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people more hardy or more industrious than the Germans, who, on arriving in the United States, boldly push forward to the wild woods of the West. They come in large companies, and clan together more than those of any other nation. They bear the insults of the ignorant and impudent Americans, or “native-borns,” as they call themselves, much better than the English or the Irish. They are not in the habit of complaining, but, when comparing their old with their new country, it is seldom they give the preference to the latter; and on this subject I find, in a Frankfort (German) paper of 1834, the following observations :
“We have recent news from our emigrants to America. All of them indicate that the hopes that were entertained have proved fallacious, though none of the emigrants will plainly confess that he has thrown entirely away a happier way of life. Proud and covetous merchants and speculators inhabit the towns on the coast of America and the banks of the rivers : they are of English origin, and look down with an eye of contempt on the good-natured German, who seeks only an ideal of liberty in a foreign country, and finds a miserable existence; who is plundered if he brings money with him, and repulsed if he appears as a stranger seeking assistance and friendship. But in the interior of the country none can subsist but the man who has a frame hardened against every kind of privation, who can sleep on straw and dry leaves as well as on a soft feather-bed, who is willing to exchange the elastic sofa for a hard seat on a block of wood; in a word, who has courage to fall back from a life of luxury to the rude state of nature.”
Here you see that all descriptions of emigrants indicate disappointment, but they do not openly confess the same. This seems to be the nature of men. Too proud to acknowledge error in judgment, they will frequently persevere in their first-adopted principles long after they are well convinced that such principles lead them more and more into trouble; and thousands of Englishmen now in the United States bitterly regret that they ever left their native country. Many of them cannot, for want of means, return; many others, whose means are much diminished, are often heard to say, 6. We cannot bear to return in worse circumstances than we came.” And the third and wealthy part, many of them, I have heard declare that they would not remain an hour in America if it were possible to disentangle and set free their property from what is called the “ American securities.” And all this is not surprising when, besides the general state of the country, we find how emigrants are treated. The Washington Globe, in the year 1835, says : " These prints (the Star and the Courier and Enquirer, of New York) have been labouring to revive the feeling which begat the alien-laws, and have already succeeded in rallying the retainers of the federal aristocracy in New York, under the name of an American party, to
make open war upon the Irish and Dutch emigrants, who form a considerable portion of the industrious and useful labourers of that city. Their houses have been attacked and torn down-violence committed upon their
persons, and sonie lives lost. This is but a repetition of the outrage committed upon the naturalized citizens, when it was attempted to deprive them of the right of suffrage in that city in the panic election. The political feeling then instilled by the Bank presses, for the purpose of carrying the great emporium in support of its interests, has received a new impulse in the prospect of having an alien and sedition law candidate for the Presidency brought into the House of Representatives, where it is assumed that the money of the Bank will make his election
Hence it is that the name of 'American party' is given to his supporters. He is nominated as • Daniel Webster of North America,' by way of making the old federal hostility to the Republican spirit of the Irish an operative and leading principle in his canvass; and they have already renewed the implacable persecution of the black cockade against every foreigner whom the love of liberty has drawn to our country.
“ Those in whose veins flows the blood of England, Ireland, Holland, and France, seek to denationalize their kindred, who come to claim their inheritance in the privileges of a constitution, in the terms of which they are embraced by the fathers who gave it to us.
“ And this is the American party! This is a branch of the Constitutional party!”
And, again, the New York Evening Post, in 1837, asks :
“What monstrous sin have Irish citizens committed, that the hellhounds of popular rage should be turned loose against them? Is it a crime to have been born in Ireland ?
They were allured to our country because they heard it was a land of liberty and equal laws. They heard that we extended an invitation to the virtuous, the oppressed, and the unfortunate of all countries, and offered them an asylum here. They heard that our institutions, founded on the secure basis of the rights of man, and upheld by the mere force of spontaneous opinion, stood firm amidst all the shocks of European governments, and required no other support than the affections of the people! They heard that our population, composed in a large part of emigrants from every clime, and of every various lineage, was yet united into one harmonious people, by the influence of that spirit of freedom which secured to every citizen his natural rights, and made every one alike participant in the burdens and advantages of government.
“ Such are the considerations which have hitherto influenced the European emigrant in unfurling his sail for the New World. But ru
mour must soon waft to foreign shores a different tale. A spirit is now aroused, which, in defiance of law, of equity, of the plainest precepts of humanity, vents itself in the most cruel species of persecution against one class of citizens, for no other reason that can be alleged than because they drew their first breath in a foreign land, and became Americans by choice, and not by accident.
The real motives of those who have stirred up this fell spirit of persecution are easily seen. To advance their diabolical party designs, they care not if they shake the whole city with tumult, and whelm its streets in blood."
My friends, you have now some knowledge of the reception and subsequent treatment of the poor man, who, thinking to better his lot, emigrates to the United States. But, my principal object in writing to you was, to convince you, which I trust I have done, that under what is called self-governments there may be as much oppression, poverty, and wretchedness, as under any other kind of government.
I have chosen to furnish you plentifully with documents from Americans, and such as cannot be contradicted. You have had these independent States held up to you as a paradise. You have been deceived ; but it is now your own fault if on this subject you are any longer deceived. I ask nothing of you but to read these American accounts. Trust not to me; take not for granted what I say ; but judge for yourselves; and consider whether, by changing your form of government, if it were possible to do so, for a similar one to that of the United States, you would better your condition.
For my part, I have discovered that we have already “reformed” too much; that there are too many “ alleviators,” “ political economists,"
" " socialists,” and all sorts of modern "reformers,” whose “ go-a-head” propensities I should be very happy to see the end of; and, if it could be effected, instead of marching forward, to march backward, until we had passed the boundaries of the “new era,” and were once more safe in “ Old England.”
I now refer you to the Appendix; and, with a hope that you will read all my letters on American affairs,
I subscribe myself
MISCELLANEOUS MURDERS, RIOTS, AND OTHER OUT
RAGES, IN 1834, 1835, 1836, 1837, and 1838. The following cases are given as examples of many thousands which the author could produce of the same character, and all from newspapers published and edited by Americans. These are exclusive of riots and murders at elections, outrages against the Blacks, lynching, burning of churches, &c., &c., examples of which will be found under other heads.
From the Philadelphia Gazette.
On Saturday morning, two coloured men, in South-street, quarrelled on some subject, until one of them named Benjamin Shoobey, became greatly enraged. Noah Boyer, his antagonist, left him, and entered a barber's shop. Shoobey followed him thither, and told him he would see his heart's blood before the day had passed. No notice was taken of his threat. About half an hour afterwards Shoobey entered a secondhand shop in the vicinity, and disengaged a bayonet from an old musket, and concealed it under his clothes: approaching Boyer, who was standing in the street conversing with another man, Shoobey plunged the bayonet in his body. It passed completely through him: Boyer turned quickly, exclaiming, “ I am stabbed !” and seizing Shoobey, wrested the weapon from him, threw him down, and falling on him, rolled over and shortly after expired.
Shoobey was shortly after arrested by officer M‘Lean. While in the custody of the officer, and on his way to the prison, a large mob of Blacks followed them, excited in the highest degree, and threatening the life of Shoobey. At length they made a rush, and taking the offender from the custody of M'Lean, beat him with dreadful severity: the officer, however, succeeded in rescuing him from the enraged mob, and conveyed him to prison, where he was placed in the hospital. Shoobey confesses that he stabbed Boyer, and exhibits no regret for the deed.
The Natchez Courier gives the following particulars of the unfortunate affair mentioned in our last, which lately occurred at Concordia (La). It is to be regretted, that the state of society in that part of the country continues such that a person, while transacting his ordinary business, is compelled to bear arms about his person to defend his life.
A person, by the name of More, a stranger, who had been hanging
about the neighbourhood of Dr. Thomas Hunt's plantation, hearing that the Doctor had implicated him in the murder of an individual who was found dead some time since near his cabin, (which we are assured the Doctor did not do,) he threatened to kill Dr. Hunt the first time he met him. This threat was not only made to the Doctor, but to several other respectable witnesses.
The Doctor, on Sunday evening, went to the river below his house, to see about a raft. More took his rifle to waylay him as he passed through the cane-break, but was detained by a neighbour for some time. The Doctor, after his arrival at the raft, was informed of More's intentions to kill him, and had hardly received the information before More made his appearance, walking very fast, and approached within fortyone feet, (as it was afterwards ascertained,) and told the Doctor that he was going to shoot him. The Doctor told him not to fire, as there should be no difficulty between them; but More raised his rifle. The gentleman in company with Dr. Hunt sprang to one side, and the Doctor seized his double-barrel gun, and fired one of the barrels at random to disconcert More. One shot struck More in the head, and he partially turned round: but again turned-raised the rifle—but, before he could fire, the Doctor shot him through the heart. The bystanders state that More's rifle snapped the first time. Hunt gave himself
up to the civil authorities, but was immediately discharged.
A MELANCHOLY affair occurred, on the evening of the 3rd instant, near the American Theatre, New Orleans. In a quarrel between two small boys, of the ages of from twelve to fifteen, one of them plunged a dagger into the heart of the other, which caused his instant death.
From the New York Trans.
On Friday evening, about 7 o'clock, a few minutes after Mr. John Henry Hobart Haws left his residence, 280, Broome Street, a knock was heard by the servant girl at the door of the basement story. She approached the door (from the inside) with a lighted candle in her hand, and the person on the outside could see (through the fan-light at the side of the door) who was coming; the instant that the girl drew back the bolt, the door was burst open by some scoundrel who blew out the light, knocked the girl down, stabbed her twice in the side with a dirk, left her senseless and bleeding, and then rushed to the foot of the stairs : Mrs. Haws (while sitting in the parlour above) heard the noise, and seizing a poker, ran to the head of the stairs and threatened to beat out the fellow's brains if he ascended : she then shouted for assistance, and the vagabond made off without being detected.
We learn by accounts from Norfolk, that a shocking murder or murders were committed on Friday of last week, at a place called Mount Pleasant, between what is termed Blackwater and the Great Bridge, in Norfolk