of Dr Chapman's discovery upon the subject we dwells.

A review of Baur's 'Church History of the Nineteenth | feelings, the judgments, the inclinations, the prejudices, that cold applied to the back of the neck increases the cerebral cire Century' is followed by an appreciative article on Mrland the passions of the average British character," culation, and with it the functional activity of the brain. The bas, Froude's Elizabeth,' a strong condemnation of the de

he looks in vain for a rising statesman who seems to moreover, most kindly furnished us privately with the details of struction of Kagosima, and an article on the disturbed have moulded himself upon the model of Lord Palmer- numerous cases under his observation but not yet published, which

ston, and adds, that “one member of the Government the neck palpably diminishes the circulation in the head, and at the * State of Europe,' in which, of course, Louis Napoleon is " alone is supposed to cultivate what he conceives to same time favours, or rather, actually induces, sleep: We cannot the central figure. article sketching the life and works of Roger Bacon, partly imitator is Sir Robert Peel." Since Lord Palmerston is and

the practical physician. The Westminster opens a good January number with an " Even that imitation is not successful, for the supposed of the most attentive


, both of the scientific physiologisi from Professor Brewer's edition of some of his works in famous for the tact which avoids turmoil, and Sir Robert

The last pinety pages of the Westminster contain the the series of Chronicles and Memorials published under direction of the Master of the Rolls, but more especially lessness with which he rashes into it, they resemble each porary literature at home and abroad, which is remarkably

is of all men most distinguished for the blundering reck- usual classified critical and descriptive sketch of contemfrom the monagraph by M. Emile Charles, Roger Bacon : other about as much as pepper and sweet oil, and it may well kept up, and for carefulness of proportion,

completethree years ago. The next topic is the tunnel under Mont certainly be said that pepper's attempt to resemble oil is ness, brevity without shallowness, and general efficiency, is three years ago. The next topic is the tunnel under Mont not successful. As to the question

of who is the coming the best thing of its kind in English journalism. wise encouragement of the apparently wild scheme by man, and what will be the upshot of the division of Count Cavour and his colleagues, Signor Paleocapa and parties following Lord Palmerston's death, that is a matter General Menebrea. An experimental commission of five upon which we do not agree with the reviewer that it is

Travels in Mecico, South America, &c. By G. T. having reported favourably, when the bill was brought in worth while to hold public argument, and least of all an

Vigne, Esq., Author of 'A Personal Visit to Ghuzni, for the fusion of the lines between Susa and the Ticino,

argument that ends in mere negation and uncertainty: Cabul, and Afghanistan,' and Travels in Kashmir, The Government added clauses authorizing the construction of the

From the coming session the reviewer expects nothing; Ladah, &c.' With Illustrations. Two Volumes. W. tunnel by the State, and the necessary expenses, to which the com

neither do we; and we heartily agree with him when of H. Allen and Co. pany agreed to contribute a sum of 20,000,000 francs (800,0001.) the present Derby Parliament he says, “whatever becomes besides premiums on the shares, and so great was the faith inspired" of it—whether it is cut off by a sudden dissolution, or volumes set out on his transatlantic travels, the political

Twelve years having elapsed since the author of these by Counts de Cavour and Menabrea, that the Piedmontese Chamber“ drags out to its last legal gasp—its memory will be of Deputies actually passed this audacious law by a large majority" equally inglorious. So barren and wearying a Parlia

matter which is scattered through them need not detain us.

We care little now for the doings of the Filibusters of 1851, much that the project should have been approved, and the confidence “ment has not been seen for many generations.

nor for the revolutions of the South American republics of of the Government and the Parliament would have been a spur to the energy of the engineers had not the grandeur and glory of the writings of Hinduism—Puranas, Vedas, and Shastras— his work through the press) has many other things to say,

Another Westminster reviewer discusses the sacred that bygone time, but Mr Vigne (who did not live to see sooner had the Bill passed into law than the works were begun, in starting from the Maharaja libel case, which raised before and as he writes with a full knowledge of the countries the autumn of 1857. The trigonometrical survey necessary to obtain an English Court in India the question of the relation of a he visited, his remarks are well worth reading. His manan accurate tracing of the axis of the future tunnel was in itself no Hindu sect to the old faith. The Westminster's article on ner of writing, while actually travelling, is somewhat slight task, if we consider that its extreme points could not be made Russia is a well written, well arranged, and comprehensive peculiar, being little more than journalising, but when he would have rendered any accurate observation impossible, and also digest of information on the social condition of that empire, rests on his journey to continue his narrative we find him that all the operations had to be carried on at heights varying from of the extent and character of Russian “Liberalism," and

very entertaining. An example of his “cursive" style 3,000 to 10,000 feet above the level of the sea, and amidót the con- its present prospects, the writer of this paper gives what stant atmospherical changes characteristic of such elevated regions. we believe to be a sound opinion. Apart from a few true instance, is an illustrative page, -mere jottings, but still

may be taken from any part of his travels. Here, for The first difficulty was overcome by establishing an observatory on Liberals in Russia, noble and generous men, lost in the the very summit of Grand-Vallon, the highest peak in that part of

suggestive : the Alps, and two extreme points of the axis in the same vertical crowd of talkers, there was a liberalism that made itself plane with it and one another, having been determined by turning conspicuous

Scenery very bold and picturesque; saw a wild orange-tree loaded

with fruit at the halting place, and a tree resembling a plantain, with signal points on each side one by one, always keeping the extreme petitioned for a reform of abuses, and eren hinted at a Constitution. were savali ; sand-flies and gallipatos or ticks; at night beard the The theodolite 1809 it was comparatively easy to fix the intermediate In 1859, when the nobles of the principal provinces of the Empire a red flower, and a bromelia with red blossom. Saw fish-told they point in view, and then lowering the instrument perpendicularly the causes of this phenomenon-the disasters of the Crimean war, heavy floundering tread of some large animal amongst the boulders opposite valleys of Rochemolles and Fourneaux, exactly on a level amnesty and a relaxation of the passport and censorship systems, and a tapir. Next day we had to ford a notoriously bad place, called the with and opposite to the respective entrances to the tunnel, so that finally, the disorganization of society caused by the abolition of serfage, Angosturas or narrows;" the stream about fifty yards across the signals received from the outside could be repeated underground, are well known. The agitation of the whole country was tremen- between almost perpendicular rocks of sandstone, which bore evident and the works kept on the correct line necessary to ensure the junc- dous; the cumbrous machine of Government seemed to be yielding marks of violent disturbance since it was deposited, rising

more than tion of the two halves under the very centre of the mountain. 10 to the irresistible force of a determined national will ; and blinded by a thousand feet above the river. The unloading and reloading occuincrease the difficulties to be contended witb, it was fouod that the the

rapidity with which events succeeded each other, deafened by the pied three bours ; the trouble depends on the state of the rapid. A valley of Rochemolles was more than 700 feet bigher than that of noise, even the experienced and thoughtful believed for a moment great quantity of water in the pool ; the mules just kept their heads Fourneaux, a which account it was determined to give a slope of 22 that the regeneration of Russia was at hand. But the blow soon above the surface for a short distance. Parrots were flying about, half

came that was to test the solidity of the liberal professions of the and toucans, and I saw a bird resembling the English willow wren. The article in the Westminster explains the system em- Russians. The Polish insurrection broke out, and dashed all the Noticed a fly with a rich green body and a scarlet

tail. In one of the ployed for the making of this tunnel through the Alps by glittering, but unsubstantial liberalism of the Russian nobles and pools was a brood of young wild ducks

, and a number of fish about help of compressed air, and by a contrivance, worked by replaced in the

worship of liberal Russia by Mouravieff ; the circulation beautiful as they lay in the clear deep water under the rock and thu the torrent of Charmaix, for drawing out bad air when the in Russia of the Kolokol, which before the insurrection was counted green overhanging forest; one in particular, more than a yard in slope of 22 in 1,000 impedes natural ventilation. The by thousands, bas dwindled

down to eight bundred, simply because it length, was floating, or lazily moving on the surface, with the blazing financial history of the undertaking is thus told :

has remained true to its principles; and the enslavement of a neigh-sun upon his brilliant red and golden back and sides. When the bill authorizing the tunnel passed, both slopes of the bouring country is openly advocated by the very men who, two years

On the other hand, when not in motion, we have Alps belonged to the same Štate, the two parts of which it was to own. The sad truth has been forced upon tħe world, that Russia's detailed descriptions like the following. He is speaking connect, while it put the Mediterranean port of Genoa in communi- liberalism is not seriously meant, and that she is therefore as yet of the Indian tribes, in the district of Oran, on the northern cation with France, Switzerland, and Germany; but, owing to the powerless to disentangle herself from the corrupt mass of officialism frontier of La Plata : restrictive commercial policy of the governments that then ruled all which sucks the life-blood from her body. The prospect is not the rest of Italy, its influence did not seem likely to extend further cheering; for the longer the country is denied the blessings of

These Indians of the adjoining parts of the Gran Chaco are Bouth. Three years, however, sufficed to bring great changes. The liberty, t'be more deeply must the corruption of officialism

eat into Matacos or Mataguyos; their womco,

as is usually the case, are made southern half of the Italian peninsula bad fused itself with the the national character, and

the less fitted will the nation be to achieve to slave and

work for them, but at Oran I also saw some Chiriyuanes porthern, and the frontier of France was on the crest of the Alpe: its freedom. Whether Russia will pass through her present state of from the north of the Pilcomayo, distinguishable not only by a blue Savoy having thus passed into the power of another State, a special transition without a revolution,

must depend on circumstances which coloured wafer-like ornament which is fixed (if I remember rightly) convention

was concluded on the 7th of May, 1862, to regulate the it is at present impossible to foresee. One thing, however, is clear through the upper lip, but by their general appearance, being very interests concerning the tunnel. The Italian Government insisted on that a revolution, if it really and seriously breaks out, can only superior to that

of the Matacos. Their women and the exception is retaining the exclusive command and direction of the works, which degenerate into a jacquerie ; for there are no popular grievances in a curious one) are exempt from servile, employment, which is attested it had begun at its own risk and cost; but it was agreed that when Russia but such as are founded on purely material wanis. The dis- by a livelier countenance, more rounded limbs, and the absence of the they were terminated, France should pay for half the length at the satisfaction of the higher classes of society, purged of those specu- sad wearied look and emaciation wbich is so generally remarkable in rate of three thousand francs per mètre; and, moreover, that for lative elements, which are merely the product of the example and the the natives. I do not know if this more polished tribe is exempt

from every year less than twenty-five-the extreme limit of time fixed by teachings of a civilization they are yet unable

to understand, reduces another curious custom, of which I heard the same account everythe convention-she should pay can additional sum of 600,000 francs

, itself to an unwillingness to be deprived of a portion of their pro- where. When an addition to an Indian's family has been made, it is a premium to be raised to 600,000 per annum if the works be terminated within fifteen years.

perty in order to compensate the peasants for the losses they would the father and not the mother who is considered to be interesting. He, Our readers thus see how great an interest the Italian Government proclaim that nothing will satisfy thein 'but the unconditional grant wife, who is supposed to recover ber strength in a very short time, as

suffer by the scheme of emancipation ; while the peasants openly literally speaking, goes to bed, shams illness, and is waited on by bis bas even financially

in the speedy termination of the tunnel ; an of the land which they and their ancestors have always occupied. if expressly for the occasion. The best fowl is killed, the best ebicha argument made use of by General de Menabrea, in his interesting On the other hand, there is the constitutional indolence and want of tapped, and for three or four days, or even more, he remains in the speech of the 4th of March last

, to induce the Parliament to grant initiative of the Russian character, combined with the unqualified but receiving the congratulations of his friends, to whom the woman economy, since every year gained will increase the proportion of the insurrections from becoming general. additional sums for the works, showing that to spend now is true adoration of the Czar, which has always hitherto prevented popular exerts herself to make the reception as agreeeble as she can. An

Indian never chastises his child, and the child never regularly general expense to be borne by France. According to the calculations

weaned, sometimes using his strength as a boy, even when older of the Minister, twelve and a balf years may be looked to with con The closing paper on the physiology of sleep includes to get by force at his mother's breast. Girls marry at twelve, young the works were already 1,274 mètres, or rather more than a tenth

of hot bag at the nape of the neck: fidence as the ultimate term of the undertaking; in January Jast, suggestions of a new way of attacking sleeplessness, by a men at eighteen. A suitor gives a few yards of cloth or a poncho to

a man for his daughter, but nothing to the mother. He carries a the whole distance, from the entrance on the side of Bardonnèche,

bundle of wood, and throws it down before the house ; if the girl likes and of this 550 mètres (170 in 1861, 380 in 1862) were, owing to the In the Medical Times and Gazette of 18th July, 1863, Dr Chapman bim she sets fire to the wood; if not, sbe only asks if he can labour. mechanical system, which, there is every reason to hope, will every published a paper, since reprinted, on "A New Method of treating The Indians here never eat mutton, they say it makes their noses flat ! year afford increasingly satisfactory results, not less at any rate than Disease by controlling the Circulation of the Blood in different parts and object to use a knife that has lately killed a sheep. They break the a yearly progress of 400 metres. At Fourneaux, where it was only of the Body.” In this paper he says:

backbone of a corpse, and then bury it as at Atacama, in a sitting inaugurated in January, 1863, at a distance of 925 metres from the “I have discovered that a controlling power over the circulation of posture, with a vessel of water and maize and wood between the entrance, the progress made in the first two months was such as to the blood in the brain, in the spinal cord, in the ganglia of the feet. The widow takes maize and shakes it over him with her head afford ground for the confident expectation that the works on that nervous system, and, through the agency of these nervous centres, covered. side will soon be in as forward a state as those at Bardonnèche; and also in every other organ of the body, can be exercised by means of if these calculations be not falsified by encountering some fresh cold and heat applied to different parts of the back. ... If it

The most interesting part of Mr Vigne's extensive obstacle in the centre of the mountain, and the expected total advance be desirable to increase the circulation in any given part of the body, travels is that which relates to his prolonged route from of 800 mètres (400 at each end) be attained each year, it will follow this I have found myself able to effect by exerting a soothing, Buenos Ayres to Lima, stretching in a north-westerly that France will be liable by the treaty for a sum which will go far sedative, depressing, or paralysing influence (according to the amount direction from the South Atlantic to the Pacific shore. the tunnel; since, including, the interest on the sum spent on the vaso-motor nerves to the part intended to be acted on. This influence As a matter of necessity it was performed on horseback, French half, it will exceed 31,700,000 francs (1,268,0001.). Besides may be exerted by applying ice to the central part of the back, over but could he have realised his own wish, the journey would this an additional sum of 13,000,000 francs (520,0001.) will have to a width of from four to four inches and a-half, and extending longi- have been accomplished in a far different manner. On be reimbursed by the Victor Emmanuel Railway Company, leaving tudinally over the particular segments of the sympathetic and of the his way to Tucuman he first saw the condor, and once little more than 20,000,000 francs out of the 65,000,000 francs the spinal cord on which it is desired to act. For example, intending to seen, the image of the huge bird became fixed in his tunnel is computed to cost , to be finally paid by the Italian Govern- direct a fuller and more equable flow of blood to the brain

, I apply memory: to such an extent, in fact

, that he seems to have ment, in which sum is included the cost of the railway between ice to the back of the neck and between the scapulæ. : Bardonnèobe and Sasa.

thoracic and abdominal viscera o an be influenced in like manner; been quite rexed at not being able to turn its vast loco


motive powers to account like the magicians of Arabian any small animal from a distance of ten yards and more. Ying a miniature church, was placed on a table ; St James was seated story, he would fain have driven through the air: It does not move, habitually, with the serpentine motion of on a rocking-horse, in a red jacket, salmon-coloured trousers strapped

I know no flight which, in my opinion, is so beautiful as that of other snakes, but makes, as the Americans say,—"straight coup d'ail was brilliant and interesting, and I did not in reason feet the condor. It is more so than that of the Himalayan vulture, or the “tracts,” contracts itself like an earthworm, and then disposed to quarrel with a superstition that has at least the merit of eagle, sweeping round and round in large circles without a motion of shoots forward in the same direction. One of the settlers keeping the Indians in subjection, and for wbich, if got rid of, there the wings for two or three minutes, and then only once or twice; also told Mr Vigne that he himself had once heard a pecu- is no present substitute. In 1808 there was an outbreak amongst the and realizing the poetry of the “Multa Dircæum levat aura cygnum" liar whimpering howl, and, upon approaching the spot: &c., in their robes, and the different images

, was very picturesque the crane or stork. They often skim with swiftness" near the saw a fox, to all appearance so paralyzed with fear that the new governor and different officials taking part in it

, the civic mountain path, and are said to exhibit great sagacity in swooping in he could not escape from the lampalagua, which soon seized guard in scarlet uniform being drawn up on the platform in front of rapid succession at a string of mules where the pathway is most him. Another fearful creature in the Gran Chaco is a the cathedral to salute it as it issued from the portal. It then moved narrow, so as to cause one to fall over. I have long entertained an snake that will throw

itself off the ground on a man on slowly round the

square, halting for a short service before each of idea that a framework of bamboo or wickerwork, uniting string the horseback ; and among other dangerous animals is one called at a distance, as a nearer inspection showed them to be backed by twelve of these birde, each one separately harnessed to a sufficiently hucre," said to be like a unicorn, that prowls about only looking-glasses, chandeliere, tawdry ornaments, picture-frames, and strong bamboo slip some four feet in length, and firmly fixed to the at night, and is too swift for well-mounted horsemen even prints (one, I remember, being " Les Adieux de Fontainebleau”), under surface of the carriage or framework, and dropped perpendicu- to overtake. This beast is strongly suspected of putting and the whole interwoven with cloths and silks and flags of the most larly from it and resting on a small saddle braced round the neck and out the

eyes of calves and sheep, but Mr Vigne only gaudy colours... Under the reign of the old Spaniards, these altars Rod with sufficient room; the serial Jebu, to be secured above, to assigns to it the character of a jackal. To descend in the dollars, and were watched by a guard. The small street leading into drive, raise, depress, and turn the animals by means of reins and pul scale, we find an account of a very formidable hornet, the plaza from the Cabildo was once paved with bars of solid silver

, leys, with sharp points and blinkers, &c., applied to the head and called the “alcalde,"_either from its avenging habits, or in performance of a vow. beak, if found necessary. There cau be no doubt of the lifting power, the red, flannel-like colour of its wings, finely contrasted and those who have at all studied the habits of the condor say, that with the intensely steel-like, bluish black of the body, without good reasons. It enjoys a comparative immunity

Cusco, Mr Vigne observes, was not chosen as a capital and are not the savage animals one might supppose them to be, it about an inch and a half in length. Of this hornet Mr from earthquakes, and Mr Vigne thinks that a series of regularly supplied with food. Why should not some of them be Vigne says:

magnetic experiments might be carried on there with great harnessed so as to drag a light carriage along an iron tramway and be fed at the end of the journey? Or perhaps they might be used as but in South America, &c., the wasps and hornets generally have the observations, the superior clearness of the atmosphere

In Europe the wasp stands a bad cbance in an ordinary spider's web, advantage to science as well as serviceable astronomical auxiliaries to a properly shaped balloon. The first experiments might best of it, and it is not uncommon

on the way to see a wasp dragging bringing the stars—the Northern Cross in particular, It would be necessary that some one resident in the country should strength, and aiding his exertions by the occasional use of his wings

. apparently nearer to the earth than elsewhere. Of the make the first essay, and I think his perseverance would most proba- My attention has been called to such a feat as we rode along, even by constellations which he himself observed Mr Vigne gives a bly be rewarded with success.

an apathetic native servant, and it is well worth watching. The wasp very striking description. We would gladly accompany With all deference to Mr Vigne we cannot help may be often seen hunting the spider among the grass-roote, like a the author still further on his journey, amidst the volcanic thinking that the “perseverance" of the person who should bound, apparently by scent, and will follow him with unflinching make the first essay" would meet with the reward of eben dragging him backwards to the nest over ridges, hollows, and up purpose, and therefore close our account by commending

determination for scores of yards

, finally stinging him to death, and regions of the equator, but we have not space for the Phaethon.

precipitous banks, with all the pertinacity of the ant. The formida- the remainder of his work to the public. The vast extent of country traversed by Mr Vigne pre- ble alcalde is said never to sting a human being unless seriously vents us from following his track with anything like provoked ; when they enter a room, their presence is upheeded. His closeness. We, therefore, dip at random into his book for attention seems to be entirely directed to the chase of larger insects

, the entertainment of the reader. When we remember the him ; and woe be to any other crawling or creeping thing that he dismore particularly the arapæ, the largest of whom do their best to avoid The Book of Job. By the late Rev. Dr Croly. Black

woods. value of the cinchona we need hardly be incredulous covers whom he may deem a foeman worthy of bis steel; and I was respecting the virtues of other plants

. There is, for told he will fly at a snake, stinging him again and again, and av dedinDr Croly's exposition of The book of Job is of an entirely instance, in Tucuman a parasite, which Mr Vigne was the bite by the velocity of his movements. I have heard him desig- Dr Croly's exposition of The book of Job is of an entirely

orthodox character. It nevertheless developes a special shown, which is used as a medicine to cure deafness and nated as amigo del hombrè. smallpox, and the natives have peculiar remedies. Pleurisy But we must leave the natural history of the country to theory, the principle of which is that the history of Job is is a common disease in that part of South America, ånd to speak again of the people. Some traits of the Bolivian a type, of which the antitype is that of the Jews from the cure it they mix two spoonfuls of salt in three of oil, and Indians are curious :

kingdom of David and Solomon to the end of the world. drink the mixture warm, as an emetic, before going to bed. Those who still persist in the search for the lost tribes" will be Respecting its antiquity, Dr Croly held the opinion that This last remedy is of easy application, but we should interested in hearing that when an Indian builds a but he kills a “ the book of Job is probably the oldest in the world,” an like to have known the name of the parasitical plant which blama, and strikes, so I was informed, the door-posts and the four cor- opinion,

we need hardly say, which is not shared by ners of the room with the bleeding head. An Indian lives with bis foreign Hebrew scholars-one of the most eminent amongst produces such various results. Not content with this, consort for twelve months previously to their marriage, by which conhowever, the Indians on the river Vermejo have recourse ventual and convenient arrangement they have the advantage of them, Ernest Renan, who gave his consideration to the to other means for curing smallpos, which we hardly judging whether they like each other or not; and a widow is usually subject several years ago,assigning to it no earlier date imagine would succeed in the double event. Hearing a preferred, thinking that from experience she will make him a better than the eighth century before Christ. From M. Rénan loud noise of voices in the Indian hut at night, Mr Vigne ried, particularly the widows of those who are employed in the mines. Croly; and thus, while the latter looks upon the scriptural

wife. An Indian woman is, on this account, often several times mar- we must not expect views in agreement with those of Dr found an old woman who, having first tied a wreath of The poor Indian miners and blasters wear themselves out in a few cock's feathers round the sick man's head, was screaming years with hard labour and spirit drinking, and I was assured of one poem as one of divine origin, the French writer beholds in it and holloaing words into his ear, holding her hands over The Indiana here never begin to work a new voin without killing a order. The reader of Dr Croly's little work may compare

then living married woman who had been a widow fourteen times. only a lesson of philosophy, but one of the very highest her own ears at the same time. She was looked upon as a sheep in the mine, eating the flesh, and burying the bones ; never the theological opinion with that expressed by M. Renan, medico or bruco, and this was her mode of driving away begin smelting in a new furnace without sprinkling the four corners which we cite as follows: “C'est la plus grande leçon the disease. Mr Vigne, however, does not say that this of the building with blood. They think that particular places are remedy was effectual; indeed, he is one of the most con- haunted by spirits, and seek omens in fried cocoa leaves. If, in frying," donnée au dogmatisme intempérant et aux prétentions cientious travellers we ever met with. He never pouches deformed lamb, saying that a devil

' bas been born. If the shadow of " un sens le résultat le plus haut de toute philosophie,

the whiter underside is uppermost, the omen is good. They killa de l'esprit superficiel à se mêler de théologie; elle est en for the absolute truth of anything of which he had not the condor passes over the loaded mules, it is considered to be a good car elle signifie que l'homme n'a que se voiler devant le personal knowledge, and when he does not witness a fact omen ; if vecunas cross their path it is a bad one. mentions it only as hearsay. Thus, he was told by his has once worn trousers has lost caste

as a true Indian. Some of the problème infini que le gouvernement du monde a livré à

“ ses méditations." guide of a wondrous owl in one of the forests, "with eyes Indians are very rich, possessing, for instance, 10,000, 15,000, or “of fire,” he only says he heard that this was so, but 20,000 dollars, and have silver plates, dishes, and drinking-cups. Indian

women and men sometimes) usually have a silver or horn spoon suswhen he afterwards met with singing swans, he lends his pended round their necks ready for use. An Indian left not less than

Anecdotal Memoirs of English Princes, and Notices of authority to the old classical legend. These birds were 3,000 dollars to have himself buried with masses, &c., in first-rate certain Members of the Royal Houses of England. met with on a lake near Oran, “uttering peculiar and not style; but the heir only gave the curé balf the sum, because he bad Two Volumes. By W. H. Davenport Adams, Author "unmusical notes from their pipe-like necks, which I put not fulfilled the stipulated conditions, having met the procession half of Memorable Battles in English History,' • The “ down in my note book as 'singing;' it somewhat resem- suaded by the priests, undertakes to defray tho expenses of a charity way instead of coming to the house. Sometimes a rich Indian, per

Sea-Kings of England,' &c., &c. Newby. " bled the prolonged note of the Æolian harp, with only a sermon, or some religious ceremony, for the benefit of the church, and The reader who likes excerpts from history cannot "small portion of its sweetness.” The primeval forests of he is then usually to be seen standing at the door with a white wand fail to be highly gratified with the selections which Mr this region are of extraordinary beauty. Near the Gran and new wide-awake bat, as being decidedly the first man of the day Adams has made in the volumes now lying before us. Chaco, Mr Vigne describes one of singular magnificence :

and of himself and his munificence.

His diligence in the consultation of authorities has been The foliage of the lapacho-trees had undergone a peculiar change,

After entering the confines of Peru, much interesting great, and he has made a very good use of them, producing -perbaps the forerunner of decay, but not decay itself; every particle of what had been verdant as a leaf was now of a fine delicate rose speculation is given by Mr Vigne as to the origin of the altogether a very reliable and agreeable work. colour,--no dullish bright red like that of the maple in autumn, but ruins of Tiguernaco, at Titicaca, and the subject of a a tint that required lake or carmine to represent it with truth; and remote immigration from Carthage is very largely diswhen (as I remember to have seen one near the trabanjal between cussed. But we leave the remote ancestors of the Peru

The Old Lieutenant and his Son. By Norman McLeod, Oran and the Vermejo) a large open space afforded an opportunity of vians to speak of their modern descendants. The native

D.D. Strahan and Co. of these large trees happened to be near each other, the effect

of ex. doctors are members of a somewhat remarkable faculty : A great deal of quiet humour and deep feeling go to the tensive rose-coloured spaces contrasting with the usual verdure, or

They call themselves calaqualla, or sack-bearers ; they wander

, it composition of this pleasantly-written story, in which the salient from the shade of some deep gloomy recese, was such as I is said, even to Mexico, to Lima, Rio Janeiro, and Buenos Ayres, society of an old-fashioned Scottish burgh is well described, suppose no painter would ever have dared to represent even in paint, with a bag or wallet at their backs by which they are easily recog- and the adventures of the hero, the lieutenant's son, ing a scene of enchantment. Moreover, in ascending the Vermejo, I nized, full of plants and native remedies, &c. An invalid describes excite much interest. It is well adapted for young was one day surprised at seeing a tree (I only remember one or two his ailment, and the doctor sells him medicine, and then proceeds on people, and claims alike their pleased and their serious nor leaden, but of a decidedly bright lavender or smalt colour, after a of the medicinal virtues of a great number of plants unknown to attention. similar organic change in the leaf. It appeared to me on examination the Spaniards, and are said to have pretensions to medical knowledge to be a species of mimosa, and was called here the tarqui. in family matters such as would throw those of civilized empirics

BOOKS OF THE WEEK. into the shade. I was assured that they had medicines which, And the wonders of these forests are not confined to applied to the nostrils, would instantly make the nose bleed, and French by Martha Walker Cook. Second Revised Edition. (Fcap. 8vo,

BIOGRAPHY.—Life of Chopin.' By F. Liszt. Translated from the their singularly tinted foliage, the forms of the parasitical another which, similarly applied, would immediately act as a styptic. pp. 202.) Philadelphia : F. Leypoldt. London: Tribner and Co. plants being so extraordinary. Of the number and size of I often tried to learo something certain of their medicines, but with LEXICOGRAPHY. - The Comprehensive English Dictionary, Explanathem, Mr Vigne says:

out success. Paragua is famous for her balsame, and with them they tory, Pronouncing, and Etymological. Containing all English Words The forest seemed to bave been invaded by an army of huge pythons, cines, no money, it is said, will induce them to part with their secrets. lish Writers, and the more Important Technical and Scientific Terms.

sometimes perform extraordinary cures. Although they sell medi. in Present Use, Numerous Phrases, many Foreign Words Used by Eng; many of them more than a foot in diameter, looking as if they had been stiffened whilst in the act of twining themselves in numerous The city of Cusco affords Mr Vigne an opportunity for Pronunciation adapted to the best Modern Usage. By Richard Cull

, folds round the tree which they had seized and embraced with a living, much graphic description. Here is a lively account of the F.S.A. .Dlustrated by above 800 Engravings on Wood." (Imperial 8vo, fierce, and prehensile grasp, and had then reared and lost their heads procession of the Corpus Christi :

pp. 1,294.) Blackie and Son. in the uppermost branches of another still more lofty than their vic

TiBOLOGY.-Sermons Preached in Lincoln's-inn Chapel, and on tims, which again were sometimes smaller than themselves, and bear. On the 6th of June I witnessed the entrada of images destined to Special Occasions. By F. C. Cook, M.A., Chaplain in Ordinary to the ing on their indented stems the impress of the enormous and strangling form part of the procession of the Corpus Christi on the next day. Queen, one of H.M.'s Inspectors of Schools, Preacher to the Honourable force that had writhed itself round them.

Patron saints are brought in from villages in the surrounding country Society of Lincoln's inn, &c. (8vo, pp. 362.) Murray:
by Indians, who seemed to enjoy the work amazingly, each party Housewife's Daily Assistant on all Matters relating to Cookery and House-

COOKERY AND HORSEFLESH. — Cre-fydd's Family Fare. The Young But the python is not merely simulated by the shape of vieing with the others in exertion, and even quarrelling as they keeping. Containing Bills of Family Fare for every Day in the Year, a stem,--and that species, known as the “ lampalagua,” pather lille platforme,

on which stood aloft the figure of the Virgin for two Servants ; also Twelve Bills of Fare for Dinner Parties are you do has, besides its enormous strength, the often denied power of fascination, wherewith to bring its prey within reach. figure of St Christopher, carrying a cherub in his arms. Twelve of (Post 8vo, pp. 335.) Simpkin, Marshall, and Co.-" The Illustrated The Indians assert that this boa can draw towards himself these images were deposited in the cathedral, San Hieromo, carry- Horse Management; containing Descriptive Remarks upon Anatomy :

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Medicine ; Shoeing; Teeth; Food; Vices; Stables; likewise a Plain or of a horse, or shapes of carriages, and is meant to enable any knowing how to read, but ardently attached to his country, and full of Account of the Situation, Nature, and Value of the various Points; man who keeps a horse or horses to understand what they courage and devotion. He was born in the crown village of Dusiaty, Trainers; "also on Carriages and Harness. Embellished with more than require. It is a handsome, well illustrated volume, printed vengeance

on its inhabitants. The opportunity soon arrived : a spy 400 Engravings, from Original Designs made expressly for this work.' on thick smooth paper, and indexed; though the index, not brought some information which furnished the imperial troops with a By Edward Mayhew, M.R.C.v.s.,

Author of The Illustrated Horse wanting in fulness, has been made by somebody who shows pretext for entering the villago and searching the peasants. MajorEDUCATION.—The Revised Code. The Grade Lesson Books, in Six often a ludicrous want of perception of the first rules of the General Kowalewskoj and Colonel Beliza, who led the Russians, began Standards; especially adapted to Meet the Requirements of the “Re- index-maker's art.

by flogging the peasants in the market place, in which they had first vised Code.” ** By E. T. Stevens, Associate of King's College, London ; and Charles Hole, Head Master of the Loughborough Collegiate School,

Mr Stevens's Guide Lesson Book’ is a collection of ordered a gibbet to be erected. After the peasants had been sub

jected to every indignity and the most terrible suffering, the soldiery Brixton; and late Master of St Thomas's Collegiate School, Colombo extracts from books and current journals adapted for were let loose on the houses with permission to plunder.Seventy-four Sixth Standard. (870, pp. 220.) Longman, Green, Longman, Roberts, elementary exercise in reading, with analysis and inter- families, consisting of 280 individuals, were then sent to the citadel of and Green.

Dynaburn, whence they are to be transported into the Governments of Public Healta. "Another Blow for Life." By George Godwin, pretations of the more difficult words.

Samar and Saratow, in Eastern Russia. Russian monjicks are to be

Mr Godwin's “Another Blow for Life' is one more F.R.S., &c. With Forty-one Illustrations. (Small 4to, pp. 129.) Allen

sent as settlers in their places. On the 18th December, 173 persons, noble and strong effort to direct attention to the hidden including thirteen women and nineteen children, were again sent into and Co.

GEOLOGY.— A Guide to Geology.' By John Phillips, M.A., LL.D.,
F.R.S., &c., Professor of Geology in the University of Oxford. Fifts wretchedness among the very poor in London, and to exile from Wilna, and on the night of the 20th upwards of twenty
Edition. (Post 8vo, pp. 314.) Longman and Co.

urge that we have no right to shut our eyes on it, as if it persons were arrested, among whom was the widow of the well-known FICTION. - Meadowleigh; a Tale of English Country Life.' By the were in all parts absolutely irremediable.

It is so pro

national poet Syrokomla, with her children and servants, and the Author of "The Ladies of Bever Hollow.. In Two Volumes. (Post duced that it may lie among the pretty books on

guests who happened to be in her house." 8vo, pp. 307, 315.) Bentley:— The Ice Maiden and other Tales. By

The Cologne Gazette contradicts the statement of the official Dziennik Hans Christian Andersen.' Translated from the German by Fanny drawing-room table, where, when opened, its pictures of Warsaw, that political exiles are well treated and are sent only into Fuller. Second Edition. (Fcap. 8vo, pp. 208.). Philadelphia : Frede- and its truthful text may startle here and there a heart parts of Russia which are not very distant. “Letters from the exiles," rick Leypoldt. London: Trübner and Co.-'Immen-Lee.' From the into the sense of an andreamt-of duty.

it says, “to their relatives prove that they are sent to the Amoor, east German of Th. Storm. By H. Clark.-'Grandmother and Grand

of the Baikal Lake. They receive four kopeks a day, their heads are daughter.' From the German of Louise Ecche. By Mme. C. R. Corson. Professor Phillips's Guide to Geology' in its fifth shaved, they are chained together, and proceed to their destination on (Fcap. 8vo, pp. 112.) Philadelphia : Leypoldt. London: Trübner edition appears this week in an enlarged form, although foot, with a mounted escort of Cossacks.

Chained and on foot on a In Two Volumes. (Post svo, pp. 318, 309.) Chapman and Hall. - The still a clear and brief sketch of the science.

journey to the Amoor in January! How mild, compared with this, is Two Families; or, the Power of Religion.' By J. C. Bateman, Author

even the picture of a slave caravan in Soudan. And among the of The Netherwoods of Otterpool,' &c. . (12mo, pp. 248.) Hatchard

A pleasant novel, entitled Uncle Crotty's Relations,' Poles so deported are the noblest, the most accomplished of the nation and Co.The Family Fairy Tales; or, Glimpses of Elfand at Heather-reached us too late for insertion in our list of last week's -men who have grown old in prosperity, and even women and ston Hall., Edited by Cholmondeley. Pennell. Illustrated by Ellen books, and is, we observe, omitted from the above register. damsels who had collected money for their relations, or clothes and Edwards. (Small 4to, pp. 206.) J. C. Hotten. VERSE.- Heine's Book of Songs.' Translated by Charles G. We have read the book, however, and may record here not bandages for their brothers in the field. And all this that Russia may

rule as a robber to the Vistula.” Leland, Author of Meister Karl's Sketch Book,' &c. (Fcap. 8vo, pp. only its name but the fact that it is agreeable, though we 239.) Philadelphia: Leypoldt. London: Trübner. ANNUAL.— The Post Magazine Almanack and Insurance Directory, forth its merit more explicitly. shall pick some little holes in it when we come to set

The Execution of Mackiewicz. 1864.'—The Canadian Almanack for 1864.'

A letter from Kowno of the 29th ult. says: “Yesterday was a day HALF-YEARLY.— The Brown Book.' A Book of Ready Reference to

The other novels of the week are ‘Lloyd Pennant' and of deep mourning for the patriotic people of Poland and Lithuania. Å thierroies , budeme na dobroarding houses Breakfast augpitanong those Meadowleigh," by the author of Mary Powell. There hero of the insurrection

whose name

: will begin mentioned with esteem and Charitable Institutions of London ; with full Information as to is a religious novelet for the young in Mr Batem an's tale and noble Abbe Mackiewicz, who was captured by an unfortunate Situation, Specialty, &c. &c.; and a Handy List, showing the Nearest of The Two Families ;' and a collection of original • Fairy chance some days ago by the Muscovites, was hanged by order of the Fire-escape, Hospital, &c., to One Thousand of the Principal Streets of Tales' for family reading, by Mr Cholmondely Pennell

, cruel Mouravieff

, in Kowno, on the 28th inst. The heroism of this wellthe Metropolis. (8vo, pp. 152.) Saunders, Otley, and Co. QUARTERLY. "The Westminster Review for January 1864. Träbner contain, one a couple of translated tales from the German, sians who fell in his power during the war, the noble words he said when is very prettily produced. Neat little American volumes known Polish leader, who has held the campaign from the beginning

of the insurrection, the generous manner in which he treated the Rusand Co. "The Popular Science Review...Edited by Henry Lawson: "Immen See," and Grandmother and Daughter;' another, he was brought before the younger Mouravieff in Kowno (I hava

No. of . New Series. Blackwood and Sons.

an American translation into a cheaper edition than the fought for the freedom and independence of my country; this is all I EVERY TWO MONTHS. - Reissue of Punch: Vols. XXXIV and English one, of Andersen's 'Ice Maiden,' without pictures, have to confess. Now, general, do your duty as servant of the Czar”)

MONTHLY.–The Art-Journal.? — The Gallery of Geography, a Pic- but with two additional appended tales, • The Silver Shil |--all these had snrely made an impression on every other civilised torial and Descriptive Tour of the World . _By the Rev. Thos. Milner, ling' and 'The Old Church Bell. The translation, by Mr enemy, and had saved the life of the captured hero from a cruel revenge

. M.A. Part III. W. and R. Chambers. - A History of the World Leland, of Heine's Book of Songs,' is also in a cheap feelings: and the gallows received a fresh martyr. Abbé Mackiewicz Part II. Walton and Maberly:-The Musical Monthly. No. 1.' (4to, little American edition, and well printed, like the other died as he had lived. His last words were a prayer for Poland. The BOE, 16, and pages of Music.) A. Hall, Smart, and Allen.- Watts's American books we have been naming, on very good Russian officers celebrated this day, as usual, by a solemn ball.” In

the town of Szercszew, on the 19th ult., in the district of Pruszany, PAMPALETS. "The Patent Question: a Solution of Dificulties by paper.

were hanged by order of Mouravieff, Anthony Ilkowski, the peasant, Abolishing or Shortening the Inventor's Monopoly, and Instituting Na

John Hroczyk, and the Prussian subject, Augustus Salomon, for tional Recompenses. A Paper Submitted to the Congress of the Association for the Promotion of Social Science, at Edinburgh, October 1863.'

having taken part in the Polish insurrection.

PO LA N D. By Robert Andrew Macfie, President of the Liverpool Chamber of Com

The Insurrection. merce. To which are added Translations of Earnest Contributions to Patent Reform by M. Chevalier and other Continental Economists.

Mouravief": Rule in Lithuania.

BRESLAU, Jan. 2.- The Russians have imposed upon the kingdom (Bro, pp. 96.) W.J. Johnson.

of Poland a fresh contribution of 6,000,000 roubles, of which amount

The following circular has been issued by Mouravieff, dated the two millions and a half will be imposed on Warsaw. Liszt's account of Chopin translated from the French 10th (22nd) December, 1863: “By my circular of the 30th November

BERLIN, Jan. 5.- According to intelligence received here from into a neat and cheap little American volume as a “Life (12th December) I directed lists of the nobles and the whole popula- Warsaw, 250 prisoners were despatched on the 2nd inst. to Siberia, "of Chopin” is rather an éloge than a biography, and so purify the country of all persons of all classes not deserving of con,

tion to be drawn up in all districts. The chief object of this was to among the namber of whom was Count Stanislas Zamoyski. far as it is biography does little more than read the Polish fidence, and also of ill-disposed persons who might in future disturb ordering the sequestration of all the moveable and immoveable pro

WARSAW, Jan. 6.-A decree has been issued by the Government composer's life and character in his music. It sees in public peace. Considering that, according to the last reports, some of perty of the higher clergy participating in the insurrection, in addition his tormented melodies the sickly irritable mind of the the insurgent leaders have fled across the frontier on the approach of to the former contribution of 6 per cent. recently imposed upon the man who, while yet young, died of a hopeless disease, and winter, and dispersed their bands, quartering them on sympathising bishops and upon eighteen canonries. discusses at length in successive chapters first the Polonaise and in the villages of crown peasants

, in order that they might be Russians at Koch, in the government of Lublin, the result of which was

Cracow, Jan. 6.-General Kruk has had an engagement with the as it was before Chopin and in Chopin's hands, and then ready to recommence the insurrection at a more favourable opportunity, indecisive. his Mazurkas showing the individual soul in his music, I bereby direct your excellency to remind the military chiefs of dis KONIGSBERG, Jan. 6.-An ukase of the Czar has been published, 80 passing to recollections of his life and character full of tricts and all ranks of the police to be particularly careful that no one calling under arms all soldiers now living in the kingdom of Poland on musicianly sympathy and a warm friendship. shall escape being inscribed in the above mentioned lists, and that the

indefinite furlough. strictest search be made after all persons unworthy of confidence,

THORN, Jan. 7.-It is reported that the civil Governor, Laszezepski, Dr Ogilvie's Comprehensive English Dictionary' is participators in the insurrection, and former insurgents, who are all to has been relieved of his functions, and will be replaced by Herr von thick and three-columned, with numerous clear and good be arrested, as also those who give them refuge or assist in concealing Roznow. The treasury of the Government Finance Committee has little inserted woodcuts. It is comprehensive, by including them, and at once sent under a strong, escort to the governors for been transferred to the citadel. all such Latin phrases as 'sine die,' 'quid pro quo,' &c., in Roman catholic convents, rectories, and the residences of priests in which being in common use, sometimes puzzle a man of general, and the houses and estates of nobles. The proprietors and imperfect education ; it supplies also the common want of residents of houses which have served as a refuge for ill disposed TAE LANCASHIRE DISTRESS.–At the weekly meeting of the an interpreter of technical words, adds tables

of pronuncia- persons are to be fined according to regulation, besides being punished Executive Committee at Manchester, on Monday, Mr Maclure stated tion of classical pames, geographical names, Scripture inform all your subordinates that they are made strictly responsible for balance in the bank was 225,0051. 93., including the sum of 5,362!. names, &c., and gives in its text derivations as well as the execution of this decree, I expect from their activity and zeal that 14s. 9d. interest for the six months ended Dec. 31st, 1863. His definitions.

in the month of January there will not be a single person unworthy of monthly report shows a decrease in the numbers employed in the mills

confidence in the country that has not been observed by the police, and manufactories of the cotton districts. This change for the worse, Mr Cook's “Lincoln's Inn Sermons," which discuss and that by that time the country will have been completely purified amounting to a reduction of 10,546 in those working full time, has noć doctrine as well as moral duty, are collected into a sober of such injurious persons."

exceeded the anticipations expressed last month, and there is reason to and sightly library volume. The reader will remember

fear that during the next three or four weeks the time worked in the that in adding to our classified list of Books of the Week in

Transportation for Life of Polish Exiles.

mills of the district will not be more than at present. Three months which their titles are fully transcribed, this account of By the following decree of the Emperor, Poles who have been having elapsed since the last census of unemployed operatives was taken what they look like, we simply describe their outward trausported for political offences are forbidden ever to return to their by the larger committees, a house-to-house visitation has been made appearance and tell so much of their purpose as may be country, even after the term of their exile has expired : "The in most of those towns where, as explained in the last report, it is set forth in their prefaces. Except in the case of a few has decided that all persons deported from the western provinces and that as compared with the last week in March there are

, at the Emperor, in accordance with the proposals of the Western Committee, impossible to do so monthly. This inquiry proves that the total

number has been, during the interval, reduced by 29,267 operatives, books which, like Liszt upon Chopin, are old acquaintances (Lithuania, Volhynia, Podolia, and the Ukraine) for political offences, in some new form, or from their nature admit of quick to the penal companies under the civil authorities in the interior of the present tinie, 33,969 fewer operatives ; of these persons 18,244 bave reading and need only brief criticism, our notes on the empire, shall, after the expiration of their term of punishment, not be emigrated to the colonies or United States, or migrated to some parts Books of the Week reserve all critical discussion of their residence to the Government'estates in the distant Governments of the occupations within the cotton districts. He also states that of the 149,038 quality.

empire, except Siberia. In informing you of this decision, you are reCrefydd's Family Fare' gives a series of breakfasts and quested to forward to the Foreign Department lists of all such persons ment for one or two days per week in other trades in their immediate dinners for every day in the year, not forgetting, as six months before the term of the expiration of their punishment, to shows a decrease of 275,877 in the total number

relieved ; but there material permits, to work the remains of one day's dinner enable the necessary arrangements to be made with the ministry of were 10,059 more relieved in December than in November, the increase into the construction of the next, and separately providing, the crown property for transporting them to the crown lands, in being 1,476 of those dependent on the guardians only, 6,308 upon

local committees only, and 2,257 of those whose relief from the guarwith the same eye to the dependence of one on the other, accordance with the Imperial will.”

dians is supplemented by the relief committees. Mr Farnall's report for the parlour and the kitchen. These lists are made Russian Torture of Prisoners and Exiles.

stated that on the 26th ult. there was an increase in the number of out for two persons, and may be adapted by multiplica

persons receiving parochial relief in twenty-seven unions in the cotton tion to any desired number. There are also bills of fare frequently deny that aprisoners brought before the military

tribunals manufacturing districts, as compared with the number so relieved in the

previous week of 1,213. for dinner parties for each month in the year, and a couple are ever tortured. All of course are not subjected to the severest of schemes of tea and supper festival.' In each case the treatment, but those who are most suspected are tormented in various estimated cost, without wine, is annexed. Then follows ways, in order to force them to make disclosures. They are kept in A MUNIFICENT GIFT.-Lady Cotton Sheppard has presented 2501.

cells on bread and water, without any light for weeks, in a fetid atmo- to the National Lifeboat Institution, 501. of which she has collected in a strong body of receipts for making all the good things sphere, and are threatened with death, torture, and even burning alive. various sums amongst her

friends and neighbours, for a lifeboat to be mentioned in the bills of fare, with rules for carving, and it is a fact that among those who lést their senses in prison, and are stationed at Porthdimnllaen, on the Carnarvonshire coast. Her lady miscellaneous household recipes.

now in the lunatic asylum, some exclaim, “ Pardon ! do not flog me; "ship, who takes the warmest interest in the National Lifeboat InstituMr Mayhew's ‘Illustrated Horse Management' is a and others constantly complain that they see before them a red hot tion, has h-rself already given

4001. for two boats, one of which is sta

The latter lifeboat companion volume to his • Illustrated Horse Doctor," but oven, and that they will be thrown into it. Does not this prove what tioned at Porthcawl, and the other at Portrush. of wider interest, for it contains full details of stable- of an insurgent chief in the palatinate of Kowno, named Antony the crew of ten men from the schooner Champion, of Liverpool, fittings, tells how to discriminate the points of a good groom, Lukaszewski. He is a Lithuanian peasant, a common man not oven wrecked off Porthcawl,

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