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going beyond, the other falling short of its | This religious principle is universal; for if requisitions. Some days after this meeting man had no intuitive idea of the Infinite, no we find Paul and Barnabas had a “sharp argument could convince him of the fact. contention," and separated. Without enter- As well may we attempt to convince the ing into the details of the historical writings blind of the idea of sights, or the deaf of of the New Testament, we will just inquire, sounds, as to argue a man into the belief of

- Why is miraculous inspiration needed in the existence of God, unless he has a correthe case of honest men wishing to relate sponding sensation. This idea of God depends what they saw, heard, and felt? Were we not upon argument; it is a fact in man's to point out disagreements in these records nature, inseparable from the consciousness of it would in no way militate against the his own existence; for we cannot be conscious honesty of the writers. This is beyond of our own existence except as dependent doubt; their narrative is so full of simple- beings; it therefore depends not on reasoning heartedness, so touching, and so beautiful. but reason. If these things be so, are we to reject this Whilst religion and Secularism are two “precious treasure”? No, honest reader! distinct things, they are as inseparably conTake each part for what it is worth; accept nected in life as body and soul; the beingthe true, the good, and divine therein; but good and doing-good spring from the same do not bow down to the Bible as to an idol; source. How many persons are there (and let it be your servant and helper, stimulating we must class “ Rolla” amongst them) who and co-working with reason, conscience, and entertain the notion that Infinite Wisdom the religious sentiment. Some would make has endowed man with capabilities, the exerthe Bible, in spite of reason, the master of cise of which will prove his ruin. Reason, the soul; they take it as an infallible whole, conscience, and the religious feeling, are equally extolling the law of Moses with the assumed by them to be, at the best, uncergospel of Jesus,-David's curse as Christ's tain and dangerous: hence the Roman Cathoblessing; and call men“ infidels and atheists” lic church distinctly claims for itself superwho dare lift up their voices against the iority over them; and most of the Protestant idolatry of the church. Does “Rolla” date churches imply in their teachings a like religion and piety from the time when the authority; they all claim for the scriptures stereotyped canon was "published by author- mastery over the soul. They seem to disity, and appointed to be read in churches ? " regard the watchwords of the early ChrisWere there no pious men before Peter and tians:-“Quench not the Spirit;” “Prove John? Is the written word the medium of all things;" “ Hold fast that which is good.” communication between God and man? | Inspiration was then free to all, they “needed When the scriptures were written, was the not that any man should teach them.” canon of revelation closed ? No; God is in- We cannot sympathize with those who are exhaustible. He is still as near the soul as always seeking to degrade nature, who are matter to sense. He still remains ;—God's ever prating on the depravity of the human voice in nature-his word in the soul. He heart—who speak of this life as if it were & inspires man now as much as ever. The curse rather than a blessing --who look upon Christian of the present day can stoop and man as a child of the devil, and not as God's partake of that fountain of living water at child—who cannot trace in the wise and which Moses and David, with the holy- pure realizations of this life an analogy with hearted of all ages, have drank and been the world-truths of futurity. The secularfilled. Yet the Bible, if wisely used, is a ist considers this life a blessing, and wisely blessed teacher. It was made for man, not makes the best of it, in doing all the good man for it. Man is superior thereto. Its he can; he does not despise its pure delights; truths are old as the creation, and will endure he never speaks of it as a vale of tears, and for ever. Religion is superior to all institu- nothing but tears;" although he has his share tions, and can never fail- they shall perish, of sorrow and difficulty, he testifies to the but religion will endure.

truth that the happiness and joy that exists Secularism, we maintain, is not opposed to far exceeds the misery. He feels an indereligion. It does not deny the religious scribable pleasure in feasting on the bounties sentiment, which is a part of man's nature. I of the earth, the garment in which God veils the brightness of his face ;-there is the ma- stars, declare his glory. God hath not left jestic mountain, the grandeur of the untamed bimself without a witness within, and granforest, the rippling of the brook, the mighty deur and grace press all around; then-sweep of undulated bills, the whisperings of

“ Be it ours to meditate, the wind, and the music of the leaf, all give And to the beautiful order of his works delight, and these all speak God; and the Learn to conform the order of our lives.' profound solemnity of night, wrapped in her

J. L. dark blue mantle, bedecked with beauteous

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Chr Essayist.

TRUE OBJECT OF HISTORY.

TAE true object of history is to teach interests. It is thus that archæology, when nations their responsibilities, and to be a studied in a proper spirit, blends with hiswarning to such as would forget those great tory, and offers even a more instructive and principles which must guide communities as solemn lesson than the most eloquent of well as individuals. This is equally the writings. main object of all those studies and pursuits I speak from experience, as well as from which are connected with history, otherwise deep conviction. Few men have had more they would be, to a great extent, idle and occasion than I have had to reflect upon the profitless. The antiquary, who toils to trace fall of nations, to seek for the causes of their the relics of a past civilization, and to in- decay, and to muse over the worthlessness vestigate ancient manners, and who digs of riches, and the hollowness of worldly into the bosom of the earth to seek the pomp. The plains of Babylonia, fretted remains of long-lost empires; and the nu- with their numberless canals, now choked mismat, who collects and deciphers the coins with sand, and no longer nourishing the of extinct dynasties, are little better than thirsty soil—the vast monuments of Assyria, the schoolboy, who spends his summer holi- now buried deep in earth—the palaces of days in robbing the bird's nest, or in picking the kings of kings, now marked by a few up the many-coloured pebbles in the brook, solitary columns, and the resting-places of unless their labours furnish a chapter to the wandering tribes—the graceful temples of history of man, and afford us some useful the Greeks, now hid by the rank grass--the lesson, or some salutary warning. Had I colonial greatness of imperial Rome, its been content to uncover the crumbling forums and theatres still standing majestimonuments of buried Nineveh to gratify an cally, but now silent, in a desert--what has idle whim—had they afforded me no in- brought about these mighty changes ? to struction-had they giren rise to no earnest what are we to attribute this havoc? Surely reflection-had they proved of no further these are no vain questions, at such a crisis use to this country than to satisfy a vulgar as the present, in our country's history. curiosity-I should indeed have been ashamed For what good end has Providence permitted to allude to their discovery in such an these solemn relics of fallen greatness to assembly as this. I trust that even in the struggle with decay? for what good purpose discharge of public duty, and in endeavour- has he permitted us, in these days, to reing to form my character as a public man, cover from their long.forgotten graves the they will prove to me a continual warning, skeletons of great empires? Is it not that that the fate which befel Nineveh and Baby- we should in time take learning by their lon may befall the mightiest of nations, fate, and that, having these solemn lessons when public virtue is no longer held in before us, we should seek to avoid those honour, when great principles no longer vices and corruptions which led to their guide its councils, and when the public weal overthrow ? is sacrificed and made subservient to private When I see, as I have of late seen, ministers of state in parliament seeking to justify she might furnish the model, and be an disasters, and to extenuate fatal errors, dis- encouragement to great, virtuous, and pagraceful to us as a nation, and fraught with triotic men. She has described in burning the greatest peril, by referring to calamities words successful struggles for liberty, and and events which occurred half a century the happiness and prosperity of free nations, ago, I naturally ask myself, Why is history that nations yet unborn might strive to be written? Is it to afford us a justification free. She has traced with unwilling pen or a warning? Are we to appeal to it, the decay of public virtue, the dishonesty of after national dishonour and ruin, or before statesmen, and the loathsome details of they overtake us, that we may be saved corruption, hurrying states to utter ruin, from them? If to justify our national vices that nations yet to come might honour puband misconduct is the only object of history, lic virtue, be jealous of the character of then I care not if every history that has those who guide their counsels, and abomiever been written be consigned to the flames. nate corruption. She has pointed with Of what use, then, the eloquent pages of melancholy earnestness to the tomb of fallen Thucydides, the glowing episodes of Livy, greatness, as a warning for all time that the varied learning of Gibbon, the philo- the immutable laws of God, which govern sophic disquisitions of your own Robertson both the moral and physical world, cannot and Hume? If they be treasured but for be outraged with impunity. Such are the the mere gratification of the fancy, or to objects and ends of history. It is because excite the imagination, the romance and the they are such that her votaries have been Arabian tale would suit as well. No! His- ranked amongst the instructors and benetory has a higher and a nobler aim-she factors of mankind.- Layard's Inaugural has recorded on her imperishable tablets the Address as Lord Rector of Marischal Col. deeds of the great, the excellence of national lege, Aberdeen. virtue, and the rewards of patriotism, that

The Inquirer.

QUESTIONS REQUIRING ANSWERS. wegians, Icelanders, &c.) had a nose tax ? i. e.,

a payment calculated by the number of noses, 267. Would any of your kind readers do me like the English poll-tax, by the number of the favour of furnishing me with a list of the heads? There seems a clear allusion to such a studies required for the Indian Civil Service Ex. tax in the following quotation from the“ Ynglinga amination, and informing me of the usual course Saga:"-"Um alla Svitbiod guldu menn Odni to be adopted in going in as a candidate ? Also any skattpenning fyrir nefhvert." It is translated by general information they may be possessed of Laing, on each head ;* does it not mean, on concerning it would be equally acceptable, and "every nose"? It also seems alluded to in the for which I should feel much obliged.—Yours “ Forus feasa avi eirinn," and also in the “Leabtruly, TELEMAQUE.

har na g-ceart" (edited, with translation and notes, 268. I have a Gregorian telescope, of nearly by Donovan). I should also be obliged if any three inches aperture, but from the reflectors correspondent would give me an account of the being scratched, and, I think, not possessing the kind of chess played by the ancient Irish. Chess necessary brightness, the object is not shown boards are frequently mentioned throughout the clear, but very misty; for instance, if we direct latter work.-THRELKELD. the tube towards “ Jupiter," or any other plauet, 270. While reading the Controversialist a the reflection appears zigzag and spotted. If second time, thoroughly, and in earnest (which this proceeds from the reflector being out of we would recommend to all who merely skim its order, can any correspondent give me an idea of valuable pages each month), I have studied the how much it would cost to polish it, and the best “Art of Speaking" in volume for 1851. “Cruelty place to get it done at? One “mathematical in. (p. 272) is therein described as "a compound of strument maker" has startled me by saying- anger, envy, and malice.' Now, is not cruelty & Five pounds!. Do you think that a telescope of passion which, though almost invariably united the above mentioned size would render the inoons with anger and its modifications, yet in certain and rings of Saturn and moons of Uranus visible ? depraved and tyrannical wretches becomes an Socius.

evil spirit in itsell, evoked without any corre269. Can any correspondent oblige me by point. sponding feeling of anger, and indulged in for the ing out where I may find any passage proving cowardly gratification of inflicting pain, even with. that the ancient Northinen (Danes, Swedes, Nor-out deriving any interest or advantage thereby ;

as witness Nero, who fiddled while Rome was these moulds were made of hardened clay, and burning, and the Roman emperor of whom it is the blundered reverses were evidently occasioned recorded, that he loved to gratify his cruelty alone by making up a pile of clay moulds, hastily and from the satisfaction with which he beheld the inadvertently misplacing the pieces, so that the sufferings of his victims ? Is not also the descrip-reverse of one coin, when cast, was fouud oppotion of malice (p. 271) more applicable to the site to the head of one which belonged to a difcharacter of cruelty ? viz.," It is no sudden out- ferent emperor. The great extent of the estabburst of passion, but a cool, cautious adaptation lishment, and its situation near a military road, of means to the attainment of an end-the iuflic-evidences that it was not carried on by obscure tion of pain, whether deserved or not: it is a coiners; it was certainly maintained at least with wanton and gloating delight felt at beholding the connivance of government, but most probably others miserable." Or, may not malice rather be it was a government establishment.-James Hix. said to be a modification of and lesser than 265. The Collodion Process,-Collodion is a cruelty ? for instance, the passage quoted would preparation formed by dissolving yun-cotton in as well apply to the latter; the part I have ether. It is a very mucilaginous solution of a italicized reading," it is a WANTON and gloating volatile character, and the ether evaporating leaves delight felt at inflicting pain on others.” Would a film of the utmost transparency behind; by the able author of the “ Art of Speaking," or any means of which, from its extreme sensitiveness to of your readers, kindly write in answer to these light, when properly charged with certain salts of inquiries ?-A FRIEND.

silver, most beautiful pictures can be obtained,

capable of multiplication to an unlimited extent, ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS. and of surpassing delicacy and truth. The most

useful works on the subject are the following: 229. Red-Haired Men of Genius.-In further Professor Hunt's “Manual of Photography," reply to Enitor's question, vol. v., p. 273, I would fourth edition, 6s., Griffin and Co., Finsbury add to Mr. Redhead's list (ib., p. 433) Galileo, Square ;“ The Collodion Process," by T. H. Henwhose hair was of a reddish hue, and Tycho nah, second edition, Is., Knight and Son, FosterBrahe, whose was of a reddish yellow.-Brews. lane, London.-James Hix. ter's “ Martyrs of Science," second edition, pp. 94 In answer to “Scipio's " question respect. and 146. I think also something might reasonably ing “the collodion process of photography, I be put down on the score of there being compara. beg to state the following, which is an abstract tively but few persons of either red or light hair. from a paper on “ The Preparations and Uses of

B. B. B. the Chemicals employed in Photography," by 256. The Meaning of Names. The derivation J. B. Edwards, Ph. D.-Six drachms of colloof the names Henry and William has already dion is mixed with two dracbms of spirits of been given in this magazine; they mean respec- wine, saturated with iodide and bromide of potastively, rich lord, and defender of many. A young sium; when clear it is applied to a clean glass lady, who was told by her brother William that plate, and allowed to drain, till no streaks or his name bore that signification, replied, "What ripples are to be seen; it is then plunged steadily a mistake,' offender of many, you mean!' The into the nitrate of silver bath, which is prepared name London, which town probably existed be- by dissolving the nitrate in a small quantity of fore the invasion of Cæsar (though it could not water, and adding moist iodide of silver; boil have been of much importance, since, although he them till no more iodide dissolves, filter, and then passed very near to it, it is not mentioned in his make up with distilled water till the bath contains " Commentaries "), is most probably derived from thirty grains of nitrate of silver to the ounce. the Celtic; Londinium being the Latinized form When the plate is evenly coated it is transferred of llyn dun,“ town of the waters.”—THRElkeld. in the dark to the camera and then exposed to the 262. Roman Coins. -- The difficulty which light; a few seconds is sufficient, and the picture

Cæsar" has met with is explained by the disco- is then developed with a solution of sulphate of very of moulds for casting coins in different parts iron (ten grains to one onnce, and three drops of of the Roman empire and the continent; and nitric or sulphuric acid). A small quantity of from which it seems evident, not only that consi- spirits of wine improves this developing fluid, derable forgeries of coins were made in the latter it is then washed and the iodide of silver removed periods of the empire by unprincipled men, who by a solution of hypo-sulphate of soda,or cyanide then, as now, risked their lives for gain, but that of potassium (twenty grains to one ounce), the the Roman emperors themselves were forgers, plate is then again well washed and dried; it is and that, wbile they punished the culprits, they varnished black over the collodion, or with a var. themselves shared largely in the disgraceful thett; nish composed of chloroform and mastic; poured imitating, however, the money of their predeces. over it as the collodion was at first. By this sors, especially those emperors who had in some process beantiful positive pictures are obtained degree lowered the metallic standard; by means for negatives. Albumen is used instead of colloof which their own departure from all standard dion as follows :-Two grains of iodide of potas. would be less likely to be found out. About sium are added to the white of an egg, and the twenty-five years ago an extensive manufactory whole beat up into a froth. It is then set by for was discovered while making some excavations a short time to settle ; the clear portion is pre. near the old Roman road which passes by Damery, served and spread over the glass plate, in the in France, said to be the site of ancient Bib, same manner as the collodion, and dried with which, to all appearance, had been anciently a heat; immersed into a bath (or sixty grains nimint. The most satisfactory evidence was the trate of silver and one drachin of glacial acetic finding above three hundred moulds for casting a acid to the ounce), dipped into water once or twice, number of coins all together, bearing the heads of and then exposed in the camera, and developed different emperors, and names of different places ; / with gallic acid, and fixed with hypo-sulphate of

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soda and water. As a good manual on the sub-fated line of Stuart, stand the ruins of what originject, I refer “ Scipio" to a small publication, enti. ally constituted the Scottish Mint.” Here, from tled “ Practice of Photography," by M. de la Motte, native metal, was first coined the “bawbee” of published by Cundall, price 4s. 68.-J. W. S. which we are now speaking. This coin was insti

In answer to the question from “Scipio," tuted during the regency of Mary of Guise, while relative to “ the collodion process," it would take the future beautiful but unfortunate Mary, Queen up too much space in the British Controver. of Scots, was a mere child. The superscription sialist, and perhaps would not be palatable to all on the new made coin was that of the infant queen our readers, I therefore recommend “ Scipio " to as she appeared at the coronation. She was repreget the manual called “ Practical Photography," sented as a child, nine months old, fat-faced, hold. by Charles A. Long, published by Bland and ing the crown of Scotland in her hand, and dressed Long, Fleet-street, London.-Thesus.

after the fashion of the times, with large frills about The Scotch Baubee.-An able contributor has her neck and wrists. Whether the coin had origiven in the pages of the British Controversial. ginally any definite name is perhaps impossible ist, an exposition of the doctrine, so to speak, of to tell; but the representation of their infant queen Decimal Coinage. As a sequel to the articles on most naturally conveyed to Scotchmen the idea of that subject, it may not be altogether amiss to say a baby; and it is easy to perceive how that Engsomething concerning a coin in present currency, lish word would, in passing the border, so to namely, the “Scotch Bawbee." I say Scotch, speak, which divided the two languages, be conbecause, as I shall show, that coin was originally verted into“ bawbee.” Of all the coins that have a purely Scotch one. Its value being exactly ever existed, is there one more numerous than half the value of a penny, the coin, when imported the family of the halfpennies ? I have read into the sister kingdom, received the name of most amusing and instructive articles on the his. “halfpenny.” As it may not be uninteresting to tory of several external objects, such as a lookingsome of your readers, and especially those who, glass, a hat, &c.; but could any defaced halfpenny like myself, owe their birth to, and love to hear become its own biographer, it might tell many a anything intimately connected with, old Scotia's tale fraught with instruction. The little ragged land, I would take the liberty of giving a short boy fondly holds thee in his clutched hand, which accou of the origin of the “S Baw e." ever and anon he opens, to assure himse that Any Scotchman, coming in contact with English- thou art there, and that the source of his bappimen, cannot fail to perceive the confusion which ness is a reality. Joyously he threads his way our southern neighbours, unacquainted with “ the throngh crooked lanes and winding alleys, till at gude braid Scotch," make between the words last he resigns thee for the baker's roll. Being "baby" and " bawbee." Au English lady, on thyself of the lowest grade in the world of coins, hearing a beggar-woman ask for a“ bawbee" as thou art most frequently found in the pockets of alms, came running to me, with eager look, and the poor. The poor man thinks himself fortunate said, “ Has that woman lost her baby; she says if he can claim as his a thing so trifling. But it she wants a baby?" That there is a relation be- would be impossible to tell all thy wanderings. tween the words " bawbee" and“ baby,"—that the Thou hast had thy share in adding both to the hapone is, in fact, a corruption of the other, I assert, piness and the misery of mankind. Although thy and think I can prove. Strange indeed, but true value is so insignificant, I can scarcely express & it is, that such a relation should exist! In Stir- better wish, either towards the reader or myself, ling, a beautiful town on the banks of the river than that neither of us may ever be without thee. Forth, and long the place of residence of the ill

Pax.

The Young Student and Writer's Assistant.

GRAMMAR CLASS. Perform the exercise for the Senior Division contained in the August No. for 1854. Page 316.

MODEL EXERCISE, No. XXVII. Vide page 276, Vol. V.

Children, com. noun, plu., 2nd pers., nom. to do.

Of, preposition gov. plenty in the objective case.

Plenty, com. noun, neut., sing., 3rd, obj., gov.
by of.
Who, rel. pron., nom. case to share.
The, dem. adj. pron.
Cheering, adj. qualifying rays.

Rays, com. noun, neut., plu., obj., gov, by the act. verb share.

Of, prep., gov, sunshine in the objective.
Liberal, adj. qualifying fortune.
Fortunes, com. noun, poss. cace.
Golden, adj. qualifying sunshine.

Sunshine, com. noun, obj. case, gov, by of.

Share, verb act., ind. present, 2nd pers., agr. w. its nom. case who.

While, adverb of time.

Love, com. noun, neut., sing., nom. case to cro'ons.

Parental, adj. qualifying love.

Crowns, act. verb, ind. pres., 3rd pers. sing., agr. w. its nom. case love.

Your, poss. adj. pron. qual. days.
Cloudless, adj. qual. days.

Days, com. noun, neut., plu., obj. case, gov. by crowns.

Meets, act. verb, ind. pres., 3rd sing., ag. w. love understood.

Every, adj. qual. wish.

Wish, com. noun, neut., sing., obj. case, gov. by meets.

Prevents, verb act., ind. pres., 3rd sing., ag. W. love.

Each, adj. qual. care.
Rising, adj. qual. care.

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